Imperial College London

DrSimoneBorsci

Faculty of MedicineDepartment of Surgery & Cancer

Honorary Senior Research Fellow
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 3312 6532s.borsci

 
 
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Location

 

1064/5Queen Elizabeth and Queen Mary HospitalSt Mary's Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
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59 results found

Borsci S, Lehtola VV, Nex F, Yang MY, Augustijn E-W, Bagheriye L, Brune C, Kounadi O, Li J, Moreira J, Van der Nagel J, Veldkamp B, Le D, Wang M, Wijnhoven F, Wolterink JM, Zurita-Milla Ret al., 2022, Embedding artificial intelligence in society: looking beyond the EU AI master plan using the culture cycle, AI & SOCIETY, ISSN: 0951-5666

Journal article

Borsci S, Malizia A, Schmettow M, van der Velde F, Tariverdiyeva G, Balaji D, Chamberlain Aet al., 2021, The Chatbot Usability Scale: the Design and Pilot of a Usability Scale for Interaction with AI-Based Conversational Agents, PERSONAL AND UBIQUITOUS COMPUTING, Vol: 26, Pages: 95-119, ISSN: 1617-4909

Journal article

Micocci M, Borsci S, Thakerar V, Walne S, Manshadi Y, Edridge F, Mullarkey D, Buckle P, Hanna GBet al., 2021, Attitudes towards trusting artificial intelligence insights and factors to prevent the passive adherence of GPs: a pilot study, Journal of Clinical Medicine, Vol: 10, Pages: 1-11, ISSN: 2077-0383

Artificial Intelligence (AI) systems could improve system efficiency by supporting clinicians in making appropriate referrals. However, they are imperfect by nature and misdiagnoses, if not correctly identified, can have consequences for patient care. In this paper, findings from an online survey are presented to understand the aptitude of GPs (n = 50) in appropriately trusting or not trusting the output of a fictitious AI-based decision support tool when assessing skin lesions, and to identify which individual characteristics could make GPs less prone to adhere to erroneous diagnostics results. The findings suggest that, when the AI was correct, the GPs’ ability to correctly diagnose a skin lesion significantly improved after receiving correct AI information, from 73.6% to 86.8% (X2 (1, N = 50) = 21.787, p < 0.001), with significant effects for both the benign (X2 (1, N = 50) = 21, p < 0.001) and malignant cases (X2 (1, N = 50) = 4.654, p = 0.031). However, when the AI provided erroneous information, only 10% of the GPs were able to correctly disagree with the indication of the AI in terms of diagnosis (d-AIW M: 0.12, SD: 0.37), and only 14% of participants were able to correctly decide the management plan despite the AI insights (d-AIW M:0.12, SD: 0.32). The analysis of the difference between groups in terms of individual characteristics suggested that GPs with domain knowledge in dermatology were better at rejecting the wrong insights from AI. View Full-Text

Journal article

Federici S, Mele ML, Bracalenti M, De Filippis ML, Lanzilotti R, Desolda G, Borsci S, Gaudino G, Cocco A, Amendola M, Simonetti Eet al., 2021, A Chatbot Solution for eGLU-Box Pro: The Usability Evaluation Platform for Italian Public Administrations, Editors: Kurosu, Publisher: SPRINGER INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING AG, Pages: 268-279, ISBN: 978-3-030-78461-4

Book chapter

Polisena J, Andellini M, Salerno P, Borsci S, Pecchia L, Iadanza Eet al., 2021, Case Studies on the Use of Sentiment Analysis to Assess the Effectiveness and Safety of Health Technologies: A Scoping Review, IEEE ACCESS, Vol: 9, Pages: 66043-66051, ISSN: 2169-3536

Journal article

Vijayasingam A, Frost E, Wilkins J, Gillen L, Premachandra P, Mclaren K, Gilmartin D, Picinali L, Vidal-Diez A, Borsci S, Ni MZ, Tang WY, Morris-Rosendahl D, Harcourt J, Elston C, Simmonds NJ, Shah Aet al., 2020, Tablet and web-based audiometry to screen for hearing loss in adults with cystic fibrosis, Thorax, Vol: 75, Pages: 632-639, ISSN: 0040-6376

