52 results found
Shah A, Hull J, Moffatt M, et al., 2022, Evidence of immunometabolic dysregulation and airway dysbiosis in athletes susceptible to respiratory illness, EBioMedicine, Vol: 79, Pages: 1-16, ISSN: 2352-3964
BackgroundRespiratory tract infection (RTI) is a leading cause of training and in-competition time-loss in athlete health. The immune factors associated with RTI susceptibility remain unclear. In this study, we prospectively characterise host immune factors in elite athletes exhibiting RTI susceptibility.MethodsPeripheral blood lymphocyte flow cytometry phenotyping and 16S rRNA microbial sequencing of oropharyngeal swabs was performed in a prospective elite athlete cohort study (n = 121). Mass cytometry, peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) stimulation and plasma metabolic profiling was performed in age-matched highly-susceptible (HS) athletes (≥4RTI in last 18 months) (n = 22) compared to non-susceptible (NS) (≤1RTI in last 18 months) (n = 23) athletes. Findings were compared to non-athletic healthy controls (HC) (n = 19).FindingsAthletes (n = 121) had a reduced peripheral blood memory T regulatory cell compartment compared to HC (p = 0.02 (95%CI:0.1,1.0)) and reduced upper airway bacterial biomass compared to HC (p = 0.032, effect size r = 0.19). HS athletes (n = 22) had lower circulating memory T regulatory cells compared to NS (n = 23) athletes (p = 0.005 (95%CI:-1.5,-0.15)) and HC (p = 0.002 (95%CI:-1.9,-0.3) with PBMC microbial stimulation assays revealing a T-helper 2 skewed immune response compared to HC. Plasma metabolomic profiling showed differences in sphingolipid pathway metabolites (a class of lipids important in infection and inflammation regulation) in HS compared to NS athletes and HC, with sphingomyelin predictive of RTI infection susceptibility (p = 0.005).InterpretationAthletes susceptible to RTI have reduced circulating memory T regulatory cells, metabolic dysregulation of the sphingolipid pathway and evidence of upper airway bacterial dysbiosis.FundingThis study was funded by the English Institute of Sport (UK).
Nwankwo L, Gilmartin D, Matharu S, et al., 2022, Experience of isavuconazole as a salvage therapy in chronic pulmonary fungal disease, Journal of Fungi, Vol: 8, ISSN: 2309-608X
Background: Instances of resistant fungal infection are rising in pulmonary disease, with limited therapeutic options. Therapeutic drug monitoring of azole antifungals has been necessary to ensure safety and efficacy but is considered unnecessary for the newest triazole isavuconazole. Aims: To characterise the prevalence of isavuconazole resistance and use in a tertiary respiratory centre. Methods: A retrospective observational analysis (2016–2021) of adult respiratory patients analysing fungal culture, therapeutic drug monitoring, and outcome post-isavuconazole therapy. Results: During the study period, isavuconazole susceptibility testing was performed on 26 Aspergillus spp. isolates. A total of 80.8% of A. fumigatus isolates had isavuconazole (MIC > 1 mg/L, and 73.0% > 2 mg/L) with a good correlation to voriconazole MIC (r = 0.7, p = 0.0002). A total of 54 patients underwent isavuconazole therapy during the study period (median duration 234 days (IQR: 24–499)). A total of 67% of patients tolerated isavuconazole, despite prior azole toxicity in 61.8%, with increased age (rpb = 0.31; p = 0.021) and male sex (φc = 0.30; p = 0.027) being associated with toxicity. A total of 132 isavuconazole levels were performed with 94.8% > 1 mg/L and 72% > 2 mg/L. Dose change from manufacturer’s recommendation was, however, required in 9.3% to achieve a concentration of >2 mg/L. Conclusion: We describe the use of isavuconazole as a salvage therapy in a chronic pulmonary fungal disease setting with a high prevalence of azole resistance. Therapeutic concentrations at standard dosing were high; however, results reinforce antifungal stewardship for optimization.
