Imperial College London

Professor Sir Steve Bloom FMedSci, FRS

Faculty of MedicineDepartment of Metabolism, Digestion and Reproduction

Departmental Academic REF2014 Lead
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 7594 9048s.bloom Website

 
 
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Assistant

 

Ms Keda Price-Cousins +44 (0)20 7594 9048

 
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Location

 

6N3Commonwealth BuildingHammersmith Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

2538 results found

Kowalka AM, Alexiadou K, Cuenco J, Clarke RE, Minnion J, Williams EL, Bech P, Purkayastha S, Ahmed AR, Takats Z, Whitwell HJ, Romero MG, Bloom SR, Camuzeaux S, Lewis MR, Khoo B, Tan TM-Met al., 2022, The post-prandial secretion of Peptide YY<sub>1-36</sub> and <sub>3-36</sub> in obesity is differentially increased after gastric bypass versus sleeve gastrectomy., Clin Endocrinol (Oxf)

OBJECTIVES: Peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY) exists as two species, PYY<sub>1-36</sub> and PYY<sub>3-36</sub> <sup>,</sup> with distinct effects on insulin secretion and appetite regulation. The detailed effects of bariatric surgery on PYY<sub>1-36</sub> and PYY<sub>3-36</sub> secretion are not known as previous studies have used non-specific immunoassays to measure total PYY. Our objective was to characterise the effect of sleeve gastrectomy (SG) and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) on fasting and post-prandial PYY<sub>1-36</sub> and PYY<sub>3-36</sub> secretion using a newly developed liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay. DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: Observational study in 10 healthy non-obese volunteers and 30 participants with obesity who underwent RYGB (n=24) or SG (n=6) at the Imperial Weight Centre [NCT01945840]. Participants were studied using a standardised mixed meal test (MMT) before and 1 year after surgery. The outcome measure was PYY<sub>1-36</sub> and PYY<sub>3-36</sub> concentration. RESULTS: Pre-surgery, the fasting and post-prandial levels of PYY<sub>1-36</sub> and PYY<sub>3-36</sub> were low, with minimal responses to the MMT, and these did not differ from healthy non-obese volunteers. The postprandial secretion of both PYY<sub>1-36</sub> and PYY<sub>3-36</sub> at 1 year was amplified after RYGB, but not SG, with the response being significantly higher in RYGB compared to SG. CONCLUSIONS: There appears to be no difference in PYY secretion between non-obese and obese volunteers at baseline. At 1 year after surgery, RYGB, but not SG, is associated with increased post-prandial secretion of PYY<sub>1-36</sub> and PYY<sub>3-36</sub> , which may account for long-term differences in efficacy and adverse effects between the two types of surgery. This article is

Journal article

Hope D, Hinds C, Lopes T, Vincent M, Shrewsbury J, Yu A, Davies I, Scott R, Jones B, Murphy K, Minnion J, Sardini A, Carling D, Lutz T, Bloom S, Tan T, Owen Bet al., 2022, Hypoaminoacidemia Underpins Glucagon-mediated Energy Expenditure and Weight Loss, Cell Reports Medicine, ISSN: 2666-3791

Glucagon analogues show promise as components of next-generation, multi-target, anti-obesity therapeutics. The biology of chronic glucagon treatment, in particular its ability to induce energy expenditure and weight loss, remains poorly understood. Using a long-acting glucagon analogue, G108, we demonstrate that glucagon-mediated body weight loss is intrinsically linked to the hypoaminoacidemia associated with its known amino acid catabolic action. Mechanistic studies reveal an energy-consuming response to low plasma amino acids in G108-treated mice, prevented by dietary amino acid supplementation and mimicked by a rationally designed low amino acid diet. Therefore, low plasma amino acids are a prerequisite for G108-mediated energy expenditure and weight loss. However, preventing hypoaminoacidemia with additional dietary protein does not affect the ability of G108 to improve glycemia or hepatic steatosis in obese mice. These studies provide a mechanism for glucagon-mediated weight loss and confirm the hepatic glucagon receptor as an attractive molecular target for metabolic disease therapeutics.

Journal article

McGlone ER, Dunsterville C, Carling D, tomas A, Bloom S, Tan T, Jones Bet al., 2022, Hepatocyte cholesterol content modulates glucagon receptor signalling, Molecular Metabolism, Vol: 63, ISSN: 2212-8778

ObjectiveTo determine whether glucagon receptor (GCGR) actions are modulated by cellular cholesterol levels.MethodsWe determined the effects of experimental cholesterol depletion and loading on glucagon-mediated cAMP production, ligand internalisation and glucose production in human hepatoma cells, mouse and human hepatocytes. GCGR interactions with lipid bilayers were explored using coarse-grained molecular dynamic simulations. Glucagon responsiveness was measured in mice fed a high cholesterol diet with or without simvastatin to modulate hepatocyte cholesterol content.ResultsGCGR cAMP signalling was reduced by higher cholesterol levels across different cellular models. Ex vivo glucagon-induced glucose output from mouse hepatocytes was enhanced by simvastatin treatment. Mice fed a high cholesterol diet had increased hepatic cholesterol and a blunted hyperglycaemic response to glucagon, both of which were partially reversed by simvastatin. Simulations identified likely membrane-exposed cholesterol binding sites on the GCGR, including a site where cholesterol is a putative negative allosteric modulator.ConclusionsOur results indicate that cellular cholesterol content influences glucagon sensitivity and indicate a potential molecular basis for this phenomenon. This could be relevant to the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which is associated with both hepatic cholesterol accumulation and glucagon resistance.