INTRODUCTION: Individuals with chronic lung disease (eg, cystic fibrosis (CF)) often receive antimicrobial therapy including aminoglycosides resulting in ototoxicity. Extended high-frequency audiometry has increased sensitivity for ototoxicity detection, but diagnostic audiometry in a sound-booth is costly, time-consuming and requires a trained audiologist. This cross-sectional study analysed tablet-based audiometry (Shoebox MD) performed by non-audiologists in an outpatient setting, alongside home web-based audiometry (3D Tune-In) to screen for hearing loss in adults with CF. METHODS: Hearing was analysed in 126 CF adults using validated questionnaires, a web self-hearing test (0.5 to 4 kHz), tablet (0.25 to 12 kHz) and sound-booth audiometry (0.25 to 12 kHz). A threshold of ≥25 dB hearing loss at ≥1 audiometric frequency was considered abnormal. Demographics and mitochondrial DNA sequencing were used to analyse risk factors, and accuracy and usability of hearing tests determined. RESULTS: Prevalence of hearing loss within any frequency band tested was 48%. Multivariate analysis showed age (OR 1.127; (95% CI: 1.07 to 1.18; p value<0.0001) per year older) and total intravenous antibiotic days over 10 years (OR 1.006; (95% CI: 1.002 to 1.010; p value=0.004) per further intravenous day) were significantly associated with increased risk of hearing loss. Tablet audiometry had good usability, was 93% sensitive, 88% specific with 94% negative predictive value to screen for hearing loss compared with web self-test audiometry and questionnaires which had poor sensitivity (17% and 13%, respectively). Intraclass correlation (ICC) of tablet versus sound-booth audiometry showed high correlation (ICC >0.9) at all frequencies ≥4 kHz. CONCLUSIONS: Adults with CF have a high prevalence of drug-related hearing loss and tablet-based audiometry can be a practical, accurate screening tool within integrated ototoxicity monitoring programmes for early detection.

Journal article

Federici S, de Filippis ML, Mele ML, Borsci S, Bracalenti M, Gaudino G, Cocco A, Amendola M, Simonetti Eet al., 2020, Inside pandora's box: a systematic review of the assessment of the perceived quality of chatbots for people with disabilities or special needs, DISABILITY AND REHABILITATION-ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY, Vol: 15, Pages: 832-837, ISSN: 1748-3107

Journal article

Borsci S, Buckle P, Walne S, 2020, Is the LITE version of the usability metric for user experience (UMUX-LITE) a reliable tool to support rapid assessment of new healthcare technology?, Applied Ergonomics: human factors in technology and society, Vol: 84, ISSN: 0003-6870

ObjectiveTo ascertain the reliability of a standardised, short-scale measure of satisfaction in the use of new healthcare technology i.e., the LITE version of the usability metric for user experience (UMUX-LITE). Whilst previous studies have demonstrated the reliability of UMUX-LITE, and its relationship with measures of likelihood to recommend a product, such as the Net Promoter Score (NPS) in other sectors no such testing has been undertaken with healthcare technology.Materials and methodsSix point-of-care products at different stages of development were assessed by 120 healthcare professionals. UMUX-LITE was used to gather their satisfaction in use, and NPS to declare their intention to promote the product. Inferential statistics were used to: i) ascertain the reliability of UMUX-LITE, and ii) assess the relationship between UMUX-LITE and NPS at different stages of products development.ResultsUMUX-LITE showed an acceptable reliability (α = 0.7) and a strong positive correlation with NPS (r = 0.455, p < .001). This is similar to findings in other fields of application. The level of product development did not affect the UMUX-LITE scores, while the stage of development was a significant predictor (R2 = 0.49) of the intention to promote.Discussion and conclusionPractitioners may apply UMUX-LITE alone, or in combination with the NPS, to complement interview and ‘homemade’ scales to investigate the quality of new products at different stages of development. This shortened scale is appropriate for use in the context of healthcare in which busy professionals have a minimal amount of time to support innovation.

