317 results found
Ollila M-M, Kiviniemi A, Stener-Victorin E, et al., 2019, Effect of polycystic ovary syndrome on cardiac autonomic function at a late fertile age: a prospective Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 study., BMJ Open, Vol: 9
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies of women in their 20s and 30s have reported impaired autonomic function in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). We aimed to study, for the first time, whether PCOS is associated with impaired cardiac autonomic function independent of metabolic and hormonal status in their late reproductive years. DESIGN: A prospective Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (NFBC1966) study including 5889 women born in 1966 and followed through the age of 46. At that age, n=3706/5123 women (72%) answered the postal questionnaires and n=3280/5123 women (64%) participated in the clinical examination. SETTING: General community. PARTICIPANTS: The sample included women presenting both irregular menses (oligomenorrhoea or amenorrhoea) and hirsutism at age 31 (n=125) or with formally diagnosed PCOS by age 46 (n=181) and women without PCOS symptoms or diagnosis (n=1577). PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Heart rate variability parameters: the root mean square of successive R-R differences (rMSSD), spectral power densities (LF: low frequency and HF: high frequency) and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS). RESULTS: We found that parasympathetic activity (assessed by rMSSD: 19.5 (12.4; 31.9) vs 24.3 (16.1; 34.8) ms, p=0.004 and HF: 172 (75; 399) vs 261 (112; 565) ms2, p=0.002) and BRS (6.13±3.12 vs 6.99±3.52 ms/mm Hg, p=0.036) were lower in women with PCOS compared with the controls. However, in the multivariate regression analysis, PCOS, body mass index and the free androgen index did not significantly associate with rMSSD, whereas blood pressure, insulin resistance and triglycerides did. CONCLUSIONS: We report here for the first time that late reproductive-aged women with PCOS display impaired cardiac autonomic function manifested as decreased vagal activity. Metabolic status, rather than hyperandrogenaemia and PCOS per se, was the strongest contributing factor. Given the link between cardiac morbidity and impaired autonomic functio
Kristensen SG, Kumar A, Kalra B, et al., 2019, Quantitative differences in TGF-β family members measured in small antral follicle fluids from women with or without PCO, Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol: 104, Pages: 6371-6384, ISSN: 0021-972X
CONTEXT: Members of the Transforming-Growth-Factor-β (TGF-β) family have been implicated in aberrant follicle development in women with polycystic ovaries (PCO). OBJECTIVE: Are there quantitative differences in the concentrations of TGF-β family members in fluid from small antral follicles (hSAF) from women with or without PCO? DESIGN SETTING: & Follicle fluids (FF) were collected from 4-11 mm hSAF obtained from women undergoing ovarian tissue cryopreservation for fertility preservation. PATIENTS: FFs from 16 women with PCO (FF=93) and 33 women without PCO (FF=92). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Intrafollicular concentrations of Growth-Differentiation-Factor-9 (GDF9), Anti-Müllerian-Hormone (AMH), inhibin-A and -B, total inhibin, activin-A, -B and -AB, follistatin, follistatin-like-3, estradiol, and testosterone. RESULTS: Activin-B concentrations are reported for the first time in hSAF and concentrations were 10 times higher than activin-A and -AB. Activin-B showed significant associations to other growth factors. Concentrations of inhibin-A and -B were significantly lower in FF from women with PCO, especially in hSAF below 8 mm in diameter. AMH concentrations did not differ between the groups in hSAF below 8 mm, however, AMH remained high in hSAF above 8 mm in PCO but decreased in non-PCO women. Estradiol was significantly lower in FF from women with PCO and showed significant associations with AMH. Concentrations of GDF9 are reported for the first time showing significantly higher concentrations in PCO FF of follicles above 6 mm. CONCLUSIONS: Altered concentrations of TGF-β family members in hSAF from women with PCO highlight altered growth factor signaling as a potential mechanism for follicle growth arrest.