Journal article

Patel P, Thomas R, Hamady M, Hague J, Raja J, Tan T, Bloom S, Richards T, Weiss C, Prechtl C, Smith C, Thiagarajah S, Fiorentino F, Markakis H, Ahmed ARet al., 2022, O102 We know about left gastric artery embolisation and will embio provide the next solution to treat obesity?, Publisher: OXFORD UNIV PRESS, ISSN: 0007-1323

Conference paper

Patel P, Thomas R, Hamady M, Hague J, Raja J, Tan T, Bloom S, Richards T, Weiss C, Prechtl C, Smith C, Thiagarajah S, Fiorentino F, Markakis H, Ahmed Aet al., 2022, What we know about left gastric artery embolisation and will EMBIO provide the next solution to treat obesity?, Publisher: SPRINGER, Pages: 26-27, ISSN: 0960-8923

Conference paper

Patel P, Thomas R, Hamady M, Hague J, Raja J, Tan T, Bloom S, Richards T, Weiss C, Prechtl C, Smith C, Thiagarajah S, Fiorentino F, Markakis H, Hesketh R, Foley M, Rajkumar C, Al-Lamee R, Syed S, Nimer A, Walkden M, Viloria E, Garrick F, Guerrero M, Ahmed Aet al., 2022, Simulation training to create the gold standard framework to run the EMBIO trial (left gastric artery embolisation vs placebo), a double blinded, multi-centre, randomised controlled trial., Publisher: SPRINGER, Pages: 27-27, ISSN: 0960-8923

Conference paper

Suba K, Patel YS, Roberts A, Shrewsbury JV, Chen S, Kwok R, Kalogianni V, Liu X, Rutter GA, Jones B, Tan TM, Owen B, Drucker DJ, Bloom S, Murphy K, Salem Vet al., 2022, The Role of Intraislet Glucagon in Pulsatile Insulin Secretion, Publisher: AMER DIABETES ASSOC, ISSN: 0012-1797

Conference paper

Davies I, Dong J, Hope D, Hinds C, Peace E, Owen B, Minnion J, Bloom S, Tan Tet al., 2022, Chronic glucagon administration does not induce inguinal white adipose tissue browning in rats, Publisher: WILEY, ISSN: 0742-3071

Conference paper

Jones B, Sands C, Alexiadou K, Minnion J, Tharakan G, Behary P, Ahmed A, Purkayastha S, Lewis M, Bloom S, Li J, Tan Tet al., 2022, The metabolomic effects of tripeptide gut hormone infusion compared to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and caloric restriction, Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol: 107, Pages: e767-e782, ISSN: 0021-972X

Context: The gut-derived peptide hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin (OXM), and peptide YY (PYY) are regulators of energy intake and glucose homeostasis, and are thought to contribute to the glucose-lowering effects of bariatric surgery. Objective: To establish the metabolomic effects of a combined infusion of GLP-1, OXM and PYY (tripeptide “GOP”) in comparison to a placebo infusion, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery, and a very low-calorie diet (VLCD). Design and setting: Sub-analysis of a single-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study of GOP infusion (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01945840), including VLCD and RYGB comparator groups. Patients and interventions: 25 obese patients with type 2 diabetes or prediabetes were randomly allocated to receive a 4-week subcutaneous infusion of GOP (n=14) or 0.9% saline control (SAL; n=11). An additional 22 patients followed a VLCD, and 21 underwent RYGB surgery. Main outcome measures: Plasma and urine samples collected at baseline and 4 weeks into each intervention were subjected to cross-platform metabolomic analysis, followed by unsupervised and supervised modelling approaches to identify similarities and differences between the effects of each intervention. Results: Aside from glucose, very few metabolites were affected by GOP, contrasting with major metabolomic changes seen with VLCD and RYGB. Conclusions: Treatment with GOP provides a powerful glucose-lowering effect but does not replicate the broader metabolomic changes seen with VLCD and RYGB. The contribution of these metabolomic changes to the clinical benefits of RYGB remains to be elucidated.

Journal article

Hinds CE, Owen BM, Hope DCD, Pickford P, Jones B, Tan TM, Minnion JS, Bloom SRet al., 2021, A glucagon analogue decreases body weight in mice via signalling in the liver., Scientific Reports, Vol: 11, Pages: 1-17, ISSN: 2045-2322

Glucagon receptor agonists show promise as components of next generation metabolic syndrome pharmacotherapies. However, the biology of glucagon action is complex, controversial, and likely context dependent. As such, a better understanding of chronic glucagon receptor (GCGR) agonism is essential to identify and mitigate potential clinical side-effects. Herein we present a novel, long-acting glucagon analogue (GCG104) with high receptor-specificity and potent in vivo action. It has allowed us to make two important observations about the biology of sustained GCGR agonism. First, it causes weight loss in mice by direct receptor signalling at the level of the liver. Second, subtle changes in GCG104-sensitivity, possibly due to interindividual variation, may be sufficient to alter its effects on metabolic parameters. Together, these findings confirm the liver as a principal target for glucagon-mediated weight loss and provide new insights into the biology of glucagon analogues.