Journal article

Ni M, Borsci S, Walne S, Mclister AP, Buckle P, Barlow JG, Hanna GBet al., 2020, The Lean and Agile Multi-dimensional Process (LAMP) - a new framework for rapid and iterative evidence generation to support health-care technology design and development, Expert Review of Medical Devices, Vol: 17, Pages: 277-288, ISSN: 1743-4440

Introduction: Health technology assessments (HTA) are tools for policymaking and resource allocation. Early HTAs are increasingly used in design and development of new technologies. Conducting early HTAs is challenging, due to a lack of evidence and significant uncertainties in the technology and the market. A multi-disciplinary approach is considered essential. However, an operational framework that can enable the integration of multi-dimensional evidence into commercialization remains lacking.Areas covered: We developed the Lean and Agile Multi-dimensional Process (LAMP), an early HTA framework, for embedding commercial decision-making in structured evidence generation activities, divided into phases. Diverse evidence in unmet needs, user acceptance, cost-effectiveness, and market competitiveness are being generated in increasing depth. This supports the emergence of design and value propositions that align technology capabilities and clinical and user needs.Expert opinion: We have been applying LAMP to working with medical device and diagnostic industry in the UK. The framework can be adapted to suit different technologies, decision needs, time scales, and resources. LAMP offers a practical solution to the multi-disciplinary approach. Methodologists drive the process by performing evidence generation and synthesis as and by enabling interactions between manufacturers, designers, clinicians, and other key stakeholders.

Journal article

de Filippis ML, Federici S, Mele ML, Borsci S, Bracalenti M, Gaudino G, Cocco A, Amendola M, Simonetti Eet al., 2020, Preliminary results of a systematic review: Quality assessment of conversational agents (chatbots) for people with disabilities or special needs, Pages: 250-257, ISBN: 9783030587956

People with disabilities or special needs can benefit from AI-based conversational agents, which are used in competence training and well-being management. Assessment of the quality of interactions with these chatbots is key to being able to reduce dissatisfaction with them and to understand their potential long-term benefits. This will in turn help to increase adherence to their use, thereby improving the quality of life of the large population of end-users that they are able to serve. We systematically reviewed the literature on methods of assessing the perceived quality of interactions with chatbots, and identified only 15 of 192 papers on this topic that included people with disabilities or special needs in their assessments. The results also highlighted the lack of a shared theoretical framework for assessing the perceived quality of interactions with chatbots. Systematic procedures based on reliable and valid methodologies continue to be needed in this field. The current lack of reliable tools and systematic methods for assessing chatbots for people with disabilities and special needs is concerning, and may lead to unreliable systems entering the market with disruptive consequences for users. Three major conclusions can be drawn from this systematic analysis: (i) researchers should adopt consolidated and comparable methodologies to rule out risks in use; (ii) the constructs of satisfaction and acceptability are different, and should be measured separately; (iii) dedicated tools and methods for assessing the quality of interaction with chatbots should be developed and used to enable the generation of comparable evidence.

Book chapter

Borsci S, Federici S, Malizia A, De Filippis MLet al., 2019, Shaking the usability tree: why usability is not a dead end, and a constructive way forward, BEHAVIOUR & INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, Vol: 38, Pages: 519-532, ISSN: 0144-929X

Journal article

Hummel JM, Borsci S, Fico G, 2019, Multicriteria decision aiding for early health technology assessment of medical devices, Clinical Engineering Handbook, Second Edition, Pages: 807-811, ISBN: 9780128134672

The value of technology to health care is not dependent on clinical and economic considerations alone. In this chapter we describe health related as well as economic, social, legal, ethical, and organizational criteria to include in early health technology assessment. Moreover, we provide recommendations on methods to collect data on these criteria, and how to integrate these finding by means of multicriteria decision analysis. Such early assessments of biomedical innovations can provide developers with recommendations on which technological innovation to invest in, and how to optimize the value of this innovation.

