360 results found
Radhoe SP, Boersma E, Bertrand M, et al., 2022, The Effects of a Perindopril-Based Regimen in Relation to Statin Use on the Outcomes of Patients with Vascular Disease: a Combined Analysis of the ADVANCE, EUROPA, and PROGRESS Trials, CARDIOVASCULAR DRUGS AND THERAPY, ISSN: 0920-3206
Collaborat CTTC, Reith C, Baigent C, et al., 2022, Effect of statin therapy on muscle symptoms: an individual participant data meta-analysis of large-scale, randomised, double-blind trials, LANCET, Vol: 400, Pages: 832-845, ISSN: 0140-6736
Nazarzadeh M, Bidel Z, Canoy D, et al., 2022, Blood pressure-lowering treatment for prevention of major cardiovascular diseases in people with and without type 2 diabetes: an individual participant-level data meta-analysis, The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology, Vol: 10, Pages: 645-654, ISSN: 2213-8595
BACKGROUND: Controversy exists as to whether the threshold for blood pressure-lowering treatment should differ between people with and without type 2 diabetes. We aimed to investigate the effects of blood pressure-lowering treatment on the risk of major cardiovascular events by type 2 diabetes status, as well as by baseline levels of systolic blood pressure. METHODS: We conducted a one-stage individual participant-level data meta-analysis of major randomised controlled trials using the Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Trialists' Collaboration dataset. Trials with information on type 2 diabetes status at baseline were eligible if they compared blood pressure-lowering medications versus placebo or other classes of blood pressure-lowering medications, or an intensive versus a standard blood pressure-lowering strategy, and reported at least 1000 persons-years of follow-up in each group. Trials exclusively on participants with heart failure or with short-term therapies and acute myocardial infarction or other acute settings were excluded. We expressed treatment effect per 5 mm Hg reduction in systolic blood pressure on the risk of developing a major cardiovascular event as the primary outcome, defined as the first occurrence of fatal or non-fatal stroke or cerebrovascular disease, fatal or non-fatal ischaemic heart disease, or heart failure causing death or requiring hospitalisation. Cox proportional hazard models, stratified by trial, were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) separately by type 2 diabetes status at baseline, with further stratification by baseline categories of systolic blood pressure (in 10 mm Hg increments from <120 mm Hg to ≥170 mm Hg). To estimate absolute risk reductions, we used a Poisson regression model over the follow-up duration. The effect of each of the five major blood pressure-lowering drug classes, including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, β blockers, calcium channel blockers, and th
Patel A, Ojji D, de Silva HA, et al., 2022, Polypills for the prevention of cardiovascular disease: a framework for wider use, NATURE MEDICINE, Vol: 28, Pages: 226-229, ISSN: 1078-8956
Anderson CS, Rodgers A, de Silva HA, et al., 2022, Triple Therapy Prevention of Recurrent Intracerebral Disease Events Trial: Rationale, design and progress, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF STROKE, ISSN: 1747-4930
Chalmers J, MacMahon S, 2021, PROGRESS in Blood Pressure Control for the Prevention of Secondary Stroke, CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASES, Vol: 50, Pages: 617-621, ISSN: 1015-9770
Rahimi K, Bidel Z, Nazarzadeh M, et al., 2021, Age-stratified and blood-pressure-stratified effects of blood-pressure-lowering pharmacotherapy for the prevention of cardiovascular disease and death: an individual participant-level data meta-analysis, The Lancet, Vol: 398, Pages: 1053-1064, ISSN: 0140-6736
BackgroundThe effects of pharmacological blood-pressure-lowering on cardiovascular outcomes in individuals aged 70 years and older, particularly when blood pressure is not substantially increased, is uncertain. We compared the effects of blood-pressure-lowering treatment on the risk of major cardiovascular events in groups of patients stratified by age and blood pressure at baseline.MethodsWe did a meta-analysis using individual participant-level data from randomised controlled trials of pharmacological blood-pressure-lowering versus placebo or other classes of blood-pressure-lowering medications, or between more versus less intensive treatment strategies, which had at least 1000 persons-years of follow-up in each treatment group. Participants with previous history of heart failure were excluded. Data were obtained from the Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Triallists' Collaboration. We pooled the data and categorised participants into baseline age groups (<55 years, 55–64 years, 65–74 years, 75–84 years, and ≥85 years) and blood pressure categories (in 10 mm