132 results found
Ding D, Rath T, Lanzetta L, et al., 2018, Efficient hybrid solar cells based on solution processed mesoporous TiO2 / Tin (II) sulfide heterojunctions, ACS Applied Energy Materials, Vol: 1, Pages: 3042-3047, ISSN: 2574-0962
Tin monosulfide (SnS) is emerging as a promising absorber material for the development of low-cost, solution-processable solar cells. Herein, we present a straightforward, solution-based route for the preparation of tin monosulfide (SnS) films employing a green solvent, namely, tetrahydrofuran (THF). We show that the surface coverage and the morphology of the SnS films can be tuned by modification of the precursor solution composition and film deposition conditions. Furthermore, we explore the effect of a PEDOT:PSS interlayer and fabricate solar cells based on the following architecture: FTO/planar-TiO2/mesoporous-TiO2/SnS/P3HT/PEDOT:PSS/Ag. Devices based on this architecture are shown to exhibit power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of 3.0%, thus demonstrating the potential of our method for the development of low-cost and environmentally friendly solar cells.
Westbrook RJE, Haque S, Sanchez-Molina I, et al., 2018, The Effect of Interfacial Energetics on Charge Transfer from Lead Halide Perovskite to Organic Hole Conductors, Journal of Physical Chemistry C, Vol: 122, Pages: 1326-1332, ISSN: 1932-7447
The control and optimization of interfacial charge transfer processes is crucial to the design of efficient perovskite solar cells. Herein, we measure the yield and kinetics of hole transfer across the methylammonium lead triiodide perovskite|polymeric hole transport material heterojunction, as a function of the interfacial energy offset, ∆E between the highest occupied molecular orbital of the hole transport material and the valence band of the perovskite. A combination of steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence, along with transient absorption spectroscopy revealed that only a small driving energy (∆E~0.07eV) is required to induce highly efficient hole transfer. The findings of this paper suggest that further improvements in the open-circuit voltage, and so the power conversion efficiency, of perovskite solar cells could be achieved by incorporating hole transport materials that provide an interfacial energy offset in the range 0 < ∆E < 0.18eV.
Aristidou, Eames C, Islam MS, et al., 2017, Insights into the increased degradation rate of CH3NH3PbI3 solar cells in combined water and O2 environments, Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol: 5, Pages: 25469-25475, ISSN: 2050-7496
Halide perovskites offer low cost and high efficiency solar cell materials but serious issues related to air and moisture stability remain. In this study we show, using UV-vis, fluorescence and time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) techniques, that the degradation of methylammonium lead iodide solar cells is significantly accelerated when both air and moisture are present in comparison to when just air or moisture is present alone. Using ab initio computational techniques we identify the thermodynamic driving force for the enhanced reactivity and highlight the regions of the photoexcited material that are the most likely reaction centres. We suggest that water catalyses the reaction by stabilising the reactive superoxide species, enabling them to react with the methylammonium cation.
Chen M, Mokhtar MZ, Whittaker E, et al., 2017, Reducing hole transporter use and increasing perovskite solar cell stability with dual-role polystyrene microgel particles, NANOSCALE, Vol: 9, Pages: 10126-10137, ISSN: 2040-3364
Lanzetta Lopez L, Marin-Beloqui JM, Sanchez-Molina I, et al., 2017, Two-dimensional organic tin Halide Perovskites with tunable visible emission and their use in light-emitting devices, ACS Energy Letters, Vol: 2, Pages: 1662-1668, ISSN: 2380-8195
Hybrid organic lead trihalide perovskites continue to generate significant interest for use in optoelectronic devices such as solar cells and light-emitting devices. However, the toxicity of lead is considered one of the main obstacles to the commercialization of this technology. Although challenging, the replacement of lead by tin is currently the most promising alternative. Herein, we explore a class of low-dimensional, lead-free perovskite materials (2D (PEA)2SnIxBr4–x, where PEA ≡ C6H5CH2CH2NH3+) with tunable optical properties in the visible region of the spectrum. Specifically, we show that 2D (PEA)2SnI4 perovskite exhibits superior photoluminescence properties to conventional 3D CH3NH3SnI3 and that (PEA)2SnI4 can act as a sensitizer on mesoporous TiO2. We go on to demonstrate visible (∼630 nm) electroluminescence from a device employing a (PEA)2SnI4 emitter sandwiched between ITO/PEDOT:PSS and F8/LiF/Al as hole and electron injection electrodes, respectively. These devices reach a luminance of 0.15 cd/m2 at 4.7 mA/cm2 and an efficacy of 0.029 cd/A at 3.6 V. This proof-of-principle device indicates a viable path to low-dimensional, lead-free perovskite optoelectronics.
