Imperial College London

DrAnandShah

Faculty of MedicineSchool of Public Health

Honorary Clinical Senior Lecturer
 
 
 
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s.anand

 
 
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Fulham RoadRoyal Brompton Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

69 results found

Ritchie AI, Singayagam A, Mitchell S, Wedzicha JA, Shah A, Bloom CIet al., 2023, The effect of inhaled corticosteroids on pneumonia risk in patients with COPD-bronchiectasis overlap: a UK population-based case-control study, Chest, Vol: 164, Pages: 875-884, ISSN: 0012-3692

BackgroundInhaled corticosteroids (ICS) increase the risk of pneumonia in COPD and are commonly used in patients with COPD-bronchiectasis overlap.Research QuestionIs the risk of pneumonia associated with ICS further heightened in COPD-bronchiectasis?Study Design and MethodsElectronic healthcare records (2004-2019) were used to obtain a cohort of COPD patients and a nested case-control (age-gender matched 1:4). Analyses were conducted to determine the risk of hospitalised pneumonia in COPD associated with ICS use in those with bronchiectasis. Findings were confirmed by several sensitivity analyses. Additionally, a smaller nested case-control, containing only patients with COPD-bronchiectasis overlap and those with recent blood eosinophil counts (BEC), was used to determine any association with BEC.Results316,663 were eligible for the COPD cohort; bronchiectasis significantly increased the risk of pneumonia (AHR=1.24, 95% CI 1.15-1.33). In the first nested case-control of 84,316 COPD patients, ICS was found to increase the odds of pneumonia (AOR=1.26, 95% CI 1.19-1.32), only if used in the previous 180 days. However, bronchiectasis was a significant modifier such that ICS use did not further augment the already elevated bronchiectasis-associated pneumonia risk (AOR, 95% CI: COPD-bronchiectasis=1.01, 0.8-1.28; no bronchiectasis=1.27, 1.20-1.34). Several sensitivity analyses and a second smaller nested case-control, confirmed these findings. Lastly, we found BEC modified the ICS-associated pneumonia risk in COPD-bronchiectasis overlap, where lower BEC was significantly associated with pneumonia (AOR, 95% CI: BEC≤3x109/L=1.56, 1.05-2.31, BEC>3x109/L=0.89, 0.53-1.24).InterpretationICS use does not further augment the already increased risk of hospitalised pneumonia associated with concomitant bronchiectasis in COPD.

Journal article

RECOVERY Collaborative Group, 2023, Higher dose corticosteroids in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 who are hypoxic but not requiring ventilatory support (RECOVERY): a randomised, controlled, open-label, platform trial, The Lancet, Vol: 401, Pages: 1499-1507, ISSN: 0140-6736

BACKGROUND: Low-dose corticosteroids have been shown to reduce mortality for patients with COVID-19 requiring oxygen or ventilatory support (non-invasive mechanical ventilation, invasive mechanical ventilation, or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation). We evaluated the use of a higher dose of corticosteroids in this patient group. METHODS: This randomised, controlled, open-label platform trial (Randomised Evaluation of COVID-19 Therapy [RECOVERY]) is assessing multiple possible treatments in patients hospitalised for COVID-19. Eligible and consenting adult patients with clinical evidence of hypoxia (ie, receiving oxygen or with oxygen saturation <92% on room air) were randomly allocated (1:1) to either usual care with higher dose corticosteroids (dexamethasone 20 mg once daily for 5 days followed by 10 mg dexamethasone once daily for 5 days or until discharge if sooner) or usual standard of care alone (which included dexamethasone 6 mg once daily for 10 days or until discharge if sooner). The primary outcome was 28-day mortality among all randomised participants. On May 11, 2022, the independent data monitoring committee recommended stopping recruitment of patients receiving no oxygen or simple oxygen only due to safety concerns. We report the results for these participants only. Recruitment of patients receiving ventilatory support is ongoing. The RECOVERY trial is registered with ISRCTN (50189673) and ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04381936). FINDINGS: Between May 25, 2021, and May 13, 2022, 1272 patients with COVID-19 and hypoxia receiving no oxygen (eight [1%]) or simple oxygen only (1264 [99%]) were randomly allocated to receive usual care plus higher dose corticosteroids (659 patients) versus usual care alone (613 patients, of whom 87% received low-dose corticosteroids during the follow-up period). Of those randomly assigned, 745 (59%) were in Asia, 512 (40%) in the UK, and 15 (1%) in Africa. 248 (19%) had diabetes and 769 (60%) were male. Overall, 123 (19%) of 659

Journal article

Nuh A, Ramadan N, Nwankwo L, Donovan J, Patel B, Shah A, Desai SR, Armstrong-James Det al., 2023, COVID-19 associated pulmonary aspergillosis in patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation treatment-a retrospective study, Journal of Fungi, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2309-608X