Hg increments from <120 mm Hg to ≥170 mm Hg systolic blood pressure and from <70 mm Hg to ≥110 mm Hg diastolic). We used a fixed effects one-stage approach and applied Cox proportional hazard models, stratified by trial, to analyse the data. The primary outcome was defined as either a composite of fatal or non-fatal stroke, fatal or non-fatal myocardial infarction or ischaemic heart disease, or heart failure causing death or requiring hospital admission.FindingsWe included data from 358 707 participants from 51 randomised clinical trials. The age of participants at randomisation ranged from 21 years to 105 years (median 65 years [IQR 59–75]), with 42 960 (12·0%) participants younger than 55 years, 128 437 (35·8%) aged 55–64 years, 128 506 (35·8%) 65–74 years, 54 016 (15·1%) 75–84 years, and
Gong J, Harris K, Hackett M, et al., 2021, Sex differences in risk factors for cognitive decline and dementia, including death as a competing risk, in individuals with diabetes: Results from the ADVANCE trial, Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism: a journal of pharmacology and therapeutics, Vol: 23, Pages: 1775-1785, ISSN: 1462-8902
AimTo estimate the associations between risk factors and cognitive decline (CD)/dementia, and the sex differences in these risk factors in individuals with type 2 diabetes, while accounting for the competing risk of death.Materials and MethodsThe Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron Modified Release Controlled Evaluation (ADVANCE) trial of 11,140 individuals with type 2 diabetes was used to estimate the odds of CD/dementia using multinomial logistic regression.ResultsDuring a median 5-year follow-up, 1827 participants (43.2% women) had CD/dementia (1718 with CD only; 21 with dementia only; 88 with CD and dementia), and 929 (31.0% women) died without CD/dementia. Women had lower odds of CD/dementia than men (odds ratio [OR] [95% confidence interval], 0.88 [0.77, 1.00]); older age, higher total cholesterol, HbA1c, waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio, moderately increased albumin-creatinine ratio, stroke/transient ischaemic attack and retinal disease were each associated with greater odds of CD/dementia; higher years at education completion, baseline cognitive function, taller stature and current alcohol use were inversely associated. Higher waist circumference (women-to-men ratio of ORs [ROR], 1.05 [1.00, 1.10] per 5 cm) and presence of anxiety/depression (ROR, 1.28 [1.01, 1.63]) were associated with greater ORs for CD/dementia in women than men.ConclusionsSeveral risk factors were associated with CD/dementia. Higher waist circumference and mental health symptoms were more strongly associated with CD/dementia in women than men. Further studies should examine the mechanisms that underlie these sex differences.
Nguyen TN, Harris K, Woodward M, et al., 2021, The impact of frailty on the effectiveness and safety of intensive glucose control and blood pressure-lowering therapy for people with Type 2 diabetes: results from the ADVANCE trial., Diabetes Care, ISSN: 0149-5992
OBJECTIVE: To develop a frailty index (FI) and explore the relationship of frailty to subsequent adverse outcomes on the effectiveness and safety of more intensive control of both blood glucose and blood pressure (BP), among participants with type 2 diabetes in the Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron Modified Release Controlled Evaluation (ADVANCE) trial. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate the effectiveness and safety of intensive glucose control and BP intervention according to frailty (defined as FI >0.21) status. The primary outcomes were macro- and microvascular events. The secondary outcomes were all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, severe hypoglycemia, and discontinuation of BP treatment due to hypotension/dizziness. RESULTS: There were 11,140 participants (mean age, 65.8 years; 42.5% women, 25.7% frail). Frailty was an independent predictor of all primary outcomes and secondary outcomes. The effect of intensive glucose treatment on primary outcomes showed some evidence of attenuation in the frail: hazard ratios for combined major macro- and microvascular events 1.03 (95% CI 0.90-1.19) in the frail versus 0.84 (95% CI 0.74-0.94) in the nonfrail (P = 0.02). A similar trend was observed with BP intervention. Severe hypoglycemia rates (per 1,000 person-years) were higher in the frail: 8.39 (6.15-10.63) vs. 4.80 (3.84-5.76) in nonfrail (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in discontinuation of BP treatment between frailty groups. CONCLUSIONS: It was possible to retrospectively estimate frailty in a trial population, and this FI identified those at higher risk of poor outcomes. Participants with frailty had some attenuation of benefit from intensive glucose-lowering and BP-lowering treatments.