Aristidou N, Haque S, Eames C, et al., 2017, Fast oxygen diffusion and iodide defects mediate oxygen-induced degradation of perovskite solar cells, Nature Communications, Vol: 8, ISSN: 2041-1723
Methylammonium lead halide perovskites are attracting intense interest as promising materials for next-generation solar cells, but serious issues related to long-term stability need to be addressed. Specifically, perovskite films based on CH3NH3PbI3 undergo fast oxygen- and light-induced degradation. However, the mechanism of such degradation and its relation to particle size and oxygen transport are poorly understood. Here, we report new mechanistic insights through the combined use of isothermal gravimetric analysis, photoluminescence, secondary ion mass spectrometry and ab initio simulation techniques. We find fast oxygen diffusion into CH3NH3PbI3 films is accompanied by superoxide formation, which are critical to degradation by oxygen in the atmosphere.Perovskite films composed of small crystallites show high yields of photo-induced superoxide species and low stability. Ab initio simulations indicate that iodide vacancies are the preferred sites in mediating the photo-induced formation of superoxide species from oxygen. We also show that thin-film passivation with iodide salts can lead to enhanced film stability and thus device stability. The understanding of degradation phenomena gained from this study is important for the future design and optimisation of perovskite solar cells with greater stability.
Bruno A, Borriello C, Di Luccio T, et al., 2017, Oxadiazole-carbazole polymer (POC)-Ir(ppy)(3) tunable emitting composites, OPTICAL MATERIALS, Vol: 66, Pages: 166-170, ISSN: 0925-3467
Pont S, Bryant D, Lin CH, et al., 2017, Tuning CH 3 NH 3 Pb(I 1-x Br x ) 3 Perovskite Oxygen Stability in Thin Films and Solar Cells, Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol: 5, ISSN: 2050-7488
The rapid development of organic–inorganic lead halide perovskites has resulted in high efficiency photovoltaic devices. However the susceptibility of these devices to degradation under environmental stress has so far hindered commercial development, requiring for example expensive device encapsulation. Herein, we have investigated the stability of CH3NH3Pb(I1−xBrx)3 [x = 0–1] thin films and solar cells under controlled humidity, light, and oxygen conditions. We show that higher bromide ratios increase tolerance to moisture, with x = 1 thin films being stable to 120 h of moisture stress. Under light and dry air, partial bromide (x < 1) substitution does not enhance film stability significantly, with the corresponding solar cells degrading within two hours. In contrast, CH3NH3PbBr3 films show excellent stability, with device stability being limited by the organic interlayer. For these x = 1 films, we show that charge carriers are quenched in the presence of oxygen and form superoxide; however in contrast to perovskites containing iodide, this superoxide does not degrade the crystal. Our observations show that iodide limits the oxygen and light stability of CH3NH3Pb(I1−xBrx)3 perovskites, but that CH3NH3PbBr3 provides an opportunity to develop inherently stable high voltage photovoltaic devices and 4-terminal tandem solar cells.