Nwankwo L, Gilmartin D, Matharu S, et al., 2022, Experience of Isavuconazole as Salvage Therapy in Chronic Pulmonary Fungal Disease
<jats:p>Background: The burden of resistant fungal infection is rising in patients with pulmonary disease. Options for antifungal therapy are limited, and the only orally-available antifungals, the triazoles, demonstrate inter and intra-patient variability, non-linear kinetics, toxicity, drug interactions and increasing antifungal resistance. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of itraconazole, voriconazole and posaconazole has been necessary to ensure their safety and efficacy, but is considered unnecessary for the newest triazole isavuconazole, use of which is increasing. Aims: To characterise isavuconazole susceptibility of Aspergillus fumigatus isolates in a tertiary respiratory referral centre to understand prevalence of isavuconazole antimicrobial resistance. To retrospectively review experience of isavuconazole use in this setting, assessing tolerability and therapeutic drug monitoring. Methods: A retrospective observational analysis of adult patients with respiratory disease in a tertiary hospital setting between Sept 2016 and Aug 2021. Clinical cultures were collected and triazole Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were recorded (based on Clinical &amp;amp; Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI method)). Isavuconazole trough drug levels were carried out as part of the standard of care. Clinical outcomes of treatment were evaluated, along with drug tolerance and TDM. Results: During the study period, isavuconazole susceptibility testing was performed on 26 Aspergillus spp isolates. 80.8% of Aspergillus fumigatus isolates were non-wild type and had isavuconazole MIC &amp;gt; 1mg/L, and 73.0% had MIC above the EUCAST (European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing) epidemiological cut-off (ECOFF) of 2mg/L. There was good correlation between isavuconazole MIC and voriconazole MIC (r =0.7, p=0.0002). 54 patients had isavuconazole therapy over the study period with a median duration of 7.7 months (IQR 0.79 - 16.42). 67% of patie
Nuh A, Ramadan N, Shah A, et al., 2022, Sputum galactomannan has utility in the diagnosis of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis, Journal of Fungi, Vol: 8, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 2309-608X
Diagnosis of pulmonary aspergillosis (PA), a fungal disease caused by Aspergillus species, is challenging since symptoms are unspecific. The galactomannan (antigen secreted by Aspergillus species) test in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid is a valuable diagnostic adjunct test in the diagnosis of PA. However, BAL collection is invasive and may not be suitable to severely ill patients. Sputum is non-invasive, easily collected, and lung specific and may be an alternative to BAL. The aim of this research was to retrospectively evaluate the utility of sputum galactomannan in the diagnosis of pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with chronic respiratory diseases and to estimate the sputum galactomannan cut-off value. We collected data from patients with clinical suspicion of pulmonary aspergillosis who had sputum galactomannan, culture, and Aspergillus IgG tests performed within four weeks. Sputum galactomannan was validated against the clinical diagnosis of aspergillosis, Aspergillus culture, and Aspergillus IgG tests. In total, 218 patients met inclusion criteria. Overall, sputum GM showed satisfactory agreement with clinical diagnosis of aspergillosis, Aspergillus culture, and Aspergillus IgG. When a receiver operating characteristic curve was constructed using Aspergillus culture/IgG and clinical diagnosis, the same cut-off (CO) of 0.71 (AUC: 0.83; CI: 0.69–0.86, p < 0.001) was determined. Against clinical diagnosis, sputum GM gave sensitivity and specificity of 70% and 71%, respectively. Sensitivity of 77% and specificity of 78% were found when sputum GM was evaluated against Aspergillus culture/IgG. In conclusion, this study showed that sputum galactomannan antigen testing has utility in the diagnosis of chronic forms of pulmonary aspergillosis and further prospective validation is indicated.