Rahimi K, 2021, Pharmacological blood pressure lowering for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease across different levels of blood pressure: an individual participant-level data meta-analysis, The Lancet, Vol: 397, Pages: 1625-1636, ISSN: 0140-6736
BackgroundThe effects of pharmacological blood pressure lowering at normal or high-normal blood pressure ranges in people with or without pre-existing cardiovascular disease remains uncertain. We analysed individual participant data from randomised trials to investigate the effects of blood pressure lowering treatment on the risk of major cardiovascular events by baseline levels of systolic blood pressure.MethodsWe did a meta-analysis of individual participant-level data from 48 randomised trials of pharmacological blood pressure lowering medications versus placebo or other classes of blood pressure-lowering medications, or between more versus less intensive treatment regimens, which had at least 1000 persons-years of follow-up in each group. Trials exclusively done with participants with heart failure or short-term interventions in participants with acute myocardial infarction or other acute settings were excluded. Data from 51 studies published between 1972 and 2013 were obtained by the Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Trialists' Collaboration (Oxford University, Oxford, UK). We pooled the data to investigate the stratified effects of blood pressure-lowering treatment in participants with and without prevalent cardiovascular disease (ie, any reports of stroke, myocardial infarction, or ischaemic heart disease before randomisation), overall and across seven systolic blood pressure categories (ranging from <120 to ≥170 mm Hg). The primary outcome was a major cardiovascular event (defined as a composite of fatal and non-fatal stroke, fatal or non-fatal myocardial infarction or ischaemic heart disease, or heart failure causing death or requiring admission to hospital), analysed as per intention to treat.FindingsData for 344 716 participants from 48 randomised clinical trials were available for this analysis. Pre-randomisation mean systolic/diastolic blood pressures were 146/84 mm Hg in participants with previous cardiovascular disease (n=157 728) and 157/89 mm
Copland E, Canoy D, Nazarzadeh M, et al., 2021, Antihypertensive treatment and risk of cancer: an individual participant data meta-analysis, The Lancet Oncology, Vol: 22, Pages: 558-570, ISSN: 1213-9432
BackgroundSome studies have suggested a link between antihypertensive medication and cancer, but the evidence is so far inconclusive. Thus, we aimed to investigate this association in a large individual patient data meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials.MethodsWe searched PubMed, MEDLINE, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and ClinicalTrials.gov from Jan 1, 1966, to Sept 1, 2019, to identify potentially eligible randomised controlled trials. Eligible studies were randomised controlled trials comparing one blood pressure lowering drug class with a placebo, inactive control, or other blood pressure lowering drug. We also required that trials had at least 1000 participant years of follow-up in each treatment group. Trials without cancer event information were excluded. We requested individual participant data from the authors of eligible trials. We pooled individual participant-level data from eligible trials and assessed the effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), β blockers, calcium channel blockers, and thiazide diuretics on cancer risk in one-stage individual participant data and network meta-analyses. Cause-specific fixed-effects Cox regression models, stratified by trial, were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs). The primary outcome was any cancer event, defined as the first occurrence of any cancer diagnosed after randomisation. This study is registered with PROSPERO (CRD42018099283).Findings33 trials met the inclusion criteria, and included 260 447 participants with 15 012 cancer events. Median follow-up of included participants was 4·2 years (IQR 3·0–5·0). In the individual participant data meta-analysis comparing each drug class with all other comparators, no associations were identified between any antihypertensive drug class and risk of any cancer (HR 0·99 [95% CI 0·95–1·04] for ACEIs; 0·96 [0·92&nda
Peters SAE, MacMahon S, Woodward M, 2021, Obesity as a risk factor for COVID-19 mortality in women and men in the UK Biobank: comparisons with influenza/pneumonia and coronary heart disease, Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism: a journal of pharmacology and therapeutics, Vol: 23, Pages: 258-262, ISSN: 1462-8902
Obesity is associated with severe COVID-19 outcomes, yet, it unclear whether the risk of COVID-19 mortality associated with obesity is similar between the sexes. We used data from the UK Biobank to assess the risk of COVID-19 mortality associated with various anthropometric measures in women and men. To put these results in context, we also compared these estimates with those for mortality from influenza/pneumonia and coronary heart disease (CHD). The analyses included 502,493 individuals (54% women), of whom 410 (36% women) died of COVID-19, 549 (36% women) died of influenza/pneumonia, and 3355 (19% women) died of CHD. A higher BMI, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and waist-to-height ratio were each associated with a greater risk of death from COVID-19, influenza/pneumonia, and CHD in both sexes, with the exception of the association between higher BMI and the risk of influenza/pneumonia death in men. A higher BMI was associated with a stronger risk of COVID-19 mortality in women than men; the women-to-men ratio of hazard ratios was 1.20 (95% confidence interval: 1.00; 1.43). This study demonstrates the role of obesity in COVID-19 mortality and shows that the relative effects of a higher BMI on COVID-19 mortality may be stronger in women than men. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Chowdhury EK, Nelson MR, Wing LMH, et al., 2019, Change in Blood Pressure Variability Among Treated Elderly Hypertensive Patients and Its Association With Mortality, JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN HEART ASSOCIATION, Vol: 8, ISSN: 2047-9980