Book chapter

Borsci S, Buckle P, Walne S, Salanitri Det al., 2019, Trust and Human Factors in the Design of Healthcare Technology, 20th Congress of the International-Ergonomics-Association (IEA), Publisher: SPRINGER INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING AG, Pages: 218-226, ISSN: 2194-5357

Conference paper

Borsci S, David LZ, 2019, Human factors and system thinking for medical device, Clinical Engineering Handbook, Second Edition, Pages: 829-831, ISBN: 9780128134672

The main role of human factors and ergonomics professionals within health care is to generate evidence to support the development and the redesign of services and products. To achieve safe and resilient health system environments, both technology and people should collaborate in a resonant way by ensuring an optimal experience to patients. Human factors and ergonomics methods of investigation aim to generate evidence to inform decisions about appropriate selection of a device, processes resilience, human reliability, and safety of healthcare processes and products. Clinical settings are continuously changing and evolving. Human factors and ergonomics bring in the clinical engineering team a systems thinking approach that could be used to map the context of use and to inform about the operational costs and barriers associated to the use of device in the field-e.g., time to perform, time to obtain the results, time for decision-making, people involved in the process and stakeholders, etc. These analyses may add nuances to gray areas which are usually only partially informed by premarket research and add to health economics evaluation. In line with that, human factors and ergonomics methods are essential tools to define, model, and evaluate the value added by a new product or service in the health environment and to engineer, during the development, the value of new solutions.

Book chapter

Roberts HW, Wagh VK, Mullens IJM, Borsci S, Ni MZ, O'Brart DPSet al., 2018, Evaluation of a hub-and-spoke model for the delivery of femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery within the context of a large randomised controlled trial, British Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol: 102, Pages: 1556-1563, ISSN: 0007-1161

AIMS: To test a hypothesis that cataract operating room (OR) productivity can be improved with a femtosecond laser (FL) using a hub-and-spoke model and whether any increase in productivity can offset additional costs relating to the FL. METHODS: 400 eyes of 400 patients were enrolled in a randomised-controlled trial comparing FL-assisted cataract surgery (FLACS) with conventional phacoemulsification surgery (CPS). 299 of 400 operations were performed on designated high-volume theatre lists (FLACS=134, CPS=165), where a hub-and-spoke FLACS model (1×FL, 2×ORs=2:1) was compared with independent CPS theatre lists. Details of operative timings and OR utilisation were recorded. Differences in productivity between hub-and-spoke FLACS and CPS sessions were compared using an economic model including testing hypothetical 3:1 and 4:1 models. RESULTS: The duration of the operation itself was 12.04±4.89 min for FLACS compared with CPS of 14.54±6.1 min (P<0.001). Total patient time in the OR was reduced from 23.39±6.89 min with CPS to 20.34±5.82 min with FLACS (P<0.001)(reduction of 3.05 min per case). There was no difference in OR turnaround time between the models. Average number of patients treated per theatre list was 9 for FLACS and 8 for CPS. OR utilisation was 92.08% for FLACS and 95.83% for CPS (P<0.001). Using a previously established economic model, the FLACS service cost £144.60 more than CPS per case. This difference would be £131 and £125 for 3:1 and 4:1 models, respectively. CONCLUSION: The FLACS hub-and-spoke model was significantly faster than CPS, with patients spending less time in the OR. This enabled an improvement in productivity, but insufficient to meaningfully offset the additional costs relating to FLACS.