Owens LA, Kristensen SG, Lerner A, et al., 2019, Gene expression in granulosa cells from small antral follicles from women with or without polycystic ovaries, Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol: 104, Pages: 6182-6192, ISSN: 0021-972X
CONTEXT: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the commonest cause of anovulation. A key feature of PCOS is arrest of follicles at the small-medium sized antral stage. OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: To provide further insight into the mechanism of follicle arrest in PCOS, we profiled; (1) gonadotropin receptors; (2) characteristics of aberrant steroidogenesis, and (3) expression of anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) and its receptor in granulosa cells (GCs) from unstimulated, human small antral follicles (hSAFs) and from granulosa-lutein cells (GLCs). SETTING: GCs from hSAFs were collected at the time of cryopreservation of ovarian tissue for fertility preservation and GLCs collected during oocyte aspiration before IVF/ICSI. PARTICIPANTS: hSAF GCs were collected from 31 women (98 follicles), 10 with polycystic ovaries (PCO) and 21 without. GLCs were collected from 6 women with PCOS and 6 controls undergoing IVF. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Expression of the following genes: LHCGR, FSHR, AR, INSR, HSD3B2, CYP11A1, CYP19, STAR, AMH, AMHR2, FST, INHBA, INHBB in GCs and GLCs were compared between women with PCO and controls. RESULTS: GCs in hSAFs from PCO women showed higher expression of LHCGR in a subset (20%) of follicles. Expression of FSHR (p<0.05), AR (p<0.05), CYP11A1 (P<0.05) was lower, and expression of CYP19A1 (p<0.05), STAR (p<0.05), HSD3B2 (ns), INHBA (p<0.05) higher in PCO GCs. Gene expression in GL cells differed between women with and without PCOS but also differed from that in GCs. CONCLUSIONS: Follicle arrest in PCO is characterised in GCs by differential regulation of key genes involved in follicle growth and function.
Makrinou E, Drong AW, Christopoulos G, et al., 2019, Genome-wide methylation profiling in granulosa lutein cells of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)., Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, Vol: 500, Pages: 1-11, ISSN: 0303-7207
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder amongst women of reproductive age, whose aetiology remains unclear. To improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the disease, we conducted a genome-wide DNA methylation profiling in granulosa lutein cells collected from 16 women suffering from PCOS, in comparison to 16 healthy controls. Samples were collected by follicular aspiration during routine egg collection for IVF treatment. Study groups were matched for age and BMI, did not suffer from other disease and were not taking confounding medication. Comparing women with polycystic versus normal ovarian morphology, after correcting for multiple comparisons, we identified 106 differentially methylated CpG sites with p-values <5.8 × 10-8 that were associated with 88 genes, several of which, are known to relate either to PCOS or to ovarian function. Replication and validation of the experiment was done using pyrosequencing to analyse six of the identified differentially methylated sites. Pathway analysis indicated potential disruption in canonical pathways and gene networks that are, amongst other, associated with cancer, cardiogenesis, Hedgehog signalling and immune response. In conclusion, these novel findings indicate that women with PCOS display epigenetic changes in ovarian granulosa cells that may be associated with the heterogeneity of the disorder.
Barber TM, Hanson P, Weickert MO, et al., 2019, Obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome: implications for pathogenesis and novel management strategies, Clinical Medicine Insights : Reproductive Health, Vol: 13, Pages: 1179558119874042-1179558119874042, ISSN: 1179-5581
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common female condition typified by reproductive, hyperandrogenic, and metabolic features. Polycystic ovary syndrome is a genetic condition, exacerbated by obesity. There is a close link between obesity and PCOS based on epidemiological data, and more recently corroborated through genetic studies. There are many mechanisms mediating the effects of weight-gain and obesity on the development of PCOS. The metabolic effects of insulin resistance and steroidogenic and reproductive effects of hyperinsulinaemia are important mechanisms. Adipokine production by subcutaneous and visceral fat appears to play a part in metabolic function. However, given the complexity of PCOS pathogenesis, it is important also to consider possible effects of PCOS on further weight-gain, or at least on hampering attempts at weight-loss and maintenance through lifestyle changes. Possible mediators of these effects include changes in energy expenditure, mental ill health, or physical inactivity. In this brief review, we discuss the main mechanisms that underlie the association between obesity and PCOS, from divergent perspectives of weight-gain contributing to development of PCOS and vice versa. We also consider novel management options for women with obesity and PCOS.
Alves AC, De Silva NMG, Karhunen V, et al., 2019, GWAS on longitudinal growth traits reveals different genetic factors influencing infant, child, and adult BMI, Science Advances, Vol: 5, ISSN: 2375-2548
Early childhood growth patterns are associated with adult health, yet the genetic factors and the developmental stages involved are not fully understood. Here we combine genome-wide association studies with modelling of longitudinal growth traits to study the genetics of infant and child growth, followed by functional, pathway, genetic correlation, risk score and co-localization analyses to determine how developmental timings, molecular pathways and genetic determinants of these traits overlap with those of adult health. We found a robust overlap between the genetics of child and adult BMI, with variants associated with adult BMI acting as early as 4-6 years old. However, we demonstrated a completely distinct genetic makeup for peak BMI during infancy, influenced by variation at the LEPR/LEPROT locus. These findings suggest that different genetic factors control infant and child BMI. In light of the obesity epidemic, these findings are important to inform the timing and targets of prevention strategies.