Journal article

McGlone ER, Manchanda Y, Jones B, Pickford P, Inoue A, Carling D, Bloom S, Tan T, Tomas Aet al., 2021, Receptor Activity-Modifying Protein 2 (RAMP2) alters glucagon receptor trafficking in hepatocytes with functional effects on receptor signalling, Molecular Metabolism, Vol: 53, Pages: 1-11, ISSN: 2212-8778

ObjectivesReceptor Activity-Modifying Protein 2 (RAMP2) is a chaperone protein which allosterically binds to and interacts with the glucagon receptor (GCGR). The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of RAMP2 on GCGR trafficking and signalling in the liver, where glucagon (GCG) is important for carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.MethodsSubcellular localisation of GCGR in the presence and absence of RAMP2 was investigated using confocal microscopy, trafficking and radioligand binding assays in human embryonic kidney (HEK293T) and human hepatoma (Huh7) cells. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) lacking Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome protein and scar homologue (WASH) complex and the trafficking inhibitor monensin were used to investigate the effect of a halt in recycling of internalised proteins on GCGR subcellular localisation and signalling in the absence of RAMP2. NanoBiT complementation and cyclic AMP assays were used to study the functional effect of RAMP2 on the recruitment and activation of GCGR signalling mediators. Response to hepatic RAMP2 up-regulation in lean and obese adult mice using a bespoke adeno-associated viral vector was also studied.ResultsGCGR is predominantly localised at the plasma membrane in the absence of RAMP2 and exhibits remarkably slow internalisation in response to agonist stimulation. Rapid intracellular accumulation of GCG-stimulated GCGR in cells lacking WASH complex or in the presence of monensin indicates that activated GCGRs undergo continuous cycles of internalisation and recycling despite apparent GCGR plasma membrane localisation up to 40 minutes post-stimulation. Co-expression of RAMP2 induces GCGR internalisation both basally and in response to agonist stimulation. The intracellular retention of GCGR in the presence of RAMP2 confers a bias away from β-arrestin-2 recruitment coupled to increased activation of Gαs proteins at endosomes. This is associated with increased short-term efficacy for glucagon-stimulated

Journal article

Lucey M, Ashik T, Marzook A, Wang Y, Goulding J, Oishi A, Broichhagen J, Hodson D, Minnion J, Elani Y, Jockers R, Briddon S, Bloom S, Tomas A, Jones Bet al., 2021, Acylation of the incretin peptide exendin-4 directly impacts GLP-1 receptor signalling and trafficking, Molecular Pharmacology, Vol: 100, Pages: 319-334, ISSN: 0026-895X

The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is a class B G protein-coupled receptor and mainstay therapeutic target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity. Recent reports have highlighted how biased agonism at the GLP-1R affects sustained glucose-stimulated insulin secretion through avoidance of desensitisation and downregulation. A number of GLP-1R agonists (GLP-1RAs) feature a fatty acid moiety to prolong their pharmacokinetics via increased albumin binding, but the potential for these chemical changes to influence GLP-1R function has rarely been investigated beyond potency assessments for cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Here we directly compare the prototypical GLP-1RA exendin-4 with its C-terminally acylated analogue, exendin-4-C16. We examine relative propensities of each ligand to recruit and activate G proteins and β-arrestins, endocytic and post-endocytic trafficking profiles, and interactions with model and cellular membranes in HEK293 and HEK293T cells. Both ligands had similar cAMP potency but exendin-4-C16 showed ~2.5-fold bias towards G protein recruitment and a ~60% reduction in β-arrestin-2 recruitment efficacy compared to exendin-4, as well as reduced GLP-1R endocytosis and preferential targeting towards recycling pathways. These effects were associated with reduced movement of the GLP-1R extracellular domain measured using a conformational biosensor approach, and a ~70% increase in insulin secretion in INS-1 832/3 cells. Interactions with plasma membrane lipids were enhanced by the acyl chain. Exendin-4-C16 showed extensive albumin binding and was highly effective for lowering of blood glucose in mice over at least 72 hours. Our study highlights the importance of a broad approach to the evaluation of GLP-1RA pharmacology.

Journal article

Pickford P, Lucey M, Rujan R-M, McGlone ER, Bitsi S, Ashford FB, Corrêa IR, Hodson DJ, Tomas A, Deganutti G, Reynolds CA, Owen BM, Tan TM, Minnion J, Jones B, Bloom SRet al., 2021, Partial agonism improves the anti-hyperglycaemic efficacy of an oxyntomodulin-derived GLP-1R/GCGR co-agonist, Molecular Metabolism, Vol: 51, ISSN: 2212-8778

OBJECTIVE: Glucagon-like peptide-1 and glucagon receptor (GLP-1R/GCGR) co-agonism can maximise weight loss and improve glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes and obesity. In this study we investigated the cellular and metabolic effects of modulating the balance between G protein and β-arrestin-2 recruitment at GLP-1R and GCGR using oxyntomodulin (OXM)-derived co-agonists. This strategy has been previously shown to improve the duration of action of GLP-1R mono-agonists by reducing target desensitisation and downregulation. METHODS: Dipeptidyl dipeptidase-4 (DPP-4)-resistant OXM analogues were generated and assessed for a variety of cellular readouts. Molecular dynamic simulations were used to gain insights into the molecular interactions involved. In vivo studies were performed in mice to identify effects on glucose homeostasis and weight loss. RESULTS: Ligand-specific reductions in β-arrestin-2 recruitment were associated with slower GLP-1R internalisation and prolonged glucose-lowering action in vivo. The putative benefits of GCGR agonism were retained, with equivalent weight loss compared to the GLP-1R mono-agonist liraglutide in spite of a lesser degree of food intake suppression. The compounds tested showed only a minor degree of biased agonism between G protein and β-arrestin-2 recruitment at both receptors and were best classified as partial agonists for the two pathways measured. CONCLUSIONS: Diminishing β-arrestin-2 recruitment may be an effective way to increase the therapeutic efficacy of GLP-1R/GCGR co-agonists. These benefits can be achieved by partial rather than biased agonism.