Journal article

Roberts HW, Myerscough J, Borsci S, Ni M, O'Brart DPSet al., 2018, Time and motion studies of National Health Service cataract theatre lists to determine strategies to improve efficiency, British Journal of Ophthalmology, Vol: 102, Pages: 1259-1267, ISSN: 0007-1161

Aim To provide a quantitative assessment of cataract theatre lists focusing on productivity and staffing levels/tasks using time and motion studies.Methods National Health Service (NHS) cataract theatre lists were prospectively observed in five different institutions (four NHS hospitals and one private hospital). Individual tasks and their timings of every member of staff were recorded. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to investigate possible associations between individual timings and tasks.Results 140 operations were studied over 18 theatre sessions. The median number of scheduled cataract operations was 7 (range: 5–14). The average duration of an operation was 10.3 min±(SD 4.11 min). The average time to complete one case including patient turnaround was 19.97 min (SD 8.77 min). The proportion of the surgeons’ time occupied on total duties or operating ranged from 65.2% to 76.1% and from 42.4% to 56.7%, respectively. The correlations of the surgical time to patient time in theatre was R2=0.95. A multiple linear regression model found a significant association (F(3,111)=32.86, P<0.001) with R2=0.47 between the duration of one operation and the number of allied healthcare professionals (AHPs), the number of AHP key tasks and the time taken to perform these key tasks by the AHPs.Conclusions Significant variability in the number of cases performed and the efficiency of patient flow were found between different institutions. Time and motion studies identified requirements for high-volume models and factors relating to performance. Supporting the surgeon with sufficient AHPs and tasks performed by AHPs could improve surgical efficiency up to approximately double productivity over conventional theatre models.

Journal article

Polisena J, Castaldo R, Ciani O, Federici C, Borsci S, Ritrovato M, Clark D, Pecchia Let al., 2018, HEALTH TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT METHODS GUIDELINES FOR MEDICAL DEVICES: HOW CAN WE ADDRESS THE GAPS? THE INTERNATIONAL FEDERATION OF MEDICAL AND BIOLOGICAL ENGINEERING PERSPECTIVE, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF TECHNOLOGY ASSESSMENT IN HEALTH CARE, Vol: 34, Pages: 276-289, ISSN: 0266-4623

Journal article

Borsci S, Uchegbu I, Buckle P, Ni Z, Walne S, Hanna GBet al., 2017, Designing medical technology for resilience: Integrating health economics and human factors approaches, Expert Review of Medical Devices, Vol: 15, Pages: 15-26, ISSN: 1743-4440

INTRODUCTION: The slow adoption of innovation into healthcare calls into question the manner of evidence generation for medical technology. This paper identifies potential reasons for this including a lack of attention to human factors, poor evaluation of economic benefits, lack of understanding of the existing healthcare system and a failure to recognise the need to generate resilient products. Areas covered. Recognising a cross-disciplinary need to enhance evidence generation early in a technology's life cycle, the present paper proposes a new approach that integrates human factors and health economic evaluation as part of a wider systems approach to the design of technology. This approach (Human and Economic Resilience Design for Medical Technology or HERD MedTech) supports early stages of product development and is based on the recent experiences of the National Institute for Health Research London Diagnostic Evidence Co-operative in the UK. Expert commentary. HERD MedTech i) proposes a shift from design for usability to design for resilience, ii) aspires to reduce the need for service adaptation to technological constraints iii) ensures value of innovation at the time of product development, and iv) aims to stimulate discussion around the integration of pre- and post-market methods of assessment of medical technology.

Journal article

Borsci S, Buckle P, Huddy J, Alaestante Z, Ni Z, hanna GBet al., 2017, Usability study of pH strips for nasogastric tube placement, PLoS ONE, Vol: 12, Pages: 1-14, ISSN: 1932-6203