Lewington-Gower E, Chan L, Shah A, 2021, Review of current and future therapeutics in ABPA, THERAPEUTIC ADVANCES IN CHRONIC DISEASE, Vol: 12, ISSN: 2040-6223
Shah A, Armstrong-James D, Chotirmall SH, 2021, Respiratory mycoses: a call to action to recognize, educate and invest., Mycopathologia, Vol: 186, Pages: 569-573, ISSN: 0301-486X
Di Paolo M, Hewitt L, Nwankwo E, et al., 2021, A retrospective 'real-world' cohort study of azole therapeutic drug monitoring and evolution of antifungal resistance in cystic fibrosis (vol 12, dlab086, 2021), JAC-ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE, Vol: 3
Di Paolo M, Hewitt L, Nwankwo E, et al., 2021, Erratum to: A retrospective 'real-world' cohort study of azole therapeutic drug monitoring and evolution of antifungal resistance in cystic fibrosis., JAC Antimicrob Resist, Vol: 3
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/jacamr/dlab026.].
Nwankwo L, McLaren K, Donovan J, et al., 2021, Utilisation of remote capillary blood testing in an outpatient clinic setting to improve shared decision making and patient and clinician experience: a validation and pilot study, BMJ Open Quality, Vol: 10, Pages: 1-11, ISSN: 2399-6641
Background In a tertiary respiratory centre, large cohorts of patients are managed in an outpatient setting and require blood tests to monitor disease activity and organ toxicity. This requires either visits to tertiary centres for phlebotomy and physician review or utilisation of primary care services.Objectives This study aims to validate remote capillary blood testing in an outpatient setting and analyse impact on clinical pathways.Methods A single-centre prospective cross-sectional validation and parallel observational study was performed. Remote finger prick capillary blood testing was validated compared with local standard venesection using comparative statistical analysis: paired t-test, correlation and Bland-Altman. Capillary was considered interchangeable with venous samples if all three criteria were met: non-significant paired t-test (ie, p>0.05), Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r)>0.8% and 95% of tests within 10% difference through Bland-Altman (limits of agreement). In parallel, current clinical pathways including phlebotomy practice were analysed over 4 weeks to review test predictability. A subsequent pilot cohort study analysed potential impact of remote capillary blood sampling on shared decision making. A final implementation phase ensued to embed the service into clinical pathways within the institution.Results 117 paired capillary and venous blood samples were prospectively analysed. Interchangeability with venous blood was seen with glycated haemoglobin (%), total protein and C reactive protein. Further tests, although not interchangeable, are likely useful to enable longitudinal remote monitoring (eg, liver function and total IgE). 65% of outpatient clinic blood tests were predictable with 16% of patients requiring further follow-up. Patient and clinician-reported improvement in shared decision making given contemporaneous blood test results was observed.Conclusions Remote capillary blood sampling can be used accurately fo
Prendecki M, Clarke C, Edwards H, et al., 2021, Humoral and T-cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients receiving immunosuppression., Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, Vol: 80, Pages: 1322-1329, ISSN: 0003-4967
OBJECTIVE: There is an urgent need to assess the impact of immunosuppressive therapies on the immunogenicity and efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. METHODS: Serological and T-cell ELISpot assays were used to assess the response to first-dose and second-dose SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (with either BNT162b2 mRNA or ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccines) in 140 participants receiving immunosuppression for autoimmune rheumatic and glomerular diseases. RESULTS: Following first-dose vaccine, 28.6% (34/119) of infection-naïve participants seroconverted and 26.0% (13/50) had detectable T-cell responses to SARS-CoV-2. Immune responses were augmented by second-dose vaccine, increasing seroconversion and T-cell response rates to 59.3% (54/91) and 82.6% (38/46), respectively. B-cell depletion at the time of vaccination was associated with failure to seroconvert, and tacrolimus therapy was associated with diminished T-cell responses. Reassuringly, only 8.7% of infection-naïve patients had neither antibody nor T-cell responses detected following second-dose vaccine. In patients with evidence of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection (19/140), all mounted high-titre antibody responses after first-dose vaccine, regardless of immunosuppressive therapy. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are immunogenic in patients receiving immunosuppression, when assessed by a combination of serology and cell-based assays, although the response is impaired compared with healthy individuals. B-cell depletion following rituximab impairs serological responses, but T-cell responses are preserved in this group. We suggest that repeat vaccine doses for serological non-responders should be investigated as means to induce more robust immunological response.