BACKGROUND: The incidence and outcome of pulmonary aspergillosis in coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) are unknown and have not been fully addressed. We investigated the incidence, risk factors and outcome of pulmonary aspergillosis in COVID-19 ECMO patients. In addition, the diagnostic utility of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and CT scans in this setting were assessed. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study on incidence and outcome of pulmonary aspergillosis in COVID-19 ECMO patients by reviewing clinical, radiological, and mycological evidence. These patients were admitted to a tertiary cardiothoracic centre during the early COVID-19 surge between March 2020 and January 2021. Results and measurements: The study included 88 predominantly male COVID-19 ECMO patients with a median age and a BMI of 48 years and 32 kg/m2, respectively. Pulmonary aspergillosis incidence was 10% and was associated with very high mortality. Patients with an Aspergillus infection were almost eight times more likely to die compared with those without infection in multivariate analysis (OR 7.81, 95% CI: 1.20-50.68). BALF GM correlated well with culture results, with a Kappa value of 0.8 (95% CI: 0.6, 1.0). However, serum galactomannan (GM) and serum (1-3)-β-D-glucan (BDG) lacked sensitivity. Thoracic computed tomography (CT) diagnostic utility was also inconclusive, showing nonspecific ground glass opacities in almost all patients. CONCLUSIONS: In COVID-19 ECMO patients, pulmonary aspergillosis incidence was 10% and associated with very high mortality. Our results support the role of BALF in the diagnosis of pulmonary aspergillosis in COVID-19 ECMO patients. However, the diagnostic utility of BDG, serum GM, and CT scans is unclear.

Journal article

Pates KM, Shang Z, Periselneris J, Shah Aet al., 2023, Breaking the mould, a first parse at natural language processing in aspergillosis diagnosis, Journal of Thoracic Disease, Vol: 15, Pages: 17-21, ISSN: 2072-1439

Journal article

George PM, Reed A, Desai SR, Devaraj A, Faiez TS, Laverty S, Kanwal A, Esneau C, Liu MKC, Kamal F, Man WD-C, Kaul S, Singh S, Lamb G, Faizi FK, Schuliga M, Read J, Burgoyne T, Pinto AL, Micallef J, Bauwens E, Candiracci J, Bougoussa M, Herzog M, Raman L, Ahmetaj-Shala B, Turville S, Aggarwal A, Farne HA, Dalla Pria A, Aswani AD, Patella F, Borek WE, Mitchell JA, Bartlett NW, Dokal A, Xu X-N, Kelleher P, Shah A, Singanayagam Aet al., 2022, A persistent neutrophil-associated immune signature characterizes post-COVID-19 pulmonary sequelae., Science Translational Medicine, Vol: 14, Pages: 1-16, ISSN: 1946-6234

Interstitial lung disease and associated fibrosis occur in a proportion of individuals who have recovered from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection through unknown mechanisms. We studied individuals with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) after recovery from acute illness. Individuals with evidence of interstitial lung changes at 3 to 6 months after recovery had an up-regulated neutrophil-associated immune signature including increased chemokines, proteases, and markers of neutrophil extracellular traps that were detectable in the blood. Similar pathways were enriched in the upper airway with a concomitant increase in antiviral type I interferon signaling. Interaction analysis of the peripheral phosphoproteome identified enriched kinases critical for neutrophil inflammatory pathways. Evaluation of these individuals at 12 months after recovery indicated that a subset of the individuals had not yet achieved full normalization of radiological and functional changes. These data provide insight into mechanisms driving development of pulmonary sequelae during and after COVID-19 and provide a rational basis for development of targeted approaches to prevent long-term complications.

Journal article

RECOVERY Collaborative Group, 2022, Baricitinib in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 (RECOVERY): a randomised, controlled, open-label, platform trial and updated meta-analysis., The Lancet, Vol: 400, Pages: 359-368, ISSN: 0140-6736

BACKGROUND: We aimed to evaluate the use of baricitinib, a Janus kinase (JAK) 1-2 inhibitor, for the treatment of patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19. METHODS: This randomised, controlled, open-label, platform trial (Randomised Evaluation of COVID-19 Therapy [RECOVERY]), is assessing multiple possible treatments in patients hospitalised with COVID-19 in the UK. Eligible and consenting patients were randomly allocated (1:1) to either usual standard of care alone (usual care group) or usual care plus baricitinib 4 mg once daily by mouth for 10 days or until discharge if sooner (baricitinib group). The primary outcome was 28-day mortality assessed in the intention-to-treat population. A meta-analysis was done, which included the results from the RECOVERY trial and all previous randomised controlled trials of baricitinib or other JAK inhibitor in patients hospitalised with COVID-19. The RECOVERY trial is registered with ISRCTN (50189673) and ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04381936) and is ongoing. FINDINGS: Between Feb 2 and Dec 29, 2021, from 10 852 enrolled, 8156 patients were randomly allocated to receive usual care plus baricitinib versus usual care alone. At randomisation, 95% of patients were receiving corticosteroids and 23% were receiving tocilizumab (with planned use within the next 24 h recorded for a further 9%). Overall, 514 (12%) of 4148 patients allocated to baricitinib versus 546 (14%) of 4008 patients allocated to usual care died within 28 days (age-adjusted rate ratio 0·87; 95% CI 0·77-0·99; p=0·028). This 13% proportional reduction in mortality was somewhat smaller than that seen in a meta-analysis of eight previous trials of a JAK inhibitor (involving 3732 patients and 425 deaths), in which allocation to a JAK inhibitor was associated with a 43% proportional reduction in mortality (rate ratio 0·57; 95% CI 0·45-0·72). Including the results from RECOVERY in an updated meta-analysis of all nine completed t