Rahimi K, Canoy D, Nazarzadeh M, et al., 2019, Investigating the stratified efficacy and safety of pharmacological blood pressure-lowering: an overall protocol for individual patient-level data meta-analyses of over 300 000 randomised participants in the new phase of the Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Trialists' Collaboration (BPLTTC), BMJ Open, Vol: 9, Pages: 1-7, ISSN: 2044-6055
Introduction Previous research from the Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Trialists’ Collaboration (BPLTTC) and others has shown that pharmacological blood pressure (BP)- lowering substantially reduces the risk of major cardiovascular events, including ischaemic heart disease, heart failure and stroke. In this new phase, the aim is to conduct individual patient-level data (IPD) meta-analyses involving eligible BP-lowering randomised controlled trials (RCTs) to address uncertainties relating to efficacy and safety of BP-lowering treatment.Methods and analysis RCTs investigating the effect of pharmacological BP-lowering, with a minimum of 1000 patient-years of follow-up in each trial arm, are eligible. Our systematic review identified 100 potentially eligible trials. We requested their investigators/sponsors to contribute baseline, follow-up and outcomes data. As of June 2018, the collaboration has obtained data from 49 trials (n=315 046 participants), with additional data currently in the process of being transferred from four RCTs (n=34 642 participants). In addition, data harmonisation has commenced. Scientific activities of the collaboration are overseen by the Steering Committee with input from all collaborators. Detailed protocols for individual meta-analyses will be developed and registered on public platforms.Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval has been obtained for this new and extended phase of the BPLTTC, the largest collaboration of de-identified IPD from RCTs. It offers an efficient and ethical manner of re-purposing existing data to answer clinically important questions relating to BP treatment as well as methodological questions relating to IPD meta-analyses. Among the immediate impacts will include reliable quantification of effects of treatment modifiers, such as baseline BP, age and prior disease, on both vascular and non-vascular outcomes. Analyses will further assess the impact of BP-lowering on important, but less well und
Peiris D, Praveen D, Mogulluru K, et al., 2019, SMARThealth India: A stepped-wedge, cluster randomised controlled trial of a community health worker managed mobile health intervention for people assessed at high cardiovascular disease risk in rural India, PLoS One, Vol: 14, Pages: 1-16, ISSN: 1932-6203
BackgroundCardiovascular diseases (CVD) are rising in India resulting in major health system challenges.MethodsEighteen primary health centre (PHC) clusters in rural Andhra Pradesh were randomised over three, 6-month steps to an intervention comprising: (1) household CVD risk assessments by village-based community health workers (CHWs) using a mobile tablet device; (2) electronic referral and clinical decision support for PHC doctors; and (3) a tracking system for follow-up care. Independent data collectors screened people aged ≥ 40 years in 54 villages serviced by the PHCs to create a high CVD risk cohort (based on WHO risk charts and blood pressure thresholds). Randomly selected, independent samples, comprising 15% of this cohort, were reviewed at each 6-month step. The primary outcome was the proportion meeting systolic blood pressure (SBP) targets (<140mmHg).FindingsEight-four percent of the eligible population (n = 62,254) were assessed at baseline (18.4% at high CVD risk). Of those at high risk, 75.3% were followed up over two years. CHWs screened 85.9% of the baseline cohort and doctors followed up 70.0% of all high risk referrals. There was no difference in the proportion of people achieving SBP targets (41.2% vs 39.2%; adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.01 95% CI 0.76–1.35) or receiving BP-lowering medications in the intervention vs control periods respectively. There was a high discordance in risk scores generated by independent data collectors and CHWs, resulting in only 37.2% of the evaluation cohort exposed to the intervention. This discordance was mainly driven by fluctuating BP values (both normal variability and marked seasonal variations). In the pre-specified high risk concordant subgroup, there was greater use of BP-lowering medications in the intervention period (54.3% vs 47.9%, OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.03–1.44) but no impact on BP control.ConclusionsThe strategy was well implemented with increased treatment rates among high risk individuals a
Fulcher J, Mihaylova B, O'Connell R, et al., 2019, Efficacy and safety of statin therapy in older people: a meta-analysis of individual participant data from 28 randomised controlled trials, Lancet, Vol: 393, Pages: 407-415, ISSN: 0140-6736
BackgroundStatin therapy has been shown to reduce major vascular events and vascular mortality in a wide range of individuals, but there is uncertainty about its efficacy and safety among older people. We undertook a meta-analysis of data from all large statin trials to compare the effects of statin therapy at different ages.MethodsIn this meta-analysis, randomised trials of statin therapy were eligible if they aimed to recruit at least 1000 participants with a scheduled treatment duration of at least 2 years. We analysed individual participant data from 22 trials (n=134 537) and detailed summary data from one trial (n=12 705) of statin therapy versus control, plus individual participant data from five trials of more intensive versus less intensive statin therapy (n=39 612). We subdivided participants into six age groups (55 years or younger, 56–60 years, 61–65 years, 66–70 years, 71–75 years, and older than 75 years). We estimated effects on major vascular events (ie, major coronary events, strokes, and coronary revascularisations), cause-specific mortality, and cancer incidence as the rate ratio (RR) per 1·0 mmol/L reduction in LDL cholesterol. We compared proportional risk reductions in different age subgroups by use of standard χ2 tests for heterogeneity when there were two groups, or trend when there were more than two groups.Findings14 483 (8%) of 186 854 participants in the 28 trials were older than 75 years at randomisation, and the median follow-up duration was 4·9 years. Overall, statin therapy or a more intensive statin regimen produced a 21% (RR 0·79, 95% CI 0·77–0·81) proportional reduction in major vascular events per 1·0 mmol/L reduction in LDL cholesterol. We observed a significant reduction in major vascular events in all age groups. Although proportional reductions in major vascular events diminished slightly with age, this trend was not statistically significant (ptrend=0&