Aims(1) To model the process of use and usability of pH strips (2) to identify, through simulation studies, the likelihood of misreading pH strips, and to assess professional’s acceptance, trust and perceived usability of pH strips.MethodsThis study was undertaken in four phases and used a mixed method approach (an audit, a semi-structured interview, a survey and simulation study). The three months audit was of 24 patients, the semi-structured interview was performed with 19 health professionals and informed the process of use of pH strips. A survey of 134 professionals and novices explored the likelihood of misinterpreting pH strips. Standardised questionnaires were used to assess professionals perceived usability, trust and acceptance of pH strip use in a simulated study.ResultsThe audit found that in 45.7% of the cases aspiration could not be achieved, and that 54% of the NG-tube insertions required x-ray confirmation. None of those interviewed had received formal training on pH strips use. In the simulated study, participants made up to 11.15% errors in reading the strips with important implications for decision making regarding NG tube placement. No difference was identified between professionals and novices in their likelihood of misinterpreting the pH value of the strips. Whilst the overall experience of usage is poor (47.3%), health professionals gave a positive level of trust in both the interview (62.6%) and the survey (68.7%) and acceptance (interview group 65.1%, survey group 74.7%). They also reported anxiety in the use of strips (interview group 29.7%, survey group 49.7%).ConclusionsSignificant errors occur when using pH strips in a simulated study. Manufacturers should consider developing new pH strips, specifically designed for bedside use, that are more usable and less likely to be misread.

Journal article

Borsci S, Buckle P, Uchegbu I, Ni Z, Walne S, Hanna Get al., 2017, Integrating human factors and health economics to inform the design of medical device: a conceptual framework, EMBEC & NBC 2017: Joint Conference of the European Medical and Biological Engineering Conference (EMBEC) and the Nordic-Baltic Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Medical Physics (NBC)

Conference paper

Federici S, Meloni F, Borsci S, 2016, The abandonment of assistive technology in Italy: a survey of National Health Service users., European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Vol: 52, Pages: 516-526, ISSN: 1973-9095

BACKGROUND: This study was an extension of research which began in the Umbria region in 2009. AIM: To investigate the extent to which assistive technology (AT) has been abandoned by users of the Italian National Health Service (ULHS) and the reasons for this. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: Users who received a hearing device (HD) or mobility device (MD) by ULHS between 2010 and 2013. POPULATION: 749 out of 3,791 ULHS users contacted via telephone completed the interview: 330 (44.06%) had a HD and 419 (55.94%) a MD. METHODS: Data were collected using a specially developed telephone interview questionnaire including the Italian version of the Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction with AT (QUEST 2.0) and Assistive Technology Use Follow-up Survey (ATUFS). RESULTS: 134 users (17.9%) were no longer using their assigned AT device within seven months of issue and 40% of this group reported that they had never used the device. Duration of use (for how long the AT device was used before abandonment) and satisfaction with service delivery did not predict AT abandonment. People who received a HD where more likely to abandon their device (22.4%) than those who received a MD (14.4%). CONCLUSIONS: Abandonment may be due to assignment of inappropriate devices or failure to meet user needs and expectations. These findings are consistent with previous data collected by Federici and Borsci in 2009. Utility of AT in use, reasons of abandonment, and importance of device and service satisfaction for the use or non-use of an AT are presented and discussed. CLINICAL REHABILITATION IMPACT: AT abandonment surveys provide useful information for modelling AT assessment and delivery process. The study confirms the relevance of person centredness approach for a successful AT assessment and delivery process.

Journal article

Borsci S, Lawson G, Salanitri D, Jha Bet al., 2016, When simulated environments make the difference: the effectiveness of different types of training of car service procedures, Virtual Reality, Vol: 20, Pages: 83-99, ISSN: 1434-9957