Journal article

Gerovasili V, Shah A, Singanayagam A, George PM, Njafuh R, Prendecki M, Carby M, Willicombe M, Kelleher P, Reed Aet al., 2022, Impaired humoral and cellular responses to COVID-19 vaccine in heart and lung transplant recipients, American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Vol: 205, Pages: 1476-1479, ISSN: 1073-449X

Journal article

Shah A, Hull J, Moffatt M, Cookson W, Kelleher W, Cuthbertson Let al., 2022, Evidence of immunometabolic dysregulation and airway dysbiosis in athletes susceptible to respiratory illness, EBioMedicine, Vol: 79, Pages: 1-16, ISSN: 2352-3964

BackgroundRespiratory tract infection (RTI) is a leading cause of training and in-competition time-loss in athlete health. The immune factors associated with RTI susceptibility remain unclear. In this study, we prospectively characterise host immune factors in elite athletes exhibiting RTI susceptibility.MethodsPeripheral blood lymphocyte flow cytometry phenotyping and 16S rRNA microbial sequencing of oropharyngeal swabs was performed in a prospective elite athlete cohort study (n = 121). Mass cytometry, peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) stimulation and plasma metabolic profiling was performed in age-matched highly-susceptible (HS) athletes (≥4RTI in last 18 months) (n = 22) compared to non-susceptible (NS) (≤1RTI in last 18 months) (n = 23) athletes. Findings were compared to non-athletic healthy controls (HC) (n = 19).FindingsAthletes (n = 121) had a reduced peripheral blood memory T regulatory cell compartment compared to HC (p = 0.02 (95%CI:0.1,1.0)) and reduced upper airway bacterial biomass compared to HC (p = 0.032, effect size r = 0.19). HS athletes (n = 22) had lower circulating memory T regulatory cells compared to NS (n = 23) athletes (p = 0.005 (95%CI:-1.5,-0.15)) and HC (p = 0.002 (95%CI:-1.9,-0.3) with PBMC microbial stimulation assays revealing a T-helper 2 skewed immune response compared to HC. Plasma metabolomic profiling showed differences in sphingolipid pathway metabolites (a class of lipids important in infection and inflammation regulation) in HS compared to NS athletes and HC, with sphingomyelin predictive of RTI infection susceptibility (p = 0.005).InterpretationAthletes susceptible to RTI have reduced circulating memory T regulatory cells, metabolic dysregulation of the sphingolipid pathway and evidence of upper airway bacterial dysbiosis.FundingThis study was funded by the English Institute of Sport (UK).

Journal article

Nwankwo L, Gilmartin D, Matharu S, Donovan J, Armstrong-James D, Shah Aet al., 2022, Experience of isavuconazole as a salvage therapy in chronic pulmonary fungal disease, Journal of Fungi, Vol: 8, ISSN: 2309-608X

Background: Instances of resistant fungal infection are rising in pulmonary disease, with limited therapeutic options. Therapeutic drug monitoring of azole antifungals has been necessary to ensure safety and efficacy but is considered unnecessary for the newest triazole isavuconazole. Aims: To characterise the prevalence of isavuconazole resistance and use in a tertiary respiratory centre. Methods: A retrospective observational analysis (2016–2021) of adult respiratory patients analysing fungal culture, therapeutic drug monitoring, and outcome post-isavuconazole therapy. Results: During the study period, isavuconazole susceptibility testing was performed on 26 Aspergillus spp. isolates. A total of 80.8% of A. fumigatus isolates had isavuconazole (MIC > 1 mg/L, and 73.0% > 2 mg/L) with a good correlation to voriconazole MIC (r = 0.7, p = 0.0002). A total of 54 patients underwent isavuconazole therapy during the study period (median duration 234 days (IQR: 24–499)). A total of 67% of patients tolerated isavuconazole, despite prior azole toxicity in 61.8%, with increased age (rpb = 0.31; p = 0.021) and male sex (φc = 0.30; p = 0.027) being associated with toxicity. A total of 132 isavuconazole levels were performed with 94.8% > 1 mg/L and 72% > 2 mg/L. Dose change from manufacturer’s recommendation was, however, required in 9.3% to achieve a concentration of >2 mg/L. Conclusion: We describe the use of isavuconazole as a salvage therapy in a chronic pulmonary fungal disease setting with a high prevalence of azole resistance. Therapeutic concentrations at standard dosing were high; however, results reinforce antifungal stewardship for optimization.