Teede H, Misso M, Tassone EC, et al., 2019, Anti-mullerian hormone in PCOS: A review informing international guidelines, Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol: 30, Pages: 467-478, ISSN: 1879-3061
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 8–13% of women. The Rotterdam diagnostic criteria include polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM) on ultrasound, but given recognized challenges, serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is proposed as an alternative. To inform international PCOS guidelines, a systematic review was completed. Key identified gaps include large international studies in well-defined populations across the lifespan, clustering of AMH with PCOS features, relationships to long-term health outcomes, and improved quality, assay standardization, and sample handling, all needed to determine cut offs. Here we identify research priorities to address these gaps and enhance AMH utility in PCOS. Once issues are addressed, AMH levels could replace more costly and less accessible ultrasound in PCOS diagnosis.
Kristensen SG, Kumar A, Pors SE, et al., 2019, Quantitative differences in TGF-beta superfamily growth factors measured in small antral follicle fluids from women with PCOS, 35th Annual Meeting of the European-Society-of-Human-Reproduction-and-Embryology (ESHRE), Publisher: OXFORD UNIV PRESS, Pages: 143-144, ISSN: 0268-1161
Granados-Aparici S, Hardy K, Franks S, et al., 2019, SMAD3 directly regulates cell cycle genes to maintain arrest in granulosa cells of mouse primordial follicles, Scientific Reports, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2045-2322
Primordial follicles, consisting of granulosa cell (GC)-enveloped oocytes are maintained in a state of developmental arrest until activated to grow. The mechanism that operates to maintain this arrested state in GCs is currently unknown. Here, we show the TGFβ-activated transcription factor SMAD3 is expressed in primordial GC nuclei alongside the cell cycle proteins, cyclin D2 (CCND2) and P27. Using neonatal C57/Bl6 mouse ovaries densely populated with primordial follicles, CCND2 protein co-localised and was detected in complex with P27 by immunofluorescence and co-immunoprecipitation, respectively. In the same tissue, SMAD3 co-precipitated with DNA sequences upstream of Ccnd2 and Myc transcription start sites implicating both as direct SMAD3 targets. In older ovaries follicle growth was associated with nuclear exclusion of SMAD3 and reduced P27 and CCND2 in GCs, alongside elevated Myc expression. Brief (2 H) exposure of neonatal ovaries to TGFβ1 (10 ng/ml) in vitro led to immediate dissociation of SMAD3 from the Ccnd2 and Myc promoters. This coincided with elevated Myc and phospho-S6, an indicator of mTOR signalling, followed by a small increase in mean primordial GC number after 48 H. These findings highlight a concentration-dependent role for TGFβ signalling in the maintenance and activation of primordial follicles, through SMAD-dependent and independent signalling pathways, respectively.
Lerner A, Owens LA, Coates M, et al., 2019, Expression of genes controlling steroid metabolism and action in granulosalutein cells of women with polycystic ovaries, Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, Vol: 486, Pages: 47-54, ISSN: 0303-7207
IntroductionAberrant function of granulosa cells has been implicated in the pathophysiology of PCOS.Materials & methodsGranulosa lutein (GL) cells were collected during oocyte retrieval for IVF/ICSI. RT-qPCR was used to compare gene expression between 12 control women, 12 with ovulatory PCO and 12 with anovulatory PCOS. To examine which genes are directly regulated by androgens, GL cells from an additional 12 control women were treated in-vitro with 10 nM dihydrotestosterone (DHT).ResultsGL cells from women with PCOS showed reduced expression of CYP11A1 3-fold (p = 0.005), HSD17B1 1.8-fold (p = 0.02) and increased expression of SULT1E1 7-fold (p = 0.0003). Similar results were seen in ovulatory women with PCO. GL cells treated with 10 nM DHT showed a 4-fold (p = 0.03) increase in expression of SULT1E1 and a 5-fold reduction in SRD5A1 (p = 0.03).ConclusionsThese findings support the notion that aberrant regulation of steroid metabolism or action play a part in ovarian dysfunction in PCOS.