An empirical analysis was performed to compare the effectiveness of different approaches to traininga set of procedural skills to a sample of novice trainees. Sixty-five participants were randomlyassigned to one of the following three training groups: i) learning-by-doing in a 3D desktop virtualenvironment, ii) learning-by-observing a video (show-and-tell) explanation of the procedures, and iii)trial-and-error. In each group participants were trained on two car service procedures. Participantswere recalled to perform a procedure either two or four weeks after the training. The results showedthat: i) participants trained through the virtual approach of learning-by-doing performed bothprocedures significantly better (i.e., p <.05 in terms of errors and time) than people of non-virtualgroups. ii) The virtual training group, after a period of non-use, were more effective than non-virtualtraining (i.e., p <.05) in their ability to recover their skills. iii) After a (simulated) long period from thetraining – i.e., up to 12 weeks – people who experienced 3D environments consistently performedbetter than people who received other kinds of training. The results also suggested that independentlyfrom the training group, trainees’ visuospatial abilities were a predictor of performance, at least forthe complex service procedure, Adj R2= .460, and that post-training performances of people trainedthrough virtual learning-by-doing are not affected by learning styles. Finally, a strong relationship(p<..001 R2 =.441) was identified between usability and trust in the use of the virtual training tool –i.e., the more the system was perceived as usable, the more it was perceived as trustable to acquire thecompetences

Journal article

Borsci S, Buckle P, Hanna GB, 2016, Why you need to include human factors in clinical and empirical studies of in vitro point of care devices? Review and future perspectives, Expert Review of Medical Devices, Vol: 13, Pages: 405-416, ISSN: 1745-2422

Use of in-vitro point of care devices - intended as tests performed out of laboratories and near patient - is increasing in clinical environments. International standards indicate that interaction assessment should not end after the product release, yet human factors methods are frequently not included in clinical and empirical studies of these devices. Whilst the literature confirms some advantages of bed-side tests compared to those in laboratories there is a lack of knowledge of the risks associated with their use. This article provides a review of approaches applied by clinical researchers to model the use of in-vitro testing. Results suggest that only a few studies have explored human factor approaches. Furthermore, when researchers investigated people-device interaction these were predominantly limited to qualitative and not standardised approaches. The methodological failings and limitations of these studies, identified by us, demonstrate the growing need to integrate human factors methods in the medical field.

Journal article

Borsci S, Lawson G, Jha B, Burges M, Salanitri Det al., 2016, Effectiveness of a multidevice 3D virtual environment application to train car service maintenance procedures, Virtual Reality, Vol: 20, Pages: 41-55, ISSN: 1434-9957

This paper reports a study which demonstrates the advantages of using virtual-reality-based systems for training automotive assembly tasks. Sixty participants were randomly assigned to one of the following three training experiences to learn a car service procedure: (1) observational training through video instruction; (2) an experiential virtual training and trial in a CAVE; and (3) an experiential virtual training and trial through a portable 3D interactive table. Results show that virtual trained participants, after the training, can remember significantly better (p < .05) the correct execution of the steps compared to video-trained trainees. No significant differences were identified between the experiential groups neither in terms of post-training performances nor in terms of proficiency, despite differences in the interaction devices. The relevance of the outcomes for the automotive fields and for the designers of virtual training applications are discussed in light of the outcomes, particularly that virtual training experienced through a portable device such as the interactive table can be effective, as can training performed in a CAVE. This suggests the possibility for automotive industries to invest in advanced portable hardware to deliver effectively long-distance programs of training for car service operators placed all over the world.

Journal article

Borsci S, Federici S, Bacci S, Gnaldi M, Bartolucci Fet al., 2015, Assessing user satisfaction in the era of user experience: comparison of the SUS, UMUX and UMUX-LITE as a function of product experience, International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, Vol: 31, Pages: 484-495, ISSN: 1532-7590

Nowadays, practitioners extensively apply quick and reliable scales of user satisfaction as part of their user experience (UX) analyses to obtain well-founded measures of user satisfaction within time and budget constraints. However, in the human-computer interaction (HCI) literature the relationship between the outcomes of standardized satisfaction scales and the amount of product usage has been only marginally explored. The few studies that have investigated this relationship have typically shown that users who have interacted more with a product have higher satisfaction. The purpose of this paper was to systematically analyze the variation in outcomes of three standardized user satisfaction scales (SUS, UMUX and UMUX-LITE) when completed by users who had spent different amounts of time with a website. In two studies, the amount of interaction was manipulated to assess its effect on user satisfaction. Measurements of the three scales were strongly correlated and their outcomes were significantly affected by the amount of interaction time. Notably, the SUS acted as a unidimensional scale when administered to people who had less product experience, but was bidimensional when administered to users with more experience. We replicated previous findings of similar magnitudes for the SUS and UMUX-LITE (after adjustment), but did not observe the previously reported similarities of magnitude for the SUS and the UMUX. Our results strongly encourage further research to analyze the relationships of the three scales with levels of product exposure. We also provide recommendations for practitioners and researchers in the use of the questionnaires.