Mokhtar MZ, Chen M, Whittaker E, et al., 2017, CH3NH3PbI3 films prepared by combining 1-and 2-step deposition: how crystal growth conditions affect properties, PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY CHEMICAL PHYSICS, Vol: 19, Pages: 7204-7214, ISSN: 1463-9076
Bryant D, Aristidou N, Pont S, et al., 2016, Correction: Light and oxygen induced degradation limits the operational stability of methylammonium lead triiodide perovskite solar cells, Energy & Environmental Science, Vol: 9, Pages: 1850-1850, ISSN: 1754-5706
Bryant D, Aristidou N, Pont S, et al., 2016, Light and oxygen induced degradation limits the operational stability of methylammonium lead triiodide perovskite solar cells, Energy and Environmental Science, Vol: 9, Pages: 1655-1660, ISSN: 1754-5692
Here, we demonstrate that light and oxygen-induced degradation is the main reason for the low operational stability of methylammonium lead triiodide (MeNH3PbI3) perovskite solar cells exposed to ambient conditions. When exposed to both light and dry air, unencapsulated MeNH3PbI3 solar cells rapidly degrade on timescales of minutes to a few hours. This rapid degradation is also observed under electrically bias driven current flow in the dark in the presence of O2. In contrast, significantly slower degradation is observed when the MeNH3PbI3 devices are exposed to moisture alone (e.g. 85% relative humidity in N2). We show that this light and oxygen induced degradation can be slowed down by the use of interlayers that are able to remove electrons from the perovskite film before they can react with oxygen to form O2-. These observations demonstrate that the operational stability of electronic and optoelectronic devices that exploit the electron transporting properties of MeNH3PbI3 will be critically dependent upon the use of suitable barrier layers and device configurations to mitigate the oxygen sensitivity of this remarkable material.
Cappel UB, Moia D, Bruno A, et al., 2016, Evidence for photo-induced charge separation between dye molecules adsorbed to aluminium oxide surfaces, Scientific Reports, Vol: 6, ISSN: 2045-2322
Excited state dynamics and photo-induced charge transfer of dye molecules have been widely studied due to their relevance for organic and dye-sensitised solar cells. Herein, we present a femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy study of the indolene dye D131 when adsorbed to inert Al2O3 substrates for different surface concentration of the dye. Surprisingly, we find that at high surface concentrations, the first singlet excited state of the dye is converted into a new state with an efficiency of about 80%. We assign the absorption features of this state to the oxidised dye and discuss the possibility of photo-induced charge separation between neighboring dye molecules. Our study is the first to show that this process can be highly efficient without the use of donor and acceptor molecules of different chemical structures.
Hu Y, Sanchez-Molina I, Haque SA, et al., 2015, Ruthenium Dyes with Azo Ligands: Light Harvesting, Excited-State Properties and Relevance to Dye-Sensitised Solar Cells, EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF INORGANIC CHEMISTRY, Pages: 5864-5873, ISSN: 1434-1948
Rath T, MacLachlan AJ, Brown MD, et al., 2015, Structural, optical and charge generation properties of chalcostibite and tetrahedrite copper antimony sulfide thin films prepared from metal xanthates, Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol: 3, Pages: 24155-24162, ISSN: 2050-7496
Herein, we report on a solution based approach for the preparation of thin films of copper antimony sulfide, an emerging absorber material for third generation solar cells. In this work, copper and antimony xanthates are used as precursor materials for the formation of two different copper antimony sulfide phases: chalcostibite (CuSbS2) and tetrahedrite (Cu12Sb4S13). Both phases were thoroughly investigated regarding their structural and optical properties. Moreover, thin films of chalcostibite and tetrahedrite were prepared on mesoporous TiO2 layers and photoinduced charge transfer in these metal sulfide/TiO2 heterojunctions was studied via transient absorption spectroscopy. Photoinduced charge transfer was detected in both the chalcostibite as well as the tetrahedrite sample, which is an essential property in view of applying these materials as light-harvesting agents in semiconductor sensitized solar cells.