Ollila M-ME, Kaikkonen K, Järvelin M-R, et al., 2019, Self-reported polycystic ovary syndrome is associated with hypertension: a Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 Study, Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol: 104, Pages: 1221-1231, ISSN: 0021-972X
Context: PCOS is associated with many traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors, but it is unclear whether PCOS is an independent risk factor for hypertension. Objective: To investigate in a population-based set-up whether PCOS associates with the risk of hypertension independently of body-mass-index (BMI), and with cardiovascular manifestations. Design: Cross-sectional assessments in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 at ages 31 and 46. Setting: General community. Participants: Women who reported both oligo/amenorrhea and hirsutism at age 31 and/or diagnosis of PCOS by age 46 (self-reported PCOS [srPCOS], n=279) and women without PCOS symptoms or diagnosis (n=1577). Intervention: None. Main Outcome Measures: Blood pressure (BP), BMI, cardiovascular manifestations. Results: Use of antihypertensive medication was significantly more common in women with srPCOS. At age 31, women with srPCOS had significantly higher systolic (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) than control women (SBP: normal-weight: 119.9±13.2 vs. 116.9±11.4mmHg, P=0.017; overweight/obese: 126.1±14.3 vs. 123.0±11.9mmHg, P=0.031; and DBP: normal-weight: 75.5±10.0 vs. 72.4±9.6mmHg, P=0.003; overweight/obese: 80.7±11.8 vs. 78.0±10.6mmHg, P=0.031). At age 46, srPCOS was significantly associated with hypertension (AOR=1.56 [1.14-2.13]) independently of BMI, and with higher cardiovascular morbidity (6.8% vs. 3.4%, P=0.011). Hypertensive srPCOS displayed consistent, unfavorable changes in cardiac structure and function compared with controls. Conclusion: Women with srPCOS displayed higher BP compared with controls already at early age and srPCOS was associated with hypertension independently of overweight/obesity. srPCOS was associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity in premenopausal women, suggesting that cardiovascular disease risk factors should be screened and efficiently managed early enough in women with PCOS.
Jayasena CN, Alkaabi FM, Liebers CS, et al., 2019, A systematic review of randomised controlled trials investigating the efficacy and safety of testosterone therapy for female sexual dysfunction in postmenopausal women, Clinical Endocrinology, Vol: 90, Pages: 391-414, ISSN: 1365-2265
The clinical sequelae of oestrogen deficiency during menopause are undoubted. However, the pathophysiological role of testosterone during the menopause is less clear. Several randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trials suggest that testosterone therapy improves sexual function in post-menopausal women. Some studies suggest that testosterone therapy has additional effects which include increased bone mineral density and decreased serum high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Furthermore, the long-term safety profile of testosterone therapy in post-menopausal women is not clear. This article will provide a concise and critical summary of the literature, to guide clinicians treating post-menopausal women. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Koivuaho E, Laru J, Ojaniemi M, et al., 2019, Age at adiposity rebound in childhood is associated with PCOS diagnosis and obesity in adulthood-longitudinal analysis of BMI data from birth to age 46 in cases of PCOS, International Journal of Obesity, Vol: 43, Pages: 1370-1379, ISSN: 0307-0565
BACKGROUND: Adiposity rebound (AR), the second BMI rise in childhood at around the age of 6 years, is associated with obesity and metabolic alteration in later life. Given that polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) has a strong metabolic component, early life growth patterns could reveal a risk of PCOS. Thus, we aimed to investigate the associations between age at AR and PCOS diagnosis and BMI later in life. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study is part of a prospective, population-based longitudinal study, where women with PCOS diagnosis by age 46 (n = 280) were compared with asymptomatic women (CTRLs, n = 1573). Weight and height data from birth to age 13 years, at age at menarche, and at ages 31 and 46 years were analyzed RESULTS: Women with PCOS had lower birth weight (3357 ± 477 vs. 3 445 ± 505 g, p < 0.001), earlier age at AR (5.2 ± 1.0 vs. 5.6 ± 0.90 years, p < 0.001) and higher BMI from AR onwards compared with controls. Early timing of AR was associated with PCOS diagnosis independently of BMI (OR 1.62, 95% Cl 1.37-1.92). Women with PCOS and early AR had higher BMI at 31 and 46 years when compared to controls with early AR. The age at AR did not associate with T levels at ages 31 or 46 years. CONCLUSIONS: Early AR was associated with PCOS diagnosis and high BMI in adulthood. Adolescent girls with early AR and persisting obesity should be screened for PCOS symptoms, such as persistent irregular cycles and hirsutism.