Praveen D, Peiris D, MacMahon S, et al., 2018, Cardiovascular disease risk and comparison of different strategies for blood pressure management in rural India, BMC Public Health, Vol: 18, Pages: 1-11, ISSN: 1471-2458
BackgroundNon-optimal blood pressure (BP) levels are a major cause of disease burden globally. We describe current BP and treatment patterns in rural India and compare different approaches to BP lowering in this setting.MethodsAll individuals aged ≥40 years from 54 villages in a South Indian district were invited and 62,194 individuals (84%) participated in a cross-sectional study. Individual 10-year absolute cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk was estimated using WHO/ISH charts. Using known effects of treatment, proportions of events that would be averted under different paradigms of BP lowering therapy were estimated.ResultsAfter imputation of pre-treatment BP levels for participants on existing treatment, 76·9% (95% confidence interval, 75.7–78.0%), 5·3% (4.9–5.6%), and 17·8% (16.9–18.8%) of individuals had a 10-year CVD risk defined as low (< 20%), intermediate (20–29%), and high (≥30%, established CVD, or BP > 160/100 mmHg), respectively. Compared to the 19.6% (18.4–20.9%) of adults treated with current practice, a slightly higher or similar proportion would be treated using an intermediate (23·2% (22.0–24.3%)) or high (17·9% (16.9–18.8%) risk threshold for instituting BP lowering therapy and this would avert 87·2% (85.8–88.5%) and 62·7% (60.7–64.6%) more CVD events over ten years, respectively. These strategies were highly cost-effective relative to the current practice.ConclusionIn a rural Indian community, a substantial proportion of the population has elevated CVD risk. The more efficient and cost-effective clinical approach to BP lowering is to base treatment decisions on an estimate of an individual’s short-term absolute CVD risk rather than with BP based strategy.Clinical trial registrationClinical Trials Registry of India CTRI/2013/06/003753, 14 June 2013.
Rahimi K, Mohseni H, Kiran A, et al., 2018, Elevated blood pressure and risk of aortic valve disease: a cohort analysis of 5.4 million UK adults, European Heart Journal, Vol: 39, Pages: 3596-3603, ISSN: 0195-668X
AimsTo test two related hypotheses that elevated blood pressure (BP) is a risk factor for aortic valve stenosis (AS) or regurgitation (AR).Methods and resultsIn this cohort study of 5.4 million UK patients with no known cardiovascular disease or aortic valve disease at baseline, we investigated the relationship between BP and risk of incident AS and AR using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models. Over a median follow-up of 9.2 years, 20 680 patients (0.38%) were diagnosed with AS and 6440 (0.12%) patients with AR. Systolic BP (SBP) was continuously related to the risk of AS and AR with no evidence of a nadir down to 115 mmHg. Each 20 mmHg increment in SBP was associated with a 41% higher risk of AS (hazard ratio 1.41, 95% confidence interval 1.38–1.45) and a 38% higher risk of AR (1.38, 1.31–1.45). Associations were stronger in younger patients but with no strong evidence for interaction by gender or body mass index. Each 10 mmHg increment in diastolic BP was associated with a 24% higher risk of AS (1.24, 1.19–1.29) but not AR (1.04, 0.97–1.11). Each 15 mmHg increment in pulse pressure was associated with a 46% greater risk of AS (1.46, 1.42–1.50) and a 53% higher risk of AR (1.53, 1.45–1.62).ConclusionLong-term exposure to elevated BP across its whole spectrum was associated with increased risk of AS and AR. The possible causal nature of the observed associations warrants further investigation.
Gnatiuc L, Herrington WG, Halsey J, et al., 2018, Sex-specific relevance of diabetes to occlusive vascular and other mortality: a collaborative meta-analysis of individual data from 980793 adults from 68 prospective studies, The Lancet Diabetes and Endocrinology, Vol: 6, Pages: 538-546, ISSN: 2213-8595
BackgroundSeveral studies have shown that diabetes confers a higher relative risk of vascular mortality among women than among men, but whether this increased relative risk in women exists across age groups and within defined levels of other risk factors is uncertain. We aimed to determine whether differences in established risk factors, such as blood pressure, BMI, smoking, and cholesterol, explain the higher relative risks of vascular mortality among women than among men.MethodsIn our meta-analysis, we obtained individual participant-level data from studies included in the Prospective Studies Collaboration and the Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration that had obtained baseline information on age, sex, diabetes, total cholesterol, blood pressure, tobacco use, height, and weight. Data on causes of death were obtained from medical death certificates. We used Cox regression models to assess the relevance of diabetes (any type) to occlusive vascular mortality (ischaemic heart disease, ischaemic stroke, or other atherosclerotic deaths) by age, sex, and other major vascular risk factors, and to assess whether the associations of blood pressure, total cholesterol, and body-mass index (BMI) to occlusive vascular mortality are modified by diabetes.ResultsIndividual participant-level data were analysed from 980 793 adults. During 9·8 million person-years of follow-up, among participants aged between 35 and 89 years, 19 686 (25·6%) of 76 965 deaths were attributed to occlusive vascular disease. After controlling for major vascular risk factors, diabetes roughly doubled occlusive vascular mortality risk among men (death rate ratio [RR] 2·10, 95% CI 1·97–2·24) and tripled risk among women (3·00, 2·71–3·33; χ2 test for heterogeneity p<0·0001). For both sexes combined, the occlusive vascular death RRs were higher in younger individuals (aged 35–59 years: 2·60, 2·30–2&m