Journal article

Pinto AL, Rai RK, Brown JC, Griffin P, Edgar JR, Shah A, Singanayagam A, Hogg C, Barclay WS, Futter CE, Burgoyne Tet al., 2022, Ultrastructural insight into SARS-CoV-2 entry and budding in human airway epithelium, Nature Communications, Vol: 13, Pages: 1-14, ISSN: 2041-1723

Ultrastructural studies of SARS-CoV-2 infected cells are crucial to better understand the mechanisms of viral entry and budding within host cells. Here, we examined human airway epithelium infected with three different isolates of SARS-CoV-2 including the B.1.1.7 variant by transmission electron microscopy and tomography. For all isolates, the virus infected ciliated but not goblet epithelial cells. Key SARS-CoV-2 entry molecules, ACE2 and TMPRSS2, were found to be localised to the plasma membrane including microvilli but excluded from cilia. Consistently, extracellular virions were seen associated with microvilli and the apical plasma membrane but rarely with ciliary membranes. Profiles indicative of viral fusion where tomography showed that the viral membrane was continuous with the apical plasma membrane and the nucleocapsids diluted, compared with unfused virus, demonstrate that the plasma membrane is one site of entry where direct fusion releasing the nucleoprotein-encapsidated genome occurs. Intact intracellular virions were found within ciliated cells in compartments with a single membrane bearing S glycoprotein. Tomography showed concentration of nucleocapsids round the periphery of profiles strongly suggestive of viral budding into these compartments and this may explain how virions gain their S glycoprotein containing envelope.

Journal article

Nwankwo L, Gilmartin D, Matharu S, Nuh A, Donovan J, Armstrong-James D, Shah Aet al., 2022, Experience of Isavuconazole as Salvage Therapy in Chronic Pulmonary Fungal Disease

<jats:p>Background: The burden of resistant fungal infection is rising in patients with pulmonary disease. Options for antifungal therapy are limited, and the only orally-available antifungals, the triazoles, demonstrate inter and intra-patient variability, non-linear kinetics, toxicity, drug interactions and increasing antifungal resistance. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of itraconazole, voriconazole and posaconazole has been necessary to ensure their safety and efficacy, but is considered unnecessary for the newest triazole isavuconazole, use of which is increasing. Aims: To characterise isavuconazole susceptibility of Aspergillus fumigatus isolates in a tertiary respiratory referral centre to understand prevalence of isavuconazole antimicrobial resistance. To retrospectively review experience of isavuconazole use in this setting, assessing tolerability and therapeutic drug monitoring. Methods: A retrospective observational analysis of adult patients with respiratory disease in a tertiary hospital setting between Sept 2016 and Aug 2021. Clinical cultures were collected and triazole Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were recorded (based on Clinical &amp;amp;amp; Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI method)). Isavuconazole trough drug levels were carried out as part of the standard of care. Clinical outcomes of treatment were evaluated, along with drug tolerance and TDM. Results: During the study period, isavuconazole susceptibility testing was performed on 26 Aspergillus spp isolates. 80.8% of Aspergillus fumigatus isolates were non-wild type and had isavuconazole MIC &amp;amp;gt; 1mg/L, and 73.0% had MIC above the EUCAST (European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing) epidemiological cut-off (ECOFF) of 2mg/L. There was good correlation between isavuconazole MIC and voriconazole MIC (r =0.7, p=0.0002). 54 patients had isavuconazole therapy over the study period with a median duration of 7.7 months (IQR 0.79 - 16.42). 67% of patie

Journal article

Nuh A, Ramadan N, Shah A, Armstrong-James Det al., 2022, Sputum galactomannan has utility in the diagnosis of chronic pulmonary aspergillosis, Journal of Fungi, Vol: 8, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 2309-608X

Diagnosis of pulmonary aspergillosis (PA), a fungal disease caused by Aspergillus species, is challenging since symptoms are unspecific. The galactomannan (antigen secreted by Aspergillus species) test in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid is a valuable diagnostic adjunct test in the diagnosis of PA. However, BAL collection is invasive and may not be suitable to severely ill patients. Sputum is non-invasive, easily collected, and lung specific and may be an alternative to BAL. The aim of this research was to retrospectively evaluate the utility of sputum galactomannan in the diagnosis of pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with chronic respiratory diseases and to estimate the sputum galactomannan cut-off value. We collected data from patients with clinical suspicion of pulmonary aspergillosis who had sputum galactomannan, culture, and Aspergillus IgG tests performed within four weeks. Sputum galactomannan was validated against the clinical diagnosis of aspergillosis, Aspergillus culture, and Aspergillus IgG tests. In total, 218 patients met inclusion criteria. Overall, sputum GM showed satisfactory agreement with clinical diagnosis of aspergillosis, Aspergillus culture, and Aspergillus IgG. When a receiver operating characteristic curve was constructed using Aspergillus culture/IgG and clinical diagnosis, the same cut-off (CO) of 0.71 (AUC: 0.83; CI: 0.69–0.86, p < 0.001) was determined. Against clinical diagnosis, sputum GM gave sensitivity and specificity of 70% and 71%, respectively. Sensitivity of 77% and specificity of 78% were found when sputum GM was evaluated against Aspergillus culture/IgG. In conclusion, this study showed that sputum galactomannan antigen testing has utility in the diagnosis of chronic forms of pulmonary aspergillosis and further prospective validation is indicated.