Franks S, 2019, Commentary: The new international guideline for diagnosis and management of PCOS was worth the effort, Clinical Endocrinology, Vol: 90, Pages: 265-266, ISSN: 1365-2265
Day F, Karaderi T, Jones MR, et al., 2018, Large-scale genome-wide meta-analysis of polycystic ovary syndrome suggests shared genetic architecture for different diagnosis criteria, PLoS Genetics, Vol: 14, ISSN: 1553-7390
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a disorder characterized by hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction and polycystic ovarian morphology. Affected women frequently have metabolic disturbances including insulin resistance and dysregulation of glucose homeostasis. PCOS is diagnosed with two different sets of diagnostic criteria, resulting in a phenotypic spectrum of PCOS cases. The genetic similarities between cases diagnosed based on the two criteria have been largely unknown. Previous studies in Chinese and European subjects have identified 16 loci associated with risk of PCOS. We report a fixed-effect, inverse-weighted-variance meta-analysis from 10,074 PCOS cases and 103,164 controls of European ancestry and characterisation of PCOS related traits. We identified 3 novel loci (near PLGRKT, ZBTB16 and MAPRE1), and provide replication of 11 previously reported loci. Only one locus differed significantly in its association by diagnostic criteria; otherwise the genetic architecture was similar between PCOS diagnosed by self-report and PCOS diagnosed by NIH or non-NIH Rotterdam criteria across common variants at 13 loci. Identified variants were associated with hyperandrogenism, gonadotropin regulation and testosterone levels in affected women. Linkage disequilibrium score regression analysis revealed genetic correlations with obesity, fasting insulin, type 2 diabetes, lipid levels and coronary artery disease, indicating shared genetic architecture between metabolic traits and PCOS. Mendelian randomization analyses suggested variants associated with body mass index, fasting insulin, menopause timing, depression and male-pattern balding play a causal role in PCOS. The data thus demonstrate 3 novel loci associated with PCOS and similar genetic architecture for all diagnostic criteria. The data also provide the first genetic evidence for a male phenotype for PCOS and a causal link to depression, a previously hypothesized comorbid disease. Thus, the genetics provide a comp
Makrinou E, Drong A, Masrour N, et al., 2018, Epigenetic studies of ovarian cells: understanding the aetiology and management of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, 50th European-Society-of-Human-Genetics (ESHG) Conference, Publisher: NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, Pages: 754-754, ISSN: 1018-4813
De Silva M, Sebert S, Alves AC, et al., 2018, Genetic architecture of early growth phenotypes gives insights into their link with later obesity, Publisher: NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP
Hardy K, Mora JM, Dunlop C, et al., 2018, Nuclear exclusion of SMAD2/3 in granulosa cells is associated with primordial follicle activation in the mouse ovary, Journal of Cell Science, Vol: 131, ISSN: 0021-9533
Maintenance and activation of the limited supply of primordial follicles in the ovary are important determinants of reproductive lifespan. Currently, the molecular programme that maintains the primordial phenotype and the early events associated with follicle activation are not well defined. Here, we have systematically analysed these events using microscopy and detailed image analysis. Using the immature mouse ovary as a model, we demonstrate that the onset of granulosa cell (GC) proliferation results in increased packing density on the oocyte surface and consequent GC cuboidalization. These events precede oocyte growth and nuclear translocation of FOXO3a, a transcription factor important in follicle activation. Immunolabelling of the TGFβ signalling mediators and transcription factors SMAD2/3 revealed a striking expression pattern specific to GCs of small follicles. SMAD2/3 were expressed in the nuclei of primordial GCs but were mostly excluded in early growing follicles. In activated follicles, GC nuclei lacking SMAD2/3 generally expressed Ki67. These findings suggest that the first phenotypic changes during follicle activation are observed in GCs, and that TGFβ signalling is fundamental for regulating GC arrest and the onset of proliferation.
Franks S, Hardy K, 2018, Androgen action in the ovary, Frontiers in Endocrinology, Vol: 9, ISSN: 1664-2392
Androgen production by the ovary is an essential requirement for normal cyclical secretion of estradiol but its physiological role extends to important actions on both preantral and antral follicle development, including promotion of granulosa cell proliferation. It is likely only in mature antral follicles that androgens encourage apoptosis and consequent follicle atresia, and this may be an important mechanism to ensure mono-follicular ovulation in primates, including humans. Recent studies have provided new insight into the mechanism of androgen signaling in the ovary which involves both genomic and non-genomic effects that are complementary in effecting a cellular response. In polycystic ovary syndrome, a condition characterized by intra-ovarian androgen excess, aberrant development of both preantral and antral follicles is a salient feature. We present evidence that local action of androgens plays a part in such abnormalities. Finally, we review the role of androgens in follicle atresia and conclude that the effects are part of the normal physiology of follicle maturation.
