Imperial College London


Faculty of EngineeringDepartment of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Research Postgraduate



s.karolcik Website




B422Bessemer BuildingSouth Kensington Campus





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Karolcik S, Ming D, Yacoub S, Holmes A, Georgiou Pet al., 2023, A multi-site, multi-wavelength PPG platform for continuous non-invasive health monitoring in hospital settings, IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems, Vol: 17, Pages: 349-361, ISSN: 1932-4545

This paper presents a novel PPG acquisition platform capable of synchronous multi-wavelength signal acquisition from two measurement locations with up to 4 independent wavelengths from each in parallel. The platform is fully configurable and operates at 1ksps, accommodating a wide variety of transmitters and detectors to serve as both a research tool for experimentation and a clinical tool for disease monitoring. The sensing probes presented in this work acquire 4 PPG channels from the wrist and 4 PPG channels from the fingertip, with wavelengths such that surrogates for pulse wave velocity and haematocrit can be extracted.For conventional PPG sensing, we have achieved the mean error of 4.08 ± 3.72 bpm for heart-rate and a mean error of 1.54 ± 1.04% for SpO2 measurement, with the latter lying within the FDA limits for commercial pulse oximeters. We have further evaluated over 700 individual peak-to-peak time differences between wrist and fingertip signals, achieving a normalized weighted average PWV of 5.80 ± 1.58 m/s, matching with values of PWV found for this age group in literature. Lastly, we introduced and computed a haematocrit ratio (Rhct) between the deep IR and deep red wavelength from the fingertip sensor, finding a significant difference between male and female values (median of 1.9 and 2.93 respectively) pointing to devices sensitivity to Hct.

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