Aldossary S, Shah A, 2021, Healthcare Utilization and Impact of Antifungal Stewardships Within Respiratory Care Settings: A Systematic Literature Review, MYCOPATHOLOGIA, Vol: 186, Pages: 673-684, ISSN: 0301-486X
Rademacher J, Dettmer S, Fuge J, et al., 2021, The Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia Computed Tomography Score in Adults with Bronchiectasis: A Derivation und Validation Study, RESPIRATION, Vol: 100, Pages: 499-509, ISSN: 0025-7931
Angelini E, Shah A, 2021, Using artificial intelligence in fungal lung disease: CPA CT imaging as an example, Mycopathologia, Vol: 186, Pages: 733-737, ISSN: 0301-486X
This positioning paper aims to discuss current challenges and opportunities for artificial intelligence (AI) in fungal lung disease, with a focus on chronic pulmonary aspergillosis and some supporting proof-of-concept results using lung imaging. Given the high uncertainty in fungal infection diagnosis and analyzing treatment response, AI could potentially have an impactful role; however, developing imaging-based machine learning raises several specific challenges. We discuss recommendations to engage the medical community in essential first steps towards fungal infection AI with gathering dedicated imaging registries, linking with non-imaging data and harmonizing image-finding annotations.
Pinto AL, Rai RK, Brown JC, et al., 2021, Ultrastructural insight into SARS-CoV-2 attachment, entry and budding in human airway epithelium
<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title><jats:p>Ultrastructural studies of SARS-CoV-2 infected cells are crucial to better understand the mechanisms of viral entry and budding within host cells. Many studies are limited by the lack of access to appropriate cellular models. As the airway epithelium is the primary site of infection it is essential to study SARS-CoV-2 infection of these cells. Here, we examined human airway epithelium, grown as highly differentiated air-liquid interface cultures and infected with three different isolates of SARS-CoV-2 including the B.1.1.7 variant (Variant of Concern 202012/01) by transmission electron microscopy and tomography. For all isolates, the virus infected ciliated but not goblet epithelial cells. Two key SARS-CoV-2 entry molecules, ACE2 and TMPRSS2, were found to be localised to the plasma membrane including microvilli but excluded from cilia. Consistent with these observations, extracellular virions were frequently seen associated with microvilli and the apical plasma membrane but rarely with ciliary membranes. Profiles indicative of viral fusion at the apical plasma membrane demonstrate that the plasma membrane is one site of entry where direct fusion releasing the nucleoprotein-encapsidated genome occurs. Intact intracellular virions were found within ciliated cells in compartments with a single membrane bearing S glycoprotein. Profiles strongly suggesting viral budding from the membrane was observed in these compartments and this may explain how virions gain their S glycoprotein containing envelope.</jats:p>
Bercusson A, Jarvis G, Shah A, 2021, CF fungal disease in the age of CFTR modulators, Mycopathologia, Vol: 186, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 0301-486X
Fungi are increasingly recognised to have a significant role in the progression of lung disease in Cystic fibrosis with Aspergillus fumigatus the most common fungus isolated during respiratory sampling. The emergence of novel CFTR modulators has, however, significantly changed the outlook of disease progression in CF. In this review we discuss what impact novel CFTR modulators will have on fungal lung disease and its management in CF. We discuss how CFTR modulators affect antifungal innate immunity and consider the impact of Ivacaftor on fungal disease in individuals with gating mutations. We further review the increasing complication of drug–drug interactions with concurrent use of azole antifungal medication and highlight key unknowns that require addressing to fully understand the impact of CFTR modulators on fungal disease.