Bruno A, Commodo M, Haque SA, et al., 2015, Spectroscopic investigation of flame synthesized carbon nanoparticle/P3HT blends, CARBON, Vol: 94, Pages: 955-961, ISSN: 0008-6223
Aristidou N, Sanchez-Molina I, Chotchuangchutchaval T, et al., 2015, The Role of Oxygen in the Degradation of Methylammonium Lead Trihalide Perovskite Photoactive Layers, Angewandte Chemie-International Edition, Vol: 54, Pages: 8208-8212, ISSN: 1521-3773
In this paper we report on the influence of light and oxygen on the stability of CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite-based photoactive layers. When exposed to both light and dry air the mp-Al2O3/CH3NH3PbI3 photoactive layers rapidly decompose yielding methylamine, PbI2, and I2 as products. We show that this degradation is initiated by the reaction of superoxide (O2−) with the methylammonium moiety of the perovskite absorber. Fluorescent molecular probe studies indicate that the O2− species is generated by the reaction of photoexcited electrons in the perovskite and molecular oxygen. We show that the yield of O2− generation is significantly reduced when the mp-Al2O3 film is replaced with an mp-TiO2 electron extraction and transport layer. The present findings suggest that replacing the methylammonium component in CH3NH3PbI3 to a species without acid protons could improve tolerance to oxygen and enhance stability.
Rath T, Gury L, Sanchez-Molina I, et al., 2015, Formation of porous SnS nanoplate networks from solution and their application in hybrid solar cells, Chemical Communications, Vol: 51, Pages: 10198-10201, ISSN: 1364-548X
Herein, we present a facile solution-based route towards nanostructured, hybrid absorber layers based on tin mono-sulfide (SnS), an emerging, non-toxic absorber material for low-cost and large-scale PV applications. Charge photogeneration properties in the hybrid system are studied using transient absorption spectroscopy and fabricated solar cells show efficient photocurrent generation over a broad spectral range.
Cao Y, Bernechea M, Maclachlan A, et al., 2015, Solution Processed Bismuth Sulfide Nanowire Array Core/Silver Sulfide Shell Solar Cells, CHEMISTRY OF MATERIALS, Vol: 27, Pages: 3700-3706, ISSN: 0897-4756
O'Mahony FTF, Lee YH, Jellett C, et al., 2015, Improved environmental stability of organic lead trihalide perovskite-based photoactive-layers in the presence of mesoporous TiO2, Journal of Materials Chemistry A, Vol: 3, Pages: 7219-7223, ISSN: 2050-7496
Impressive hybrid photovoltaic device performances have been realised with the methylammonium lead triiodide (MAPbI3) perovskite absorber in a wide range of device architectures. However, the question as to which of these systems represents the most commercially viable long-term prospect is yet to be answered conclusively. Here, we report on the photoinduced charge transfer processes in MAPbI3 based films measured under inert and ambient conditions. When exposed to ambient conditions, the coated mesoporous Al2O3 and bilayer systems show a rapid and significant degradation in the yield of long-lived charge separation. This process, which does not affect sensitized-mesoporous TiO2 films, is only found to occur when both light and oxygen are present. These observations indicate that the presence of a mesostructured TiO2 electron acceptor to rapidly extract the photoexcited electron from the perovskite sensitizer may be crucial for fundamental photovoltaic stability and significantly increases innate tolerance to environmental conditions. This work highlights a significant advantage of retaining mesoscale morphological control in the design of perovskite photovoltaics.