Journal article

Marzook A, Chen S, Pickford P, Lucey M, Wang Y, Corrêa Jr IR, Broichhagen J, Hodson DJ, Salem V, Rutter GA, Tan TM, Bloom SR, Tomas A, Jones Bet al., 2021, Evaluation of efficacy- versus affinity-driven agonism with biased GLP-1R ligands P5 and exendin-F1, Biochemical Pharmacology, Vol: 190, Pages: 1-12, ISSN: 0006-2952

The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is an important regulator of glucose homeostasis and has been successfully targeted for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Recently described biased GLP-1R agonists with selective reductions in β-arrestin versus G protein coupling show improved metabolic actions in vivo. However, two prototypical G protein-favouring GLP-1R agonists, P5 and exendin-F1, are reported to show divergent effects on insulin secretion. In this study we aimed to resolve this discrepancy by performing a side-by-side characterisation of these two ligands across a variety of in vitro and in vivo assays. Exendin-F1 showed reduced acute efficacy versus P5 for several readouts, including recruitment of mini-G proteins, G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) and β-arrestin-2. Maximal responses were also lower for both GLP-1R internalisation and the presence of active GLP-1R-mini-Gs complexes in early endosomes with exendin-F1 treatment. In contrast, prolonged insulin secretion in vitro and sustained anti-hyperglycaemic efficacy in mice were both greater with exendin-F1 than with P5. We conclude that the particularly low acute efficacy of exendin-F1 and associated reductions in GLP-1R downregulation appear to be more important than preservation of endosomal signalling to allow sustained insulin secretion responses. This has implications for the ongoing development of affinity- versus efficacy-driven biased GLP-1R agonists as treatments for metabolic disease.

Journal article

Salem V, Demetriou L, Behary P, Alexiadou K, Scholtz S, Tharakan G, Miras A, Purkayastha S, Ahmed A, Bloom S, Wall M, Dhillo W, Tan Tet al., 2021, Weight loss by low calorie diet versus gastric bypass surgery in people with diabetes results in divergent brain activation patterns: an functional MRI study, Diabetes Care, Vol: 44, Pages: 1842-1851, ISSN: 0149-5992

OBJECTIVE: Weight loss achieved with very-low-calorie diets (VLCDs) can produce remission of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but weight regain very often occurs with reintroduction of higher calorie intakes. In contrast, bariatric surgery produces clinically significant and durable weight loss, with diabetes remission that translates into reductions in mortality. We hypothesized that in patients living with obesity and prediabetes/T2D, longitudinal changes in brain activity in response to food cues as measured using functional MRI would explain this difference.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Sixteen participants underwent gastric bypass surgery, and 19 matched participants undertook a VLCD (meal replacement) for 4 weeks. Brain responses to food cues and resting-state functional connectivity were assessed with functional MRI pre- and postintervention and compared across groups.RESULTS: We show that Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) results in three divergent brain responses compared with VLCD-induced weight loss: 1) VLCD resulted in increased brain reward center food cue responsiveness, whereas in RYGB, this was reduced; 2) VLCD resulted in higher neural activation of cognitive control regions in response to food cues associated with exercising increased cognitive restraint over eating, whereas RYGB did not; and 3) a homeostatic appetitive system (centered on the hypothalamus) is better engaged following RYGB-induced weight loss than VLCD.CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these findings point to divergent brain responses to different methods of weight loss in patients with diabetes, which may explain weight regain after a short-term VLCD in contrast to enduring weight loss after RYGB.

Journal article

McGlone ER, Manchanda Y, Jones B, Pickford P, Inoue A, Carling D, Bloom SR, Tan T, Tomas Aet al., 2021, Receptor Activity-Modifying Protein 2 (RAMP2) alters glucagon receptor trafficking in hepatocytes with functional effects on receptor signalling, Publisher: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory

<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title><jats:sec><jats:title>Objectives</jats:title><jats:p>Receptor Activity-Modifying Protein 2 (RAMP2) is a chaperone protein which allosterically binds to and interacts with the glucagon receptor (GCGR). The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of RAMP2 on GCGR trafficking and signalling in the liver, where glucagon is important for carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Methods</jats:title><jats:p>Subcellular localisation of GCGR in the presence and absence of RAMP2 was investigated using confocal microscopy, trafficking assays and radioligand binding assays in human embryonic kidney (HEK293T) and human hepatoma (Huh7) cells. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) lacking Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome protein and scar homologue (WASH) complex were used to investigate the effect of a halt in recycling of internalised proteins on GCGR signalling in the absence of RAMP2. NanoBiT complementation and cyclic AMP assays were used to study the functional effect of RAMP2 on recruitment and activation of GCGR signalling mediators. Response to hepatic RAMP2 up-regulation in lean and obese adult mice using a bespoke adeno-associated viral vector was also studied.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Results</jats:title><jats:p>GCGR is predominantly localised at the plasma membrane in the absence of RAMP2 and exhibits remarkably slow internalisation in response to agonist stimulation. Rapid intracellular retention of glucagon-stimulated GCGR in cells lacking WASH complex indicates that activated GCGRs undergo continuous cycles of internalisation and recycling despite apparent GCGR plasma membrane localisation up to 40 minutes post-stimulation. Co-expression of RAMP2 induces GCGR internalisation both basally and in response to agonist-stimulation. The intracellular retention of GCGR in the presence