Nunes A, Desai SR, Semple T, et al., 2021, 3D PATHOLOGICAL SIGNS DETECTION AND SCORING ON CPA CT LUNG SCANS, 18th IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging (ISBI), Publisher: IEEE, Pages: 82-85, ISSN: 1945-7928
Turner SEG, Loosemore M, Shah A, et al., 2021, Salivary IgA as a potential biomarker in the evaluation of respiratory tract infection risk in athletes, Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice, Vol: 9, Pages: 151-159, ISSN: 2213-2198
In recent years, there has been attention focused on the value of salivary IgA (sIgA) as a potential biomarker for the identification of athletes who may be at increased risk of developing respiratory tract infection (RTI). The utility of sIgA, in this context, is based on biological plausibility and several observational studies revealing an apparent association between sIgA and RTI susceptibility. The overall published evidence evaluating the value of sIgA in this context is however conflicting, and there is currently a lack of clear guidance as to whether this marker has a place in the health surveillance and care of athletes. In this review, we critically appraise the literature assessing the potential for sIgA to be used in this context, evaluating it against 4 key biomarker characteristics, including its (1) practicality, (2) reproducibility, (3) specificity/sensitivity, and (4) potential clinical impact and relevance. This process reveals that although there is an apparent association between respiratory illness and sIgA in many studies, with some promising results, overall there remains a paucity of evidence supporting its overall value in this context. Key deficiencies in the metrics employed to endorse a valid biomarker are apparent, including a lack of reproducibility and low specificity and sensitivity in the detection of RTI susceptibility. The review outlines these issues and makes future recommendations.
Wilson MG, Hull JH, Rogers J, et al., 2020, Cardiorespiratory considerations for return-to-play in elite athletes after COVID-19 infection: a practical guide for sport and exercise medicine physicians, BRITISH JOURNAL OF SPORTS MEDICINE, Vol: 54, Pages: 1157-1161, ISSN: 0306-3674
Armstrong-James D, Youngs J, Bicanic T, et al., 2020, Confronting and mitigating the risk of COVID-19 Associated Pulmonary Aspergillosis (CAPA), European Respiratory Journal, Vol: 56, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 0903-1936
Cases of COVID-19 associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) are being increasingly reported and physicians treating patients with COVID-19-related lung disease need to actively consider these fungal co-infections.The SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) virus causes a wide spectrum of disease in healthy individuals as well as those with common comorbidities . Severe COVID-19 is characterised acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) secondary to viral pneumonitis, treatment of which may require mechanical ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) . Clinicians are alert to the possibility of bacterial co-infection as a complication of lower respiratory tract viral infection; for example a recent review found that 72% of patients with COVID-19 received antimicrobial therapy . However, the risk of fungal co-infection, in particular COVID-19 associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA), remains underappreciated.Fungal disease consistent with invasive aspergillosis (IA) has been observed with other severe Coronaviruses such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV-2003) [4, 5] and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) . From the outset of the COVID-19 pandemic, there were warning signs of secondary invasive fungal infection; Aspergillus flavus was isolated from the respiratory tract from one of 99 patients in the first COVID-19 cohort from Wuhan to be reported in any detail  and Aspergillus spp. were isolated from 2/52 (3.8%) of a subsequent cohort of critically unwell patients from this region . More recently, retrospective case series from Belgium , France , The Netherlands  and Germany  have reported evidence of CAPA in an alarming 20–35% of mechanically ventilated patients.