Journal article

RECOVERY Collaborative Group, 2022, Casirivimab and imdevimab in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 (RECOVERY): a randomised, controlled, open-label, platform trial, The Lancet, Vol: 399, Pages: 665-676, ISSN: 0140-6736

BACKGROUND: Casirivimab and imdevimab are non-competing monoclonal antibodies that bind to two different sites on the receptor binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein, blocking viral entry into host cells. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of casirivimab and imdevimab administered in combination in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19. METHODS: RECOVERY is a randomised, controlled, open-label platform trial comparing several possible treatments with usual care in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19. 127 UK hospitals took part in the evaluation of casirivimab and imdevimab. Eligible participants were any patients aged at least 12 years admitted to hospital with clinically suspected or laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to either usual standard of care alone or usual care plus casirivimab 4 g and imdevimab 4 g administered together in a single intravenous infusion. Investigators and data assessors were masked to analyses of the outcome data during the trial. The primary outcome was 28-day all-cause mortality assessed by intention to treat, first only in patients without detectable antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 infection at randomisation (ie, those who were seronegative) and then in the overall population. Safety was assessed in all participants who received casirivimab and imdevimab. The trial is registered with ISRCTN (50189673) and ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04381936). FINDINGS: Between Sept 18, 2020, and May 22, 2021, 9785 patients enrolled in RECOVERY were eligible for casirivimab and imdevimab, of which 4839 were randomly assigned to casirivimab and imdevimab plus usual care and 4946 to usual care alone. 3153 (32%) of 9785 patients were seronegative, 5272 (54%) were seropositive, and 1360 (14%) had unknown baseline antibody status. 812 (8%) patients were known to have received at least one dose of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. In the primary efficacy population of seronegative patients, 396 (2

Journal article

RECOVERY Collaborative Group, 2022, Aspirin in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 (RECOVERY): a randomised, controlled, open-label, platform trial, The Lancet, Vol: 399, Pages: 143-151, ISSN: 0140-6736

BACKGROUND: Aspirin has been proposed as a treatment for COVID-19 on the basis of its anti-thrombotic properties. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of aspirin in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19. METHODS: In this randomised, controlled, open-label, platform trial, several possible treatments were compared with usual care in patients hospitalised with COVID-19. The trial took place at 177 hospitals in the UK, two hospitals in Indonesia, and two hospitals in Nepal. Eligible and consenting adults were randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio to either usual standard of care plus 150 mg aspirin once per day until discharge or usual standard of care alone using web-based simple (unstratified) randomisation with allocation concealment. The primary outcome was 28 day mortality. All analyses were done by intention to treat. The trial is registered with ISRCTN (50189673) and ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04381936). FINDINGS: Between Nov 1, 2020, and March 21, 2021, 14 892 (66%) of 22 560 patients enrolled into the RECOVERY trial were eligible to be randomly allocated to aspirin. 7351 patients were randomly allocated (1:1) to receive aspirin and 7541 patients to receive usual care alone. Overall, 1222 (17%) of 7351 patients allocated to aspirin and 1299 (17%) of 7541 patients allocated to usual care died within 28 days (rate ratio 0·96, 95% CI 0·89-1·04; p=0·35). Consistent results were seen in all prespecified subgroups of patients. Patients allocated to aspirin had a slightly shorter duration of hospitalisation (median 8 days, IQR 5 to >28, vs 9 days, IQR 5 to >28) and a higher proportion were discharged from hospital alive within 28 days (75% vs 74%; rate ratio 1·06, 95% CI 1·02-1·10; p=0·0062). Among patients not on invasive mechanical ventilation at baseline, there was no significant difference in the proportion meeting the composite endpoint of invasive mechanical ventilation or death (2

Journal article

Ge Y, Bartlett EC, Semple T, Rice A, Shah A, Renzoni EAet al., 2021, The curious incident of the cast in the airway, THORAX, Vol: 76, Pages: 1253-1254, ISSN: 0040-6376

Journal article

Lewington-Gower E, Chan L, Shah A, 2021, Review of current and future therapeutics in ABPA, THERAPEUTIC ADVANCES IN CHRONIC DISEASE, Vol: 12, ISSN: 2040-6223

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Aldossary S, Shah A, 2021, Healthcare Utilization and Impact of Antifungal Stewardships Within Respiratory Care Settings: A Systematic Literature Review, MYCOPATHOLOGIA, Vol: 186, Pages: 673-684, ISSN: 0301-486X

Journal article

Shah A, Armstrong-James D, Chotirmall SH, 2021, Respiratory mycoses: a call to action to recognize, educate and invest., Mycopathologia, Vol: 186, Pages: 569-573, ISSN: 0301-486X

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Di Paolo M, Hewitt L, Nwankwo E, Ni M, Vidal-Diaz A, Fisher MC, Armstrong-James D, Shah Aet al., 2021, A retrospective 'real-world' cohort study of azole therapeutic drug monitoring and evolution of antifungal resistance in cystic fibrosis (vol 12, dlab086, 2021), JAC-ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE, Vol: 3

Journal article

Di Paolo M, Hewitt L, Nwankwo E, Ni M, Vidal-Diaz A, Fisher MC, Armstrong-James D, Shah Aet al., 2021, Erratum to: A retrospective 'real-world' cohort study of azole therapeutic drug monitoring and evolution of antifungal resistance in cystic fibrosis., JAC Antimicrob Resist, Vol: 3

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/jacamr/dlab026.].