Working paper

Tan TM-M, Minnion J, Khoo B, Ball L-J, Malviya R, Day E, Fiorentino F, Brindley C, Bush J, Bloom SRet al., 2021, Safety and efficacy of an extended-release peptide YY analogue for obesity: A randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 1 trial, Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism: a journal of pharmacology and therapeutics, Vol: 23, Pages: 1471-1483, ISSN: 1462-8902

AimTo report the results from a Phase 1 trial of an extended-release peptide YY analogue, Y14, developed for the treatment of obesity.MethodsY14 was evaluated in overweight/obese volunteers in a Phase 1 randomized placebo-controlled trial, conducted in a clinical trial unit in the United Kingdom. Part A was a blinded single-ascending-dose study evaluating doses up to 36 mg. Part B was double-blinded and tested multiple ascending doses between 9 and 36 mg, given at 7- to 14-day intervals, over the course of 28 days, with up to five doses given per participant. The primary outcome was safety and tolerability; the secondary outcome was assessment of pharmacokinetic (PK) characteristics. Exploratory outcomes included food intake, body weight change and glucose tolerance after multiple doses.ResultsBetween April 11, 2017 and December 24, 2018, 53 participants were enrolled into Part A and 24 into Part B of the trial. The PK characteristics were compatible with administration every 7 to 14 days. The most common adverse events (AEs) were nausea, vomiting or administration site reactions, which were mild in most cases and settled with time. No serious AE occurred. Participants given multiple doses of Y14 lost between −2.87 and −3.58 kg body weight compared with placebo (P <0.0001) at 31 days from the first dose, with profound reductions in food intake of 38% to 55% (P <0.0001, compared to placebo) and there was no evidence of tachyphylaxis.ConclusionsOur results support the continued development of Y14 as a novel treatment for obesity.

Journal article

Miras AD, Kamocka A, Tan T, Pérez-Pevida B, Chahal H, Moorthy K, Purkayastha S, Patel A, Umpleby AM, Frost G, Bloom SR, Ahmed AR, Rubino Fet al., 2021, Long limb compared with standard limb Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for type 2 diabetes and obesity: the LONG LIMB RCT, Efficacy and Mechanism Evaluation, Vol: 8, ISSN: 2050-4365

BackgroundRoux-en-Y gastric bypass is recognised as a standard of care in the treatment of diabetes mellitus and obesity. However, the optimal length of the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass limbs remains controversial, with substantial variation in practice. Specifically, a longer biliopancreatic limb length of 150 cm (‘long limb’) has been hypothesised to be better for the treatment of diabetes mellitus because it increases the postprandial secretion of gut hormones, such as glucagon-like peptide 1, and increases insulin sensitivity, compared with the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass utilising a standard biliopancreatic limb length of 50 cm (‘standard limb’).ObjectiveTo evaluate the mechanisms, clinical efficacy and safety of long limb versus the standard limb Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in patients undergoing metabolic surgery for obesity and diabetes mellitus.DesignA double-blind, mechanistic randomised controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the mechanisms, clinical efficacy and safety of the two interventions.SettingImperial College London, King’s College London and their associated NHS trusts.ParticipantsPatients with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus who were eligible for metabolic surgery.InterventionsParticipants were randomly assigned (1 : 1) to 150-cm (long limb) or 50-cm (standard limb) biliopancreatic limb Roux-en-Y gastric bypass with a fixed alimentary limb of 100 cm. The participants underwent meal tolerance tests to measure glucose excursions, glucagon-like peptide 1 and insulin secretion, and hyperinsulinaemic–euglycaemic clamps with stable isotopes to measure insulin sensitivity preoperatively, at 2 weeks after the surgery and at matched 20% total body weight loss. Clinical follow-up continued up to 1 year.Main outcome measuresPrimary – postprandial peak of active glucagon-like peptide 1 concentration at 2 weeks after intervention. Secondary – fasting and postprandial glucose an

Journal article

Kenkre J, Ahmed A, Purkayastha S, Mallalah K, Bloom S, Blakemore A, Prevost A, Tan Tet al., 2021, Who will benefit from bariatric surgery for diabetes? A protocol for an observational cohort study, BMJ Open, Vol: 11, ISSN: 2044-6055

Introduction Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity are pandemic diseases that lead to a great deal of morbidity and mortality. The most effective treatment for obesity and T2DM is bariatric or metabolic surgery; it can lead to long-term diabetes remission with 4 in 10 of those undergoing surgery having normal blood glucose on no medication 1 year postoperatively. However, surgery carries risks and, additionally, due to resource limitations, there is a restricted number of patients who can access this treatment. Moreover, not all those who undertake surgery respond equally well metabolically. The objective of the current research is to prospectively investigate predictors of T2DM response following metabolic surgery, including those directly involved in its aetiopathogenesis such as fat distribution and genetic variants. This will inform development of a clinically applicable model to help prioritise this therapy to those predicted to have remission.Methods and analysis A prospective multicentre observational cohort study of adult patients with T2DM and obesity undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Patients will be comprehensively assessed before surgery to determine their clinical, metabolic, psychological, genetic and fat distribution profiles. A multivariate logistic regression model will be used to assess the value of the factors derived from the preoperative assessment in terms of prediction of diabetes remission.Ethics and dissemination Formal ethics review was undertaken with a favourable opinion (UK HRA RES reference number 18/LO/0931). The dissemination plan is to present the results at conferences, in peer-reviewed journals as well as to lay media and to patient organisations.Trial registration details ClinicalTrials.gov, Identifier: NCT03842475.