Nwankwo L, McLaren K, Donovan J, et al., 2020, Utilisation of Remote Capillary Blood Testing in an Outpatient Clinic Setting to improve shared decision making and patient and clinician experience: a validation and pilot study, Publisher: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
<jats:p>Background In a tertiary respiratory centre, large cohorts of patients are managed in an outpatient setting and require blood tests to monitor disease activity and organ toxicity. This requires either visits to tertiary centres for phlebotomy and physician review or utilisation of primary care services.Objectives This study aims to validate remote capillary blood testing in an outpatient setting and analyse impact on clinical pathways.MethodsA single-centre prospective cross-sectional validation and parallel observational study was performed. Remote finger prick capillary blood testing was validated compared to local standard venesection using comparative statistical analysis: paired t-test, correlation and Bland-Altman. Capillary was considered interchangeable with venous samples if all 3 criteria were met: non-significant paired t-test (i.e. p>0.05), Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) >0.8 and 95% of tests within 10% difference through Bland-Altman (Limits of agreement). In parallel, current clinical pathways including phlebotomy practice was analysed over 4 weeks to review test predictability. A subsequent pilot cohort study analysed potential impact of remote capillary blood sampling on shared decision making and outpatient clinical pathways. Results117 paired capillary and venous blood samples were prospectively analysed. Interchangeability with venous blood was seen with HbA1c (%), total protein and CRP. Further tests, although not interchangeable, are likely useful to enable longitudinal remote monitoring (e.g. liver function, total IgE, and vitamin D). 65% of outpatient clinic blood tests were predictable with 16% of patients requiring further contact due to actions required. Pilot implementation of remote capillary sampling showed patient and clinician-reported improvement in shared decision-making given contemporaneous blood test results.ConclusionsRemote capillary blood sampling can be used accurately for specific tests t
Connell D, Shah A, 2020, The contribution of Aspergillus fumigatus to COPD exacerbations: a "sensitive" topic, European Respiratory Journal, Vol: 56, ISSN: 0903-1936
Vijayasingam A, Frost E, Wilkins J, et al., 2020, Tablet and web-based audiometry to screen for hearing loss in adults with cystic fibrosis, Thorax, Vol: 75, Pages: 632-639, ISSN: 0040-6376
INTRODUCTION: Individuals with chronic lung disease (eg, cystic fibrosis (CF)) often receive antimicrobial therapy including aminoglycosides resulting in ototoxicity. Extended high-frequency audiometry has increased sensitivity for ototoxicity detection, but diagnostic audiometry in a sound-booth is costly, time-consuming and requires a trained audiologist. This cross-sectional study analysed tablet-based audiometry (Shoebox MD) performed by non-audiologists in an outpatient setting, alongside home web-based audiometry (3D Tune-In) to screen for hearing loss in adults with CF. METHODS: Hearing was analysed in 126 CF adults using validated questionnaires, a web self-hearing test (0.5 to 4 kHz), tablet (0.25 to 12 kHz) and sound-booth audiometry (0.25 to 12 kHz). A threshold of ≥25 dB hearing loss at ≥1 audiometric frequency was considered abnormal. Demographics and mitochondrial DNA sequencing were used to analyse risk factors, and accuracy and usability of hearing tests determined. RESULTS: Prevalence of hearing loss within any frequency band tested was 48%. Multivariate analysis showed age (OR 1.127; (95% CI: 1.07 to 1.18; p value<0.0001) per year older) and total intravenous antibiotic days over 10 years (OR 1.006; (95% CI: 1.002 to 1.010; p value=0.004) per further intravenous day) were significantly associated with increased risk of hearing loss. Tablet audiometry had good usability, was 93% sensitive, 88% specific with 94% negative predictive value to screen for hearing loss compared with web self-test audiometry and questionnaires which had poor sensitivity (17% and 13%, respectively). Intraclass correlation (ICC) of tablet versus sound-booth audiometry showed high correlation (ICC >0.9) at all frequencies ≥4 kHz. CONCLUSIONS: Adults with CF have a high prevalence of drug-related hearing loss and tablet-based audiometry can be a practical, accurate screening tool within integrated ototoxicity monitoring programmes for early detection.