Peters SAE, Wang X, Lam T-H, et al., 2018, Clustering of risk factors and the risk of incident cardiovascular disease in Asian and Caucasian populations: results from the Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration, BMJ OPEN, Vol: 8, ISSN: 2044-6055
Lynch F, Kehoe C, MacMahon S, et al., 2017, Paediatric Consultation Liaison Psychiatry Services (PCLPS) -what are they actually doing?, Ir Med J, Vol: 110, ISSN: 0332-3102
Introduction Paediatric Consultation Liaison Psychiatry Services (PCLPS) are specialised services treating mental health difficulties co-morbid with medical problems. Methods Standardised clinical data was retrieved from all case notes (N=108) during the study timeframe (Jan-June 2016). Results The majority of children were female 59 (55%) with a mean age of 13. Presentation was typically via the Emergency Department (ED) (85, 79%), and of those, the majority (53, 62%) were 'out of hours' and for Deliberate Self-harm (44, 52%) Almost half of all cases seen (50, 46%) were previously known, and discharged back (84, 78%), to CAMHS. Discussion The majority of work conducted by the PCLPS involved children with acute or deteriorating psychiatry disorders, previously known to CAMHS, with a much smaller focus on typical liaison presentations. Adequate resourcing of hospital based PCLPS and 'out of hours' CAMHS are necessary to allow PCLPS provide a specialist service to children with combined medical and MH problems. Given the development of the National Children's Hospital, addressing these resourcing deficits is of vital importance.
Rahimi K, Mohseni H, Otto CM, et al., 2017, Elevated blood pressure and risk of mitral regurgitation: A longitudinal cohort study of 5.5 million United Kingdom adults, PLoS Medicine, Vol: 14, Pages: 1-15, ISSN: 1549-1277
BackgroundMitral regurgitation in people without prior cardiac disease is considered a degenerative disease with no established risk factors for its prevention. We aimed to test the hypothesis that elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP) across its usual spectrum is associated with higher risk of mitral regurgitation.Methods and findingsWe used linked electronic health records from the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) from 1 January 1990 to 31 December 2015. CPRD covers approximately 7% of the current UK population and is broadly representative of the population by age, sex, and ethnicity. About 5.5 million UK patients with no known cardiovascular or valve disease at baseline were included in this cohort study. We investigated the relationship between blood pressure (BP) and risk of mitral regurgitation using Cox regression models. Our primary exposure variable was SBP and our primary outcome was incident reports of mitral regurgitation, which were identified from hospital discharge reports or primary care records.Of the 5,553,984 patients in the CPRD that met our inclusion criteria, during the 10-year follow-up period, 28,655 (0.52%) were diagnosed with mitral regurgitation and a further 1,262 (0.02%) were diagnosed with mitral stenosis. SBP was continuously related to the risk of mitral regurgitation with no evidence of a nadir down to 115 mmHg (p < 0.001). Each 20 mmHg increment in SBP was associated with a 26% higher risk of mitral regurgitation (hazard ratio [HR] 1.26; CI 1.23, 1.29). The observed association was partially mediated by diseases affecting the left ventricle during follow-up (myocardial infarction [MI], ischaemic heart disease [IHD], cardiomyopathy, and heart failure). However, the percentage of excess risk mediated (PERM) by these proximate causes of secondary mitral regurgitation was only 13% (CI 6.1%, 20%), and accounting for them had little effect on the long-term association between SBP and mitral regurgitation (med
Brugts J, Bertrand M, Remme WJ, et al., 2017, The treatment effect of an ACE inhbitor based regimen with perindopril in relation to beta-blocker use in 29,463 patients with vascular disease: a combined analysis of individual data of ADVANCE, EUROPA and PROGRESS trials, Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy, Vol: 31, Pages: 391-400, ISSN: 0920-3206
IntroductionIn everyday practice, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and beta-blockers are cornerstone treatments in patients with (cardio-)vascular disease. Clear data that evaluate the effects of the combination of these agents on morbidity and mortality are lacking.MethodsIn this retrospective pooled analysis of three large perindopril outcome trials (ADVANCE, EUROPA, PROGRESS), clinical outcomes were evaluated in 29,463 patients with vascular disease. Multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed in patients randomized to a perindopril-based regimen or placebo (treatment effect), and data were stratified according to background beta-blocker treatment. The primary endpoint was a composite of cardiovascular mortality, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and stroke.ResultsThe cumulative incidence of the primary endpoint over mean follow-up of 4.0 years (Sd 1.0) was significantly lower in the beta-blocker/perindopril group (9.6%; 545/5700 patients) as compared to beta-blocker/placebo (11.8%; 676/5718 patients) (p < 0.01). Adding perindopril to existing beta-blocker treatment reduced the relative risk of the primary endpoint by 20% (hazard ratio (HR) 0.80; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.71–0.90), non-fatal myocardial infarction by 23% (HR 0.77; 95% CI 0.65–0.91), and all-cause mortality by 22% (HR 0.78; 95% CI 0.68–0.88) as compared to placebo. Significant treatment benefit was not observed for stroke (HR 0.93; 95% CI 0.75–1.15). Significance was maintained for the primary endpoint and cardiovascular endpoints when data were further stratified by baseline hypertension. However, the mortality benefit was only observed in patients with hypertension with background beta-blocker use.ConclusionsThese data suggest that the beneficial cardioprotective effects of perindopril treatment are additive to the background beta-blockers use.