Journal article

Ilesanmi I, Tharakan G, Alexiadou K, Behary P, Alessimii H, Bovill-Taylor C, Kenkre J, Choudhury S, Doyle C, Purkayastha S, Miras A, Tsironis C, Chahal H, Bloom SR, Oliver NS, Ahmed AR, Khoo B, Tan TM-Met al., 2021, Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Increases Glycemic Variability and Time in Hypoglycemia in Patients With Obesity and Prediabetes or Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Cohort Study, DIABETES CARE, Vol: 44, Pages: 614-617, ISSN: 0149-5992

Journal article

Miras A, Kamocka A, Pérez-Pevida B, Purkayastha S, Moorthy K, Patel A, Chahal H, Frost G, Bassett P, Castagnetto-Gissey L, Coppin L, Jackson N, Umpleby M, Bloom S, Tan T, Ahmed A, Rubino Fet al., 2021, The effect of standard versus longer intestinal bypass on GLP-1 regulation and glucose metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing roux-en-Y gastric bypass. The long-limb study, Diabetes Care, Vol: 44, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 0149-5992

ObjectiveRoux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) characteristically enhances post-prandial levels of Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), a mechanism that contributes to its profound glucose-lowering effects. This enhancement is thought to be triggered by bypass of food to the distal small intestine with higher densities of neuroendocrine L-cells. We hypothesised that if this is the predominant mechanism behind the enhanced secretion of GLP-1, a longer intestinal bypass would potentiate the post-prandial peak in GLP-1, translating into higher insulin secretion and thus additional improvements in glucose tolerance. To investigate this, we conducted a mechanistic study comparing two variants of RYGB that differ in the length of intestinal bypass.Research Design and MethodsFifty-three patients with type 2 diabetes and obesity were randomised to either ‘standard limb’ RYGB (50cm biliopancreatic limb) or ‘long limb’ RYGB (150cm biliopancreatic limb). They underwent measurements of GLP-1 and insulin secretion following a mixed meal and insulin sensitivity using euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamps at baseline, 2 weeks and at 20% weight loss after surgery.ResultsBoth groups exhibited enhancement in post-prandial GLP-1 secretion and improvements in glycaemia compared to baseline. There were no significant differences in post-prandial peak concentrations of GLP-1, time to peak, insulin secretion, and insulin sensitivity. ConclusionThe findings of this study demonstrate that lengthening of the intestinal bypass in RYGB does not affect GLP-1 secretion. Thus, the characteristic enhancement of GLP-1 response after RYGB might not depend on delivery of nutrients to more distal intestinal segments.

Journal article

McGlone ER, Malallah K, Cuenco J, Wewer Albrechtsen NJ, Holst JJ, Vincent RP, Ling C, Khan OA, Verma S, Ahmed AR, Walters JR, Khoo B, Bloom SR, Tan TM-Met al., 2021, DIFFERENTIAL EFFECTS OF BILE ACIDS ON THE POST-PRANDIAL SECRETION OF GUT HORMONES: a randomised crossover study., Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab

AIMS Bile acids (BA) regulate post-prandial metabolism directly and indirectly by affecting the secretion of gut hormones like glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). The post-prandial effects of BA on the secretion of other metabolically active hormones are not well understood. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of oral ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) on post-prandial secretion of GLP-1, oxyntomodulin (OXM), peptide YY (PYY), glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), glucagon and ghrelin. METHODS Twelve healthy volunteers underwent a mixed meal test 60 minutes after ingestion of UDCA (12-16 mg/kg), CDCA (13-16 mg/kg) or no BA in a randomised cross-over study. Glucose, insulin, GLP-1, OXM, PYY, GIP, glucagon, ghrelin and fibroblast growth factor 19 were measured prior to BA administration at -60, 0 (just prior to mixed meal) and 15, 30, 60, 120, 180 and 240 minutes after the meal. RESULTS UDCA and CDCA provoked differential gut hormone responses: UDCA did not have any significant effects, but CDCA provoked significant increases in GLP-1 and OXM and a profound reduction in GIP. CDCA increased fasting GLP-1 and OXM secretion in parallel with an increase in insulin. On the other hand, CDCA reduced post-prandial secretion of GIP, with an associated reduction in post-prandial insulin secretion. CONCLUSIONS Exogenous CDCA can exert multiple salutary effects on the secretion of gut hormones; if these effects are confirmedin obesity and type 2 diabetes, CDCA may be a potential therapy for these conditions.