Journal article

Nwankwo L, McLaren K, Donovan J, Ni Z, Vidal-Diaz A, Loebinger M, Morrisey A, Igra A, Shah Aet al., 2021, Utilisation of remote capillary blood testing in an outpatient clinic setting to improve shared decision making and patient and clinician experience: a validation and pilot study, BMJ Open Quality, Vol: 10, Pages: 1-11, ISSN: 2399-6641

Background In a tertiary respiratory centre, large cohorts of patients are managed in an outpatient setting and require blood tests to monitor disease activity and organ toxicity. This requires either visits to tertiary centres for phlebotomy and physician review or utilisation of primary care services.Objectives This study aims to validate remote capillary blood testing in an outpatient setting and analyse impact on clinical pathways.Methods A single-centre prospective cross-sectional validation and parallel observational study was performed. Remote finger prick capillary blood testing was validated compared with local standard venesection using comparative statistical analysis: paired t-test, correlation and Bland-Altman. Capillary was considered interchangeable with venous samples if all three criteria were met: non-significant paired t-test (ie, p>0.05), Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r)>0.8% and 95% of tests within 10% difference through Bland-Altman (limits of agreement). In parallel, current clinical pathways including phlebotomy practice were analysed over 4 weeks to review test predictability. A subsequent pilot cohort study analysed potential impact of remote capillary blood sampling on shared decision making. A final implementation phase ensued to embed the service into clinical pathways within the institution.Results 117 paired capillary and venous blood samples were prospectively analysed. Interchangeability with venous blood was seen with glycated haemoglobin (%), total protein and C reactive protein. Further tests, although not interchangeable, are likely useful to enable longitudinal remote monitoring (eg, liver function and total IgE). 65% of outpatient clinic blood tests were predictable with 16% of patients requiring further follow-up. Patient and clinician-reported improvement in shared decision making given contemporaneous blood test results was observed.Conclusions Remote capillary blood sampling can be used accurately fo

Journal article

Prendecki M, Clarke C, Edwards H, McIntyre S, Mortimer P, Gleeson S, Martin P, Thomson T, Randell P, Shah A, Singanayagam A, Lightstone L, Cox A, Kelleher P, Willicombe M, McAdoo SPet al., 2021, Humoral and T-cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients receiving immunosuppression., Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, Vol: 80, Pages: 1322-1329, ISSN: 0003-4967

OBJECTIVE: There is an urgent need to assess the impact of immunosuppressive therapies on the immunogenicity and efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. METHODS: Serological and T-cell ELISpot assays were used to assess the response to first-dose and second-dose SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (with either BNT162b2 mRNA or ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccines) in 140 participants receiving immunosuppression for autoimmune rheumatic and glomerular diseases. RESULTS: Following first-dose vaccine, 28.6% (34/119) of infection-naïve participants seroconverted and 26.0% (13/50) had detectable T-cell responses to SARS-CoV-2. Immune responses were augmented by second-dose vaccine, increasing seroconversion and T-cell response rates to 59.3% (54/91) and 82.6% (38/46), respectively. B-cell depletion at the time of vaccination was associated with failure to seroconvert, and tacrolimus therapy was associated with diminished T-cell responses. Reassuringly, only 8.7% of infection-naïve patients had neither antibody nor T-cell responses detected following second-dose vaccine. In patients with evidence of prior SARS-CoV-2 infection (19/140), all mounted high-titre antibody responses after first-dose vaccine, regardless of immunosuppressive therapy. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are immunogenic in patients receiving immunosuppression, when assessed by a combination of serology and cell-based assays, although the response is impaired compared with healthy individuals. B-cell depletion following rituximab impairs serological responses, but T-cell responses are preserved in this group. We suggest that repeat vaccine doses for serological non-responders should be investigated as means to induce more robust immunological response.

Journal article

Rademacher J, Dettmer S, Fuge J, Vogel-Claussen J, Shin H-O, Shah A, Pedro PI, Wilson R, Welte T, Wacker F, Loebinger MR, Ringshausen FCet al., 2021, The Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia Computed Tomography Score in Adults with Bronchiectasis: A Derivation und Validation Study, RESPIRATION, Vol: 100, Pages: 499-509, ISSN: 0025-7931

Journal article

Horby PW, Landray MJ, 2021, Convalescent plasma in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 (RECOVERY): a randomised controlled, open-label, platform trial, The Lancet, Vol: 397, Pages: 2049-2059, ISSN: 0140-6736

BackgroundMany patients with COVID-19 have been treated with plasma containing anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of convalescent plasma therapy in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19.MethodsThis randomised, controlled, open-label, platform trial (Randomised Evaluation of COVID-19 Therapy [RECOVERY]) is assessing several possible treatments in patients hospitalised with COVID-19 in the UK. The trial is underway at 177 NHS hospitals from across the UK. Eligible and consenting patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either usual care alone (usual care group) or usual care plus high-titre convalescent plasma (convalescent plasma group). The primary outcome was 28-day mortality, analysed on an intention-to-treat basis. The trial is registered with ISRCTN, 50189673, and ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04381936.FindingsBetween May 28, 2020, and Jan 15, 2021, 11558 (71%) of 16287 patients enrolled in RECOVERY were eligible to receive convalescent plasma and were assigned to either the convalescent plasma group or the usual care group. There was no significant difference in 28-day mortality between the two groups: 1399 (24%) of 5795 patients in the convalescent plasma group and 1408 (24%) of 5763 patients in the usual care group died within 28 days (rate ratio 1·00, 95% CI 0·93–1·07; p=0·95). The 28-day mortality rate ratio was similar in all prespecified subgroups of patients, including in those patients without detectable SARS-CoV-2 antibodies at randomisation. Allocation to convalescent plasma had no significant effect on the proportion of patients discharged from hospital within 28 days (3832 [66%] patients in the convalescent plasma group vs 3822 [66%] patients in the usual care group; rate ratio 0·99, 95% CI 0·94–1·03; p=0·57). Among those not on invasive mechanical ventilation at randomisation, there was no significant difference in the proportion of pati