Osborne W, Fernandes M, Brooks S, et al., 2020, Pulsed echinocandin therapy in azole intolerant or multiresistant chronic pulmonary aspergillosis: A retrospective review at a UK tertiary centre, CLINICAL RESPIRATORY JOURNAL, Vol: 14, Pages: 571-577, ISSN: 1752-6981
Hull JH, Schwellnus MP, Pyne DB, et al., 2020, COVID-19 vaccination in athletes: ready, set, go . . ., LANCET RESPIRATORY MEDICINE, Vol: 9, Pages: 455-456, ISSN: 2213-2600
Angelini E, Dahan S, Shah A, 2019, Unravelling machine learning: insights in respiratory medicine., European Respiratory Journal, Vol: 54, Pages: 1-4, ISSN: 0903-1936
Waters VJ, Kidd TJ, Canton R, et al., 2019, Reconciling Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing and Clinical Response in Antimicrobial Treatment of Chronic Cystic Fibrosis Lung Infections, CLINICAL INFECTIOUS DISEASES, Vol: 69, Pages: 1812-1816, ISSN: 1058-4838
Vijayasingam A, Frost E, Wilkins J, et al., 2019, S140 Interim results from a prospective study of tablet and web-based audiometry to detect ototoxicity in adults with cystic fibrosis (vol 73, pg A87, 2018), THORAX, Vol: 74, Pages: 723-723, ISSN: 0040-6376
Periselneris J, Nwankwo L, Schelenz S, et al., 2019, Posaconazole for the treatment of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in patients with cystic fibrosis., Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, Vol: 74, Pages: 1701-1703, ISSN: 0305-7453
OBJECTIVES: Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) can accelerate lung function decline in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Antifungal medication can be used in addition to systemic corticosteroid treatment. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We evaluated Aspergillus-specific IgE and the use of therapeutic drug monitoring of triazoles in a retrospective analysis of 32 patients. RESULTS: There was a significant reduction in Aspergillus IgE with posaconazole but not with other triazoles (P = 0.026). Aspergillus IgE levels were inversely correlated with the therapeutic drug level of posaconazole. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that posaconazole is better than comparator azoles at decreasing serological response to Aspergillus and that this response was better with therapeutic levels of posaconazole.
Somayaji R, Parkins MD, Shah A, et al., 2019, Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) and associated clinical outcomes in individuals with cystic fibrosis: a systematic review, Journal of Cystic Fibrosis, Vol: 18, Pages: 236-243, ISSN: 1569-1993
BackgroundAntimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) is a cornerstone of infection management. Cystic fibrosis (CF) treatment guidelines recommend AST to select antimicrobial treatments for CF airway infection but its utility in this setting has never been objectively demonstrated.MethodsWe conducted a systematic review of primary published articles designed to address two PICO (patient, intervention, comparator, outcome) questions: 1) “For individuals with CF, is clinical response to antimicrobial treatment of bacterial airways infection predictable from AST results available at treatment initiation?” and 2) “For individuals with CF, is clinical response to antimicrobial treatment of bacterial airways infection affected by the method used to guide antimicrobial selection?” Relationships between AST results and clinical response (changes in pulmonary function, weight, signs and symptoms of respiratory tract infection, and time to next event) were assessed for each article and results were compared across articles when possible.ResultsTwenty-five articles describing the results of 20 separate studies, most of which described Pseudomonas aeruginosa treatment, were identified. Thirteen studies described pulmonary exacerbation (PEx) treatment and seven described ‘maintenance’ of chronic bacterial airways infection. In only three of 16 studies addressing PICO question #1 was there a suggestion that baseline bacterial isolate antimicrobial susceptibility was associated with clinical response to treatment. None of the four studies addressing PICO question #2 suggested that antimicrobial selection methods influenced clinical outcomes.ConclusionsThere is little evidence that AST predicts the clinical outcome of CF antimicrobial treatment, suggesting a need for careful consideration of current AST use by the CF community.
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