MacLachlan AJ, Rath T, Cappel UB, et al., 2015, Polymer/Nanocrystal Hybrid Solar Cells: Influence of Molecular Precursor Design on Film Nanomorphology, Charge Generation and Device Performance, ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Vol: 25, Pages: 409-420, ISSN: 1616-301X
Li X, Hu Y, Sanchez-Molina I, et al., 2015, Insight into quinoxaline containing D-pi-A dyes for dye-sensitized solar cells with cobalt and iodine based electrolytes: the effect of pi-bridge on the HOMO energy level and photovoltaic performance, JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY A, Vol: 3, Pages: 21733-21743, ISSN: 2050-7488
Guilbert AAY, Schmidt M, Bruno A, et al., 2014, Spectroscopic Evaluation of Mixing and Crystallinity of Fullerenes in Bulk Heterojunctions, ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Vol: 24, Pages: 6972-6980, ISSN: 1616-301X
Bruno A, Borriello C, Haque SA, et al., 2014, Ternary hybrid systems of P3HT-CdSe-WS2 nanotubes for photovoltaic applications, PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY CHEMICAL PHYSICS, Vol: 16, Pages: 17998-18003, ISSN: 1463-9076
Pearson AJ, Watters DC, Yi H, et al., 2014, Impact of dithienyl or thienothiophene units on the optoelectronic and photovoltaic properties of benzo[1,2,5]thiadiazole based donor–acceptor copolymers for organic solar cell devices, RSC Advances, Vol: 4, Pages: 43142-43149, ISSN: 2046-2069
We report a comparative study on four donor–acceptor benzothiadiazole-based copolymers containing dithienyl or thienothiophene moieties for application in organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices. Bulk-heterojunction OPV devices are fabricated having power conversion efficiencies ranging between 4 and 6%. Morphological, spectroscopic and charge-transport measurements are used to investigate the influence of either the dithienyl or thienothiophene moieties on the structure and photophysical properties of the copolymer and copolymer:PC71BM blend films and rationalise the solar cell characteristics. Although all copolymer:PC71BM blends exhibit comparable hole polaron yields, solar cell devices with the highest power conversion efficiencies are correlated with increased charge-carrier mobility of the copolymer and enhanced aggregation of PC71BM in the blend.
Lindblad R, Cappel UB, O'Mahony FTF, et al., 2014, Energy level alignment in TiO2/metal sulfide/polymer interfaces for solar cell applications, PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY CHEMICAL PHYSICS, Vol: 16, Pages: 17099-17107, ISSN: 1463-9076
Martinez L, Higuchi S, MacLachlan AJ, et al., 2014, Improved electronic coupling in hybrid organic-inorganic nanocomposites employing thiol-functionalized P3HT and bismuth sulfide nanocrystals, Nanoscale, Vol: 6, Pages: 10018-10026, ISSN: 2040-3372
In this study, we employ a thiol-functionalized polymer (P3HT-SH) as a leverage to tailor the nanomorphology and electronic coupling in polymer–nanocrystal composites for hybrid solar cells. The presence of the thiol functional group allows for a highly crystalline semiconducting polymer film at low thiol content and allows for improved nanomorphologies in hybrid organic–inorganic systems when employing non-toxic bismuth sulfide nanocrystals. The exciton dissociation efficiency and carrier dynamics at this hybrid heterojunction are investigated through photoluminescence quenching and transient absorption spectroscopy measurements, revealing a larger degree of polaron formation when P3HT-SH is employed, suggesting an increased electronic interaction between the metal chalcogenide nanocrystals and the thiol-functionalized P3HT. The fabricated photovoltaic devices show 15% higher power conversion efficiencies as a result of the improved nanomorphology and better charge transfer mechanism together with the higher open circuit voltages arising from the deeper energy levels of P3HT-SH.
MacLachlan AJ, O'Mahony FTF, Sudlow AL, et al., 2014, Solution- Processed Mesoscopic Bi2S3: Polymer Photoactive Layers, CHEMPHYSCHEM, Vol: 15, Pages: 1019-1023, ISSN: 1439-4235
Bruno A, Di Luccio T, Borriello C, et al., 2014, Exciton Dynamics in Hybrid Polymer/QD Blends, E-MRS Spring Meeting / Symposium D on Advanced Inorganic Materials and Structures for Photovoltaics, Publisher: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, Pages: 167-175, ISSN: 1876-6102
Wood S, Garnett O, Tokmoldin N, et al., 2014, In situ formation of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures for photovoltaic applications, FARADAY DISCUSSIONS, Vol: 174, Pages: 267-279, ISSN: 1359-6640
Piper RB, Yoshida M, Farrell DJ, et al., 2014, Kinetic insight into bimolecular upconversion: experiment and simulation, RSC ADVANCES, Vol: 4, Pages: 8059-8063, ISSN: 2046-2069
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