Laru J, Nedelec R, Ojaniemi M, et al., 2018, Childhood and adolescence body mass index associates with impaired reproductive function - a prospective, population-based cohort study, 34th Annual Meeting of the European-Society-of-Human-Reproduction-and-Embryology (ESHRE), Publisher: OXFORD UNIV PRESS, Pages: 448-449, ISSN: 0268-1161
White D, Hardy K, Lovelock S, et al., 2018, Low-dose gonadotropin induction of ovulation in anovulatory women - still needed in the age of IVF, Reproduction, Vol: 156, Pages: F1-F10, ISSN: 1470-1626
Low-dose, step-up gonadotropin is the treatment of choice for women with PCOS who have not conceived after anti-estrogen treatment, and as an effective alternative to pulsatile GnRH in women with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH). There has been, however, no large-scale, comparative study between the two groups using low-dose gonadotropins. Here we performed a retrospective, comparative analysis, in a single clinic database, of efficacy and safety of induction of ovulation using low-dose gonadotropins in 364 Women with PCOS and 80 women with HH. The rate of ovulation was high in both PCOS (83%) and HH (84%) but mono-follicular, ovulatory cycles were more prevalent in PCOS than in HH (77% vs 53%, p<0.0001) and the proportion of cycles that were abandoned was higher in HH than in PCOS (25% vs 15%, p<0.0001). The median threshold dose of gonadotropin required to induce ovulation was 75iu/day in PCOS and 113iu/day in HH (p<0.001) and the range of doses was greater in HH women. Forty-nine percent of women with PCOS and 65% of those with HH conceived (more than 90% within 6 cycles of treatment) and had a least one pregnancy. Multiple pregnancies (all twins) occurred in only 4% of women with PCOS and 5% of those with HH. These findings emphasise the efficacy and safety of low-dose gonadotropin treatment for both clomiphene-resistant women with PCOS and those with HH. These results highlight the importance of choosing the more physiological approach of gonadotropin induction of ovulation in both groups as the most appropriate treatment, in preference to IVF.
Karjula S, Morin-Papunen L, Auvinen J, et al., 2018, Long-term health related quality of life (HRQoL), life satisfaction and health status in women with PCOS-a population-based follow-up analysis at ages 31 and 46, 34th Annual Meeting of the European-Society-of-Human-Reproduction-and-Embryology (ESHRE), Publisher: OXFORD UNIV PRESS, Pages: 444-445, ISSN: 0268-1161
Owens L, Abbara A, Lerner A, et al., 2018, The in vivo and in vitro effects of kisspeptin on human ovarian function, Publisher: SPRINGER LONDON LTD, Pages: S181-S182, ISSN: 0021-1265
Ernst EH, Franks S, Hardy K, et al., 2018, Granulosa cells from human primordial and primary follicles show differential global gene expression profiles, Human Reproduction, Vol: 33, Pages: 666-679, ISSN: 1460-2350
STUDY QUESTION: Can novel genetic candidates involved in follicle dormancy, activation and integrity be identified from transcriptomic profiles of isolated granulosa cells from human primordial and primary follicles? SUMMARY ANSWER: The granulosa cell compartment of the human primordial and primary follicle was extensively enriched in signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB) signalling, and several other putative signalling pathways that may also be mediators of follicle growth and development were identified. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase (mTOR) signalling and the factors Forkhead Box L2 (FOXL2) and KIT proto-oncogene receptor tyrosine kinase (KITL) may be involved in defining the early steps of mammalian follicular recruitment through complex bidirectional signalling between the oocyte and granulosa cells. cAMP/protein kinase K (PKA)/CREB signalling is a feature of FSH-induced regulation of granulosa cell steroidogenesis that is essential to normal human fertility. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A class comparison study was carried out on primordial follicles (n = 539 follicles) and primary follicles (n = 261) follicles) donated by three women having ovarian tissue cryopreserved before chemotherapy. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: RNA samples from isolates of laser capture micro-dissected oocytes and follicles from the primordial and primary stage, respectively, were sequenced on the HiSeq Illumina platform. Data mapping, quality control, filtering, FPKM (fragments per kilobase of exon per million) normalization and comparisons were performed. The granulosa cell contribution in whole follicle isolates was extracted in silico. Modelling of complex biological systems was performed using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). For validation of transcriptomic findings, we performed quantitative RT-PCR of selected candidate genes. Furthermore, we interrogated the in s
Jonas KC, Chen S, Virta M, et al., 2018, Temporal reprogramming of calcium signalling via crosstalk of gonadotrophin receptors that associate as functionally asymmetric heteromers, Scientific Reports, Vol: 8, ISSN: 2045-2322