Journal article

Horby PW, Landray MJ, 2021, Tocilizumab in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 (RECOVERY): a randomised, controlled, open-label, platform trial, The Lancet, Vol: 397, Pages: 1637-1645, ISSN: 0140-6736

BackgroundIn this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of tocilizumab in adult patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 with both hypoxia and systemic inflammation.MethodsThis randomised, controlled, open-label, platform trial (Randomised Evaluation of COVID-19 Therapy [RECOVERY]), is assessing several possible treatments in patients hospitalised with COVID-19 in the UK. Those trial participants with hypoxia (oxygen saturation <92% on air or requiring oxygen therapy) and evidence of systemic inflammation (C-reactive protein ≥75 mg/L) were eligible for random assignment in a 1:1 ratio to usual standard of care alone versus usual standard of care plus tocilizumab at a dose of 400 mg–800 mg (depending on weight) given intravenously. A second dose could be given 12–24 h later if the patient's condition had not improved. The primary outcome was 28-day mortality, assessed in the intention-to-treat population. The trial is registered with ISRCTN (50189673) and ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04381936).FindingsBetween April 23, 2020, and Jan 24, 2021, 4116 adults of 21 550 patients enrolled into the RECOVERY trial were included in the assessment of tocilizumab, including 3385 (82%) patients receiving systemic corticosteroids. Overall, 621 (31%) of the 2022 patients allocated tocilizumab and 729 (35%) of the 2094 patients allocated to usual care died within 28 days (rate ratio 0·85; 95% CI 0·76–0·94; p=0·0028). Consistent results were seen in all prespecified subgroups of patients, including those receiving systemic corticosteroids. Patients allocated to tocilizumab were more likely to be discharged from hospital within 28 days (57% vs 50%; rate ratio 1·22; 1·12–1·33; p<0·0001). Among those not receiving invasive mechanical ventilation at baseline, patients allocated tocilizumab were less likely to reach the composite endpoint of invasive mechanical ventilation or death (35% vs 42%; risk ra

Journal article

Angelini E, Shah A, 2021, Using artificial intelligence in fungal lung disease: CPA CT imaging as an example, Mycopathologia, Vol: 186, Pages: 733-737, ISSN: 0301-486X

This positioning paper aims to discuss current challenges and opportunities for artificial intelligence (AI) in fungal lung disease, with a focus on chronic pulmonary aspergillosis and some supporting proof-of-concept results using lung imaging. Given the high uncertainty in fungal infection diagnosis and analyzing treatment response, AI could potentially have an impactful role; however, developing imaging-based machine learning raises several specific challenges. We discuss recommendations to engage the medical community in essential first steps towards fungal infection AI with gathering dedicated imaging registries, linking with non-imaging data and harmonizing image-finding annotations.

Journal article

Bercusson A, Jarvis G, Shah A, 2021, CF fungal disease in the age of CFTR modulators, Mycopathologia, Vol: 186, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 0301-486X

Fungi are increasingly recognised to have a significant role in the progression of lung disease in Cystic fibrosis with Aspergillus fumigatus the most common fungus isolated during respiratory sampling. The emergence of novel CFTR modulators has, however, significantly changed the outlook of disease progression in CF. In this review we discuss what impact novel CFTR modulators will have on fungal lung disease and its management in CF. We discuss how CFTR modulators affect antifungal innate immunity and consider the impact of Ivacaftor on fungal disease in individuals with gating mutations. We further review the increasing complication of drug–drug interactions with concurrent use of azole antifungal medication and highlight key unknowns that require addressing to fully understand the impact of CFTR modulators on fungal disease.