Journal article

Jones B, McGlone ER, Fang Z, Pickford P, Corrêa IR, Oishi A, Jockers R, Inoue A, Kumar S, Görlitz F, Dunsby C, French PMW, Rutter GA, Tan TM, Tomas A, Bloom SRet al., 2021, Genetic and biased agonist-mediated reductions in β-arrestin recruitment prolong cAMP signalling at glucagon family receptors, Journal of Biological Chemistry, Vol: 296, Pages: 1-15, ISSN: 0021-9258

Receptors for the peptide hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1R), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIPR) and glucagon (GCGR) are important regulators of insulin secretion and energy metabolism. GLP-1R agonists have been successfully deployed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, but it has been suggested that their efficacy is limited by target receptor desensitisation and downregulation due to recruitment of β-arrestins. Indeed, recently described GLP-1R agonists with reduced β-arrestin-2 recruitment have delivered promising results in preclinical and clinical studies. We therefore aimed to determine if the same phenomenon could apply to the closely related GIPR and GCGR. In HEK293 cells depleted of both β-arrestin isoforms the duration of G protein-dependent cAMP/PKA signalling was increased in response to the endogenous ligand for each receptor. Moreover, in wild-type cells, “biased” GLP-1, GCG and GIP analogues with selective reductions in β-arrestin-2 recruitment led to reduced receptor endocytosis and increased insulin secretion over a prolonged stimulation period, although the latter effect was only seen at high agonist concentrations. Biased GCG analogues increased the duration of cAMP signalling, but this did not lead to increased glucose output from hepatocytes. Our study provides a rationale for development of GLP-1R, GIPR and GCGR agonists with reduced β-arrestin recruitment, but further work is needed to maximally exploit this strategy for therapeutic purposes.

Journal article

Jones B, Fang Z, Chen S, Manchanda Y, Bitsi S, Pickford P, David A, Shchepinova MM, Corrêa Jr IR, Hodson DJ, Broichhagen J, Tate EW, Reimann F, Salem V, Rutter GA, Tan T, Bloom SR, Tomas Aet al., 2020, Ligand-specific factors influencing GLP-1 receptor post-endocytic trafficking and degradation in pancreatic beta cells, International Journal of Molecular Sciences, Vol: 212, Pages: 1-24, ISSN: 1422-0067

The glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) is an important regulator of blood glucose homeostasis. Ligand-specific differences in membrane trafficking of the GLP-1R influence its signalling properties and therapeutic potential in type 2 diabetes. Here, we have evaluated how different factors combine to control the post-endocytic trafficking of GLP-1R to recycling versus degradative pathways. Experiments were performed in primary islet cells, INS-1 832/3 clonal beta cells and HEK293 cells, using biorthogonal labelling of GLP-1R to determine its localisation and degradation after treatment with GLP-1, exendin-4 and several further GLP-1R agonist peptides. We also characterised the effect of a rare GLP1R coding variant, T149M, and the role of endosomal peptidase endothelin-converting enzyme-1 (ECE-1), in GLP1R trafficking. Our data reveal how treatment with GLP-1 versus exendin-4 is associated with preferential GLP-1R targeting towards a recycling pathway. GLP-1, but not exendin-4, is a substrate for ECE-1, and the resultant propensity to intra-endosomal degradation, in conjunction with differences in binding affinity, contributes to alterations in GLP-1R trafficking behaviours and degradation. The T149M GLP-1R variant shows reduced signalling and internalisation responses, which is likely to be due to disruption of the cytoplasmic region that couples to intracellular effectors. These observations provide insights into how ligand- and genotype-specific factors can influence GLP-1R trafficking.

Journal article

Hameed S, Salem V, Alessimii H, Scholtz S, Dar O, Miras AD, Meeran K, Bloom SR, Ahmed AR, Purkayastha S, Chahal H, Tan Tet al., 2020, Imperial Satiety Protocol: A new non-surgical weight-loss programme, delivered in a health care setting, produces improved clinical outcomes for people with obesity, Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism: a journal of pharmacology and therapeutics, Vol: 23, Pages: 270-275, ISSN: 1462-8902

‘Imperial Satiety Protocol’ (I-SatPro) is a new multifaceted approach to weight loss for people with obesity (PwO), encompassing dietary advice, time-restricted eating, physical activity and coaching to support behaviour change. Participants (n = 84) attended fortnightly I-SatPro group sessions for 30 weeks, with 70% of participants completing. On completion at 30 weeks, the mean weight loss was 15.2 ± 1.1 kg (13.2 ± 0.8% from baseline, P < .0001), which was maintained to 52 weeks (16.6 ± 1.5 kg, 14.1 ± 1.2%, P < .0001). Weight loss was not associated with reduced energy expenditure. In participants with type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes (n = 16), glycated haemoglobin fell from 50 to 43 mmol/mol (P < .01). Systolic blood pressure fell by 12 mmHg (P < .0001). Triglycerides fell by 0.37 mmol/L (P < .01) and high-density lipoprotein rose by 0.08 mmol/L (P < .01). Short Form-36 (SF-36) functioning and wellbeing scores increased in all domains post I-SatPro intervention. For selected PwO, I-SatPro delivers clinically meaningful weight loss, and the potential for long-term health and wellbeing improvements.

Journal article

Anand U, Jones B, Korchev Y, Bloom S, Pacchetti B, Anand P, Sodergren Met al., 2020, CBD effects on TRPV1 signaling pathways in cultured DRG neurons, Journal of Pain Research, Vol: 2020, Pages: 2269-2278, ISSN: 1178-7090