Signal crosstalk between distinct G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is one mechanism that underlies pleiotropic signalling. Such crosstalk is also pertinent for GPCRs activated by gonadotrophic hormones; follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinising hormone (LH), with specific relevance to female reproduction. Here, we demonstrate that gonadotrophin receptor crosstalk alters LH-induced Gαq/11-calcium profiles. LH-induced calcium signals in both heterologous and primary human granulosa cells were prolonged by FSHR coexpression via influx of extracellular calcium in a receptor specific manner. LHR/FSHR crosstalk involves Gαq/11 activation as a Gαq/11 inhibitor abolished calcium responses. Interestingly, the enhanced LH-mediated calcium signalling induced by FSHR co-expression was dependent on intracellular calcium store release and involved Gβγ. Biophysical analysis of receptor and Gαq interactions indicated that ligand-dependent association between LHR and Gαq was rearranged in the presence of FSHR, enabling FSHR to closely associate with Gαq following LHR activation. This suggests that crosstalk may occur via close associations as heteromers. Super-resolution imaging revealed that LHR and FSHR formed constitutive heteromers at the plasma membrane. Intriguingly, the ratio of LHR:FSHR in heterotetramers was specifically altered following LH treatment. We propose that functionally significant FSHR/LHR crosstalk reprograms LH-mediated calcium signalling at the interface of receptor-G protein via formation of asymmetric complexes.
Owens LA, Abbara A, Lerner A, et al., 2018, The direct and indirect effects of kisspeptin-54 on granulosa lutein cell function, Human Reproduction, Vol: 33, Pages: 292-302, ISSN: 1460-2350
STUDY QUESTIONWhat are the in vivo and in vitro actions of kisspeptin-54 on the expression of genes involved in ovarian reproductive function, steroidogenesis and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) in granulosa lutein (GL) cells when compared with traditional triggers of oocyte maturation?SUMMARY ANSWERThe use of kisspeptin-54 as an oocyte maturation trigger augmented expression of genes involved in ovarian steroidogenesis in human GL cells including, FSH receptor (FSHR), LH/hCG receptor (LHCGR), steroid acute regulatory protein (STAR), aromatase, estrogen receptors alpha and beta (ESR1, ESR2), 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (3BHSD2) and inhibin A (INHBA), when compared to traditional maturation triggers, but did not alter markers of OHSS.WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADYhCG is the most widely used trigger of oocyte maturation, but is associated with an increased risk of OHSS. The use of GnRH agonists to trigger oocyte maturation is a safer alternative to hCG. More recently, kisspeptin-54 has emerged as a novel therapeutic option that safely triggers oocyte maturation even in women at high risk of OHSS. Kisspeptin indirectly stimulates gonadotropin secretion by acting on hypothalamic GnRH neurons. Kisspeptin and its receptor are also expressed in the human ovary, but there is limited data on the direct action of kisspeptin on the ovary.STUDY DESIGN SIZE, DURATIONForty-eight women undergoing IVF treatment for infertility consented to kisspeptin-54 triggering and/or granulosa cell collection and were included in the study. Twelve women received hCG, 12 received GnRH agonist and 24 received kisspeptin-54 to trigger oocyte maturation. In the kisspeptin-54 group, 12 received one injection of kisseptin-54 (9.6 nmol/kg) and 12 received two injections of kisspeptin-54 at a 10 h interval (9.6 nmol/kg × 2).PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODSFollicular fluid was aspirated and pooled from follicles during the retrieval of oocytes for IVF/ICSI. GL cells were iso
Schierding W, Antony J, Karhunen V, et al., 2017, GWAS on prolonged gestation (post-term birth): analysis of successive Finnish birth cohorts., Journal of Medical Genetics, Vol: 55, Pages: 55-63, ISSN: 1468-6244
Background Gestation is a crucial timepoint in human development. Deviation from a term gestational age correlates with both acute and long-term adverse health effects for the child. Both being born preterm and post-term, that is, having short and long gestational ages, are heritable and influenced by the prenatal and perinatal environment. Despite the obvious heritable component, specific genetic influences underlying differences in gestational age are poorly understood.Methods We investigated the genetic architecture of gestational age in 9141 individuals, including 1167 born post-term, across two Northern Finland cohorts born in 1966 or 1986.Results Here we identify one globally significant intronic genetic variant within the ADAMTS13 gene that is associated with prolonged gestation (p=4.85×10−8). Additional variants that reached suggestive levels of significance were identified within introns at the ARGHAP42 and TKT genes, and in the upstream (5’) intergenic regions of the B3GALT5 and SSBP2 genes. The variants near the ADAMTS13, B3GALT5, SSBP2 and TKT loci are linked to alterations in gene expression levels (cis-eQTLs). Luciferase assays confirmed the allele specific enhancer activity for the BGALT5 and TKT loci.Conclusions Our findings provide the first evidence of a specific genetic influence associated with prolonged gestation. This study forms a foundation for a better understanding of the genetic and long-term health risks faced by induced and post-term individuals. The long-term risks for induced individuals who have a previously overlooked post-term potential may be a major issue for current health providers.