Journal article

Horby PW, Roddick A, Spata E, Staplin N, Emberson J, Pessoa-Amorim G, Brightling C, Prudon B, Chadwick D, Ustianowski A, Ashish A, Todd S, Yates B, Buttery R, Scott S, Maseda D, Baillie JK, Buch M, Chappell L, Day J, Faust SN, Jaki T, Jeffery K, Juszczak E, Lim WS, Montgomery A, Mumford A, Rowan K, Thwaites G, Mafham M, Haynes R, Landray MJ, Horby PW, Landray MJ, Baillie JK, Buch M, Chappell L, Day J, Faust SN, Haynes R, Jaki T, Jeffery K, Juszczak E, Lim WS, Mafham M, Montgomery A, Mumford A, Rowan K, Thwaites G, Sandercock P, Darbyshire J, DeMets D, Fowler R, Lalloo D, Roberts I, Wittes J, Horby P, Landray MJ, Haynes R, Fletcher L, Barton J, Basoglu A, Brown R, Brudlo W, Denis E, Howard S, McChlery G, Taylor K, Cui G, Goodenough B, King A, Lay M, Murray D, Stevens W, Wallendszus K, Welsh R, Crichton C, Davies J, Goldacre R, Harper C, Knight F, Latham-Mollart J, Mafham M, Nunn M, Salih H, Welch J, Campbell M, Pessoa-Amorim G, Peto L, Roddick A, Knott C, Wiles J, Bell JL, Emberson J, Juszczak E, Linsell L, Spata E, Staplin N, Bagley G, Cameron S, Chamberlain S, Farrell B, Freeman H, Kennedy A, Whitehouse A, Wilkinson S, Wood C, Reith C, Davies K, Halls H, Holland L, Wilson K, Howie L, Lunn M, Rodgers P, Barnard A, Beety J, Birch C, Brend M, Chambers E, Chappell L, Crawshaw S, Drake C, Duckles-Leech H, Graham J, Harman T, Harper H, Lock S, Lomme K, McMillan N, Nickson I, Ohia U, OKell E, Poustie V, Sam S, Sharratt P, Sheffield J, Slade H, Hoff WV, Walker S, Williamson J, De Soyza A, Dimitri P, Faust SN, Lemoine N, Minton J, Gilmour K, Pearson K, Armah C, Campbell D, Cate H, Priest A, Thomas E, Usher R, Johnson G, Logan M, Pratt S, Price A, Shirley K, Walton E, Williams P, Yelnoorkar F, Hanson J, Membrey H, Gill L, Oliver A, Das S, Murphy S, Sutu M, Collins J, Monaghan H, Unsworth A, Beddows S, Williams KB, Dowling S, Gibbons K, Pine K, Asghar A, Aubrey P, Jewell DB, Donaldson K, Skinner T, Luo J, Mguni N, Muzengi N, Pleass R, Wayman E, Coe A, Hicks J, Hough M, Levettet al., 2021, Azithromycin in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 (RECOVERY): a randomised, controlled, open-label, platform trial, The Lancet, Vol: 397, Pages: 605-612, ISSN: 0140-6736

BackgroundAzithromycin has been proposed as a treatment for COVID-19 on the basis of its immunomodulatory actions. We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of azithromycin in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19.MethodsIn this randomised, controlled, open-label, adaptive platform trial (Randomised Evaluation of COVID-19 Therapy [RECOVERY]), several possible treatments were compared with usual care in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 in the UK. The trial is underway at 176 hospitals in the UK. Eligible and consenting patients were randomly allocated to either usual standard of care alone or usual standard of care plus azithromycin 500 mg once per day by mouth or intravenously for 10 days or until discharge (or allocation to one of the other RECOVERY treatment groups). Patients were assigned via web-based simple (unstratified) randomisation with allocation concealment and were twice as likely to be randomly assigned to usual care than to any of the active treatment groups. Participants and local study staff were not masked to the allocated treatment, but all others involved in the trial were masked to the outcome data during the trial. The primary outcome was 28-day all-cause mortality, assessed in the intention-to-treat population. The trial is registered with ISRCTN, 50189673, and ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04381936.FindingsBetween April 7 and Nov 27, 2020, of 16 442 patients enrolled in the RECOVERY trial, 9433 (57%) were eligible and 7763 were included in the assessment of azithromycin. The mean age of these study participants was 65·3 years (SD 15·7) and approximately a third were women (2944 [38%] of 7763). 2582 patients were randomly allocated to receive azithromycin and 5181 patients were randomly allocated to usual care alone. Overall, 561 (22%) patients allocated to azithromycin and 1162 (22%) patients allocated to usual care died within 28 days (rate ratio 0·97, 95% CI 0·87–1·07; p=0·50). No

Journal article

Turner SEG, Loosemore M, Shah A, Kelleher P, Hull JHet al., 2021, Salivary IgA as a potential biomarker in the evaluation of respiratory tract infection risk in athletes, Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice, Vol: 9, Pages: 151-159, ISSN: 2213-2198

In recent years, there has been attention focused on the value of salivary IgA (sIgA) as a potential biomarker for the identification of athletes who may be at increased risk of developing respiratory tract infection (RTI). The utility of sIgA, in this context, is based on biological plausibility and several observational studies revealing an apparent association between sIgA and RTI susceptibility. The overall published evidence evaluating the value of sIgA in this context is however conflicting, and there is currently a lack of clear guidance as to whether this marker has a place in the health surveillance and care of athletes. In this review, we critically appraise the literature assessing the potential for sIgA to be used in this context, evaluating it against 4 key biomarker characteristics, including its (1) practicality, (2) reproducibility, (3) specificity/sensitivity, and (4) potential clinical impact and relevance. This process reveals that although there is an apparent association between respiratory illness and sIgA in many studies, with some promising results, overall there remains a paucity of evidence supporting its overall value in this context. Key deficiencies in the metrics employed to endorse a valid biomarker are apparent, including a lack of reproducibility and low specificity and sensitivity in the detection of RTI susceptibility. The review outlines these issues and makes future recommendations.

Journal article

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