Introduction: Cannabidiol (CBD) is reported to produce pain relief, but the clinically relevant cellular and molecular mechanisms remain uncertain. The TRPV1 receptor integrates noxious stimuli and plays a key role in pain signaling. Hence, we conducted in vitro studies, to elucidate the efficacy and mechanisms of CBD for inhibiting neuronal hypersensitivity in cultured rat sensory neurons, following activation of TRPV1. Methods: Adult rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons were cultured, and supplemented with the neurotrophic factors NGF and GDNF, in an established model of neuronal hypersensitivity. 48 h after plating, neurons were stimulated with CBD (Adven 150, EMMAC Life Sciences) at 1, 10, 100 nMol/L and 1, 10 and 50 µMol/L. In separate experiments, DRG neurons were also stimulated with capsaicin with or without CBD (1 nMol/L to10 µMol/L), in a functional calcium imaging assay. The effects of the adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin and the calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporin were determined. We also measured forskolin-stimulated cAMP levels, without and after treatment with CBD, using a homogenous time resolved fluorescence (HTRF) assay. The results were analysed using Student’s t-test. Results: DRG neurons treated with 10 and 50 µMol/L CBD showed calcium influx, but not at lower doses. Neurons treated with capsaicin demonstrated robust calcium influx, which was dose-dependently reduced in the presence of low dose CBD (IC50 = 100 nMol/L). The inhibition or desensitization by CBD was reversed in the presence of forskolin and cyclosporin. Forskolin stimulated cAMP levels were significantly reduced in CBD treated neurons.Conclusions: CBD at low doses corresponding to plasma concentrations observed physiologically, inhibits or desensitizes neuronal TRPV1 signalling by inhibiting the adenylyl cyclase – cAMP pathway, which is essential for maintaining TRPV1 phosphorylation and sensitization. CBD also facilitated calcineurin-med

Journal article

Chen Q, Alexiadou K, Jones B, Sands C, Lewis MR, Bloom SR, Tan T, Li Jet al., 2020, Low-calorie intake: a key mechanism contributing to the metabolic impacts of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery, 56th Annual Meeting of the European-Association-for-the-Study-of-Diabetes (EASD), Publisher: SPRINGER, Pages: S263-S264, ISSN: 0012-186X

Conference paper

Suba K, Patel Y, Alonso AM, Ukwuoma M, Kalogianni V, Leclerc I, Owen B, Rutter GA, Bloom SR, Salem Vet al., 2020, Clinical care and other categories posters: Hypoglycaemia, Publisher: WILEY, Pages: 25-25, ISSN: 0742-3071

Conference paper

Afroze F, Bloom S, Bech P, Ahmed T, Sarker SA, Clemens JD, Islam F, Nalin Det al., 2020, Cholera and pancreatic cholera: Is VIP the common pathophysiologic factor?, Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease, Vol: 5

Background: Cholera remains a major global health problem, causing high output diarrhea leading to severe dehydration and shock in developing countries. We aimed to determine whether vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), the mediator of pancreatic cholera syndrome, has a role in the pathophysiology of human cholera. Methods: We conducted a prospective observational study of cholera cases hospitalized with severe dehydration. Plasma and stool water levels of VIP were measured just after admission, after complete rehydration (3-4 h), at 24 h post-rehydration and at discharge after diarrhea ceased. Results: In total, 23 cholera patients were examined between January and August 2018. The geometric mean of stool VIP (sVIP) and plasma VIP (pVIP) on admission were 207.67 and 8.34 pmol/L, respectively. pVIP values were all within the normal range (</= 30 pcmol/L); however, sVIP levels were very high at all timepoints, though less so just after rehydration. In multivariable GEE models, after adjustment for covariates, sVIP levels were significantly associated with duration of hospitalization (p = 0.026), total stool volume (p = 0.023) as well as stool output in the first 24 h (p = 0.013). Conclusions: The data suggest that VIP, which is released by intestinal nerves, may play an important role in human choleragenesis, and inhibitors of intestinal VIP merit testing for potential therapeutic benefits.

Journal article

Pickford P, Lucey M, Fang Z, Bitsi S, Bernardino de la Serna J, Broichhagen J, Hodson DJ, Minnion J, Rutter GA, Bloom SR, Tomas A, Jones Bet al., 2020, Signalling, trafficking and glucoregulatory properties of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists exendin-4 and lixisenatide., British Journal of Pharmacology, Vol: 177, Pages: 3905-3923, ISSN: 0007-1188

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Amino acid substitutions at the N-termini of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) peptides result in distinct patterns of intracellular signalling, sub-cellular trafficking and efficacy in vivo. Here we aimed to determine whether sequence differences at the ligand C-termini of clinically approved GLP-1RAs exendin-4 and lixisenatide lead to similar phenomena. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Exendin-4, lixisenatide, and N-terminally substituted analogues with biased signalling characteristics were compared across a range of in vitro trafficking and signalling assays in different cell types. Fluorescent ligands and new time-resolved FRET approaches were developed to study agonist behaviours at the cellular and sub-cellular level. Anti-hyperglycaemic and anorectic effects of each parent ligand, and their biased derivatives, were assessed in mice. KEY RESULTS: Lixisenatide and exendin-4 showed equal binding affinity, but lixisenatide was 5-fold less potent for cAMP signalling. Both peptides induced extensive GLP-1R clustering in the plasma membrane and were rapidly endocytosed, but the GLP-1R recycled more slowly to the cell surface after lixisenatide treatment. These combined deficits resulted in reduced maximal sustained insulin secretion and reduced anti-hyperglycaemic and anorectic effects in mice with lixisenatide. N-terminal substitution of His1 by Phe1 to both ligands had favourable effects on their pharmacology, resulting in improved insulin release and lowering of blood glucose. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Changes to the C-terminus of exendin-4 affect signalling potency and GLP-1R trafficking via mechanisms unrelated to GLP-1R occupancy. These differences were associated with changes in their ability to control blood glucose and therefore may be therapeutically relevant.

Journal article

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