Hyun KK, Redfern J, Patel A, et al., 2017, Gender inequalities in cardiovascular risk factor assessment and management in primary healthcare, Heart, Vol: 103, Pages: 500-506, ISSN: 1355-6037
Objectives To quantify contemporary differences in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor assessment and management between women and men in Australian primary healthcare services.Methods Records of routinely attending patients were sampled from 60 Australian primary healthcare services in 2012 for the Treatment of Cardiovascular Risk using Electronic Decision Support study. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to compare the rate of CVD risk factor assessment and recommended medication prescriptions, by gender.Results Of 53 085 patients, 58% were female. Adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics, women were less likely to have sufficient risk factors measured for CVD risk assessment (OR (95% CI): 0.88 (0.81 to 0.96)). Among 13 294 patients (47% women) in the CVD/high CVD risk subgroup, the adjusted odds of prescription of guideline-recommended medications were greater for women than men: 1.12 (1.01 to 1.23). However, there was heterogeneity by age (p <0.001), women in the CVD/high CVD risk subgroup aged 35–54 years were less likely to be prescribed the medications (0.63 (0.52 to 0.77)), and women in the CVD/high CVD risk subgroup aged ≥65 years were more likely to be prescribed the medications (1.34 (1.17 to 1.54)) than their male counterparts.Conclusions Women attending primary healthcare services in Australia were less likely than men to have risk factors measured and recorded such that absolute CVD risk can be assessed. For those with, or at high risk of, CVD, the prescription of appropriate preventive medications was more frequent in older women, but less frequent in younger women, compared with their male counterparts.
Riddell MA, Edwards N, Thompson SR, et al., 2017, Developing consensus measures for global programs: Lessons from the Global Alliance for Chronic Diseases Hypertension research program, Globalization and Health, Vol: 13, ISSN: 1744-8603
Background: The imperative to improve global health has prompted transnational research partnerships to investigate common health issues on a larger scale. The Global Alliance for Chronic Diseases (GACD) is an alliance of national research funding agencies. To enhance research funded by GACD members, this study aimed to standardise data collection methods across the 15 GACD hypertension research teams and evaluate the uptake of these standardised measurements. Furthermore we describe concerns and difficulties associated with the data harmonisation process highlighted and debated during annual meetings of the GACD funded investigators. With these concerns and issues in mind, a working group comprising representatives from the 15 studies iteratively identified and proposed a set of common measures for inclusion in each of the teams' data collection plans. One year later all teams were asked which consensus measures had been implemented. Results: Important issues were identified during the data harmonisation process relating to data ownership, sharing methodologies and ethical concerns. Measures were assessed across eight domains; demographic; dietary; clinical and anthropometric; medical history; hypertension knowledge; physical activity; behavioural (smoking and alcohol); and biochemical domains. Identifying validated measures relevant across a variety of settings presented some difficulties. The resulting GACD hypertension data dictionary comprises 67 consensus measures. Of the 14 responding teams, only two teams were including more than 50 consensus variables, five teams were including between 25 and 50 consensus variables and four teams were including between 6 and 24 consensus variables, one team did not provide details of the variables collected and two teams did not include any of the consensus variables as the project had already commenced or the measures were not relevant to their study. Conclusions: Deriving consensus measures across diverse research project
Emdin CA, Anderson SG, Salimi-Khorshidi G, et al., 2017, Usual blood pressure, atrial fibrillation and vascular risk: evidence from 4.3 million adults, International Journal of Epidemiology, Vol: 46, Pages: 162-172, ISSN: 0300-5771
Background: Although elevated blood pressure is associated with an increased risk of atrial fibrillation (AF), it is unclear if this association varies by individual characteristics. Furthermore, the associations between AF and a range of different vascular events are yet to be reliably quantified.Methods: Using linked electronic health records, we examined the time to first diagnosis of AF and time to first diagnosis of nine vascular events in a cohort of 4.3 million adults, aged 30 to 90 years, in the UK.Results: A 20-mmHg higher usual systolic blood pressure was associated with a higher risk of AF [hazard ratio (HR) 1.21, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19, 1.22]. The strength of the association declined with increasing age, from an HR of 1.91 (CI 1.75, 2.09) at age 30-40 to an HR of 1.01 (CI 0.97, 1.04) at age 80-90 years. AF without antithrombotic use at baseline was associated with a greater risk of any vascular event than AF with antithrombotic usage (P interaction < 0.0001). AF without baseline antithrombotic usage was associated with an increased risk of ischaemic heart disease (HR 2.52, CI 2.23, 2.84), heart failure (HR 3.80, CI 3.50, 4.12), ischaemic stroke (HR 2.72, CI 2.19, 3.38), unspecified stroke (HR 2.59, CI 2.25, 2.99), haemorrhagic stroke, chronic kidney disease, peripheral arterial disease and vascular dementia, but not aortic aneurysm.Conclusions: The association between elevated blood pressure and AF attenuates with increasing age. AF without antithrombotic usage is associated with an increased risk of eight vascular events.