Franks S, Dormancy and activation of human oocytes from primordial and primary follicles: molecular clues to oocyte regulation, Human Reproduction, ISSN: 0268-1161
Karjula S, Morin-Papunen L, Auvinen J, et al., 2017, Psychological distress is more prevalent in fertile age and premenopausal women with PCOS symptoms: 15-year follow-up, Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Vol: 102, Pages: 1861-1869, ISSN: 1945-7197
Context:Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with increased psychological distress, obesity and hyperandrogenism being suggested as key promoters.Objectives:To investigate the prevalence of anxiety/depression and their coexistence in women with PCOS/PCOS-related symptoms at ages 31 and 46. The roles of obesity, hyperandrogenism, and awareness of PCOS on psychological distress were also assessed.Design:Population-based follow-up.Setting:Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 with 15-year follow-up.Participants:At age 31, a questionnaire-based screening for oligoamenorrhea (OA) and hirsutism (H): 2188 asymptomatic (controls), 331 OA, 323 H, and 125 OA plus H (PCOS). Follow-up at age 46: 1576 controls, 239 OA, 231 H, and 85 PCOS.Interventions:Questionnaire-based screening for anxiety and depression symptoms (Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25) and previously diagnosed/treated depression at ages 31 and 46. Body mass index (BMI), serum testosterone/free androgen index, and awareness of polycystic ovaries/PCOS on psychological distress were also assessed.Main Outcomes:Population-based prevalence of anxiety and/or depression in women with PCOS/PCOS-related symptoms at ages 31 and 46.Results:Anxiety and/or depression symptoms, their coexistence, and rate of depression were increased at ages 31 and 46 in women with PCOS or isolated H compared with controls. High BMI or hyperandrogenism did not associate with increased anxiety or depression symptoms. The awareness of PCOS was associated with increased anxiety.Conclusions:Women with PCOS or isolated H present more often with anxiety and/or depression symptoms and their coexistence compared with controls. High BMI or hyperandrogenism did not provoke psychological distress in PCOS. The awareness of PCOS increased anxiety but did not associate with severe anxiety or depression.
Couto Alves A, Valcarcel B, Makinen V, et al., 2017, Metabolic profiling of polycystic ovary syndrome reveals interactions with abdominal obesity, International Journal of Obesity, Vol: 41, Pages: 1331-1340, ISSN: 1476-5497
Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common reproductive disorder associated with metabolic disturbances including obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes mellitus. Here we investigate whether changes in the metabolic profile of PCOS women are driven by increased tendency to obesity or are specific features of PCOS related to increased testosterone levels.Design and Methods: We conducted an NMR metabolomics association study of PCOS cases (n=145) and controls (n=687) nested in a population-based birth cohort (n=3,127). Subjects were 31 years old at examination. The main analyses were adjusted for waist circumference (WC) as a proxy measure of central obesity. Subsequently, metabolite concentrations were compared between cases and controls within pre-defined WC strata. On each stratum, additional metabolomics association analyses with testosterone levels were conducted separately among cases and controls.Results: Overall, women with PCOS showed more adverse metabolite profiles than the controls. Four lipid fractions in different subclasses of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) were associated with PCOS, after adjusting for WC and correction for multiple testing (P<0.002). In stratified analysis the PCOS women within large WC strata (≥98 cm) had significantly lower high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels, ApoA1 and albumin values compared to the controls. Testosterone levels were significantly associated with VLDL and serum lipids in PCOS cases with large WC but not in the controls. The higher testosterone levels, adjusted for WC, adversely associated with insulin levels and HOMA IR in cases but not in the controls.Conclusions: Our findings show that both abdominal obesity and hyperandrogenism contribute to the dyslipidaemia and other metabolic traits of PCOS which all may negatively contribute to the long term health of women with PCOS.
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