Journal article

Jahangirian M, Borsci S, Shah SGS, Taylor SJEet al., 2015, Causal factors of low stakeholder engagement: a survey of expert opinions in the context of healthcare simulation projects, Simulation, Vol: 91, Pages: 511-526, ISSN: 1741-3133

Journal article

Federici S, Corradi F, Meloni F, Borsci S, Mele ML, de Sylva SD, Scherer MJet al., 2015, Successful assistive technology service delivery outcomes from applying a person-centered systematic assessment process: a case study, LIFE SPAN AND DISABILITY, Vol: 18, Pages: 41-74, ISSN: 1721-0151

Journal article

Salanitri D, Hare C, Borsci S, Lawson G, Sharples S, Waterfield Bet al., 2015, Relationship Between Trust and Usability in Virtual Environments: An Ongoing Study, 17th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction (HCI International), Publisher: SPRINGER INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING AG, Pages: 49-59, ISSN: 0302-9743

Conference paper

Borsci S, Federici S, Mele ML, Conti Met al., 2015, Short scales of satisfaction assessment: A proxy to involve disabled users in the usability testing of websites, Pages: 35-42, ISSN: 0302-9743

Short scales of user satisfaction analysis are largely applied in usability studies as part of the measures to assess the interaction experience of users. Among the traditional tools, System Usability Scale (SUS), composed of 10 items, is the most applied quick evaluation scale. Recently, researchers have proposed two new and shorter scales: the Usability Metric for User Experience (UMUX), composed of four items, and the UMUX-LITE, which consists of only the two positive items of UMUX. Despite their recent creation, researchers in human-computer interaction (HCI) have already showed that these two tools are reliable and strongly correlated to each other [1–3]. Nevertheless, there are still no studies about the use of these questionnaires with disabled users. As HCI experts claim [4–7], when disabled and elderly users are included in the assessment cohorts, they add to the overall analysis alternative and extended perspectives about the usability of a system. This is particularly relevant to those interfaces that are designed to serve a large population of end-users, such as websites of public administration or public services. Hence, for a practitioner adding to the evaluation cohorts a group of disabled people may sensibly extend number and types of errors identified during the assessment. One of the major obstacles in creating mixed cohorts is due to the increase in time and costs of the evaluation. Often, the budget does not support the inclusion of disabled users in the test. In order to overcome these hindrances, the administering to disabled users of a short questionnaire—after a period of use (expert disabled costumers) or after an interaction test performed through a set of scenario-driven tasks (novice disabled users)—permits to achieve a good trade-off between a limited effort in terms of time and costs and the advantage of evaluating the user satisfaction of disabled people in the use of websites. To date, researchers have neither

Conference paper

Borsci S, Lawson G, Burgess M, Jha Bet al., 2015, Early prototype assessment of a new virtual system for training procedural skills of automotive service operators: LARTE tool, Pages: 135-143, ISSN: 0302-9743

The consortium of the Innovate UK funded Live Augmented Reality Training Environments (LARTE) project, composed of Jaguar Land Rover (JLR), Holovis International Ltd and The University of Nottingham, developed a new concept of a 3D multiplatform training system to train the procedural skills of service maintenance operators. The LARTE tool was designed on the basis of JLR needs and desiderata. This paper presents the functionalities of the initial prototype of LARTE training system, and outcomes of an evaluation study of the usability of the product.

Conference paper

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