Kanisauskas K, Affolder A, Arndt K, et al., 2017, Radiation hardness studies of AMS HV-CMOS 350nm prototype chip HVStripV1, JOURNAL OF INSTRUMENTATION, Vol: 12, ISSN: 1748-0221
Li N, Yan LL, Niu W, et al., 2016, The effects of a community-based sodium reduction program in rural china - a cluster-randomized trial, PLOS One, Vol: 11, ISSN: 1932-6203
BackgroundAverage sodium intake and stroke mortality in northern China are both among the highest in the world. An effective, low-cost strategy to reduce sodium intake in this population is urgently needed.ObjectiveWe sought to determine the effects of a community-based sodium reduction program on salt consumption in rural northern China.DesignThis study was a cluster-randomized trial done over 18 months in 120 townships (one village from each township) from five provinces. Sixty control villages were compared to 60 intervention villages that were given access to a reduced-sodium, added-potassium salt substitute in conjunction with a community-based health education program focusing on sodium reduction. The primary outcome was the difference in 24-hour urinary sodium excretion between randomized groups.ResultsAmong 1,903 people with valid 24-hour urine collections, mean urinary sodium excretion in intervention compared with control villages was reduced by 5.5% (-14mmol/day, 95% confidence interval -26 to -1; p = 0.03), potassium excretion was increased by 16% (+7mmol/day, +4 to +10; p<0.001), and sodium to potassium ratio declined by 15% (-0.9, -1.2 to -0.5; p<0.001). Mean blood pressure differences were -1.1 mm Hg systolic (-3.3 to +1.1; p = 0.33) and -0.7 mm Hg diastolic (-2.2 to +0.8, p = 0.35) and the difference in the proportion with hypertension was -1.3% (-5.1 to 2.5, p = 0.56).ConclusionThere were clear differences in population sodium and potassium intake between villages that were most likely a consequence of increased use of salt substitute. The absence of effects on blood pressure reflects the moderate changes in sodium and potassium intake achieved.Trial RegistrationClinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01259700.
Collins R, Reith C, Emberson J, et al., 2016, Interpretation of the evidence for the efficacy and safety of statin therapy, Lancet, Vol: 388, Pages: 2532-2561, ISSN: 1474-547X
This Review is intended to help clinicians, patients, and the public make informed decisions about statin therapy for the prevention of heart attacks and strokes. It explains how the evidence that is available from randomised controlled trials yields reliable information about both the efficacy and safety of statin therapy. In addition, it discusses how claims that statins commonly cause adverse effects reflect a failure to recognise the limitations of other sources of evidence about the effects of treatment. Large-scale evidence from randomised trials shows that statin therapy reduces the risk of major vascular events (ie, coronary deaths or myocardial infarctions, strokes, and coronary revascularisation procedures) by about one-quarter for each mmol/L reduction in LDL cholesterol during each year (after the first) that it continues to be taken. The absolute benefits of statin therapy depend on an individual's absolute risk of occlusive vascular events and the absolute reduction in LDL cholesterol that is achieved. For example, lowering LDL cholesterol by 2 mmol/L (77 mg/dL) with an effective low-cost statin regimen (eg, atorvastatin 40 mg daily, costing about £2 per month) for 5 years in 10 000 patients would typically prevent major vascular events from occurring in about 1000 patients (ie, 10% absolute benefit) with pre-existing occlusive vascular disease (secondary prevention) and in 500 patients (ie, 5% absolute benefit) who are at increased risk but have not yet had a vascular event (primary prevention). Statin therapy has been shown to reduce vascular disease risk during each year it continues to be taken, so larger absolute benefits would accrue with more prolonged therapy, and these benefits persist long term. The only serious adverse events that have been shown to be caused by long-term statin therapy-ie, adverse effects of the statin-are myopathy (defined as muscle pain or weakness combined with large increases in blood concentrations of creatine ki
W Tobe S, Global Alliance for Chronic Diseases Hypertension Research Teams With the World Hypertension League, 2016, The Global Alliance for Chronic Diseases Supports 15 Major Studies in Hypertension Prevention and Control in Low- and Middle-Income Countries., J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich), Vol: 18, Pages: 600-605
This data is extracted from the Web of Science and reproduced under a licence from Thomson Reuters. You may not copy or re-distribute this data in whole or in part without the written consent of the Science business of Thomson Reuters.