Imperial College London

DrSusannahMaidment

Faculty of EngineeringDepartment of Earth Science & Engineering

Honorary Lecturer
 
 
 
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Contact

 

s.maidment

 
 
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Location

 

3.55Royal School of MinesSouth Kensington Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

54 results found

Maher AE, Burin G, Cox PG, Maddox TW, Maidment SCR, Cooper N, Schachner ER, Bates KTet al., 2022, Body size, shape and ecology in tetrapods, NATURE COMMUNICATIONS, Vol: 13

Journal article

Bestwick J, Godoy PL, Maidment SCR, Ezcurra MD, Wroe M, Raven TJ, Bonsor JA, Butler RJet al., 2022, Relative skull size evolution in Mesozoic archosauromorphs: potential drivers and morphological uniqueness of erythrosuchid archosauriforms, PALAEONTOLOGY, Vol: 65, ISSN: 0031-0239

Journal article

Brown EE, Butler RJ, Barrett PM, Maidment SCRet al., 2022, Assessing conflict between early neornithischian tree topologies, JOURNAL OF SYSTEMATIC PALAEONTOLOGY, Vol: 19, Pages: 1183-1206, ISSN: 1477-2019

Journal article

Falkingham PL, Maidment SCR, Lallensack JN, Martin JE, Suan G, Cherns L, Howells C, Barrett PMet al., 2021, Late Triassic dinosaur tracks from Penarth, south Wales, GEOLOGICAL MAGAZINE, Vol: 159, Pages: 821-832, ISSN: 0016-7568

Journal article

Spiekman SNF, Ezcurra MD, Butler RJ, Fraser NC, Maidment SCRet al., 2021, Pendraig milnerae, a new small-sized coelophysoid theropod from the Late Triassic of Wales, ROYAL SOCIETY OPEN SCIENCE, Vol: 8, ISSN: 2054-5703

Journal article

Maidment SCR, Strachan SJ, Ouarhache D, Scheyer TM, Brown EE, Fernandez V, Johanson Z, Raven TJ, Barrett PMet al., 2021, Bizarre dermal armour suggests the first African ankylosaur, NATURE ECOLOGY & EVOLUTION, Vol: 5, Pages: 1576-+, ISSN: 2397-334X

Journal article

Lockwood JAF, Martill DM, Maidment SCR, 2021, A new hadrosauriform dinosaur from the Wessex Formation, Wealden Group (Early Cretaceous), of the Isle of Wight, southern England, JOURNAL OF SYSTEMATIC PALAEONTOLOGY, Vol: 19, Pages: 847-888, ISSN: 1477-2019

Journal article

Breeden BT, Raven TJ, Butler RJ, Rowe TB, Maidment SCRet al., 2021, The anatomy and palaeobiology of the early armoured dinosaur Scutellosaurus lawleri (Ornithischia: Thyreophora) from the Kayenta Formation (Lower Jurassic) of Arizona, ROYAL SOCIETY OPEN SCIENCE, Vol: 8, ISSN: 2054-5703

Journal article

Cashmore DD, Butler RJ, Maidment SCR, 2021, Taxonomic identification bias does not drive patterns of abundance and diversity in theropod dinosaurs, BIOLOGY LETTERS, Vol: 17, ISSN: 1744-9561

Journal article

Maidment SCR, Dean CD, Mansergh RI, Butler RJet al., 2021, Deep-time biodiversity patterns and the dinosaurian fossil record of the Late Cretaceous Western Interior, North America, PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, Vol: 288, ISSN: 0962-8452

Journal article

Maidment SCR, Sennikov AG, Ezcurra MD, Dunne EM, Gower DJ, Hedrick BP, Meade LE, Raven TJ, Paschchenko DI, Butler RJet al., 2020, The postcranial skeleton of the erythrosuchid archosauriform Garjainia prima from the Early Triassic of European Russia, ROYAL SOCIETY OPEN SCIENCE, Vol: 7, ISSN: 2054-5703

Journal article

Maidment SCR, Sennikov AG, Ezcurra MD, Dunne EM, Gower DJ, Hedrick BP, Meade LE, Raven TJ, Paschchenko DI, Butler RJet al., 2020, The postcranial skeleton of the erythrosuchid archosauriform Garjainia prima from the Early Triassic of European Russia: Postcrania of Garjainia prima, Royal Society Open Science, Vol: 7

Erythrosuchidae were large-bodied, quadrupedal, predatory archosauriforms that dominated the hypercarnivorous niche in the aftermath of the Permo-Triassic mass extinction. Garjainia, one of the oldest members of the clade, is known from the late Olenekian of European Russia. The holotype of Garjainia prima comprises a well-preserved skull, but highly incomplete postcranium. Recent taxonomic reappraisal demonstrates that material from a bone bed found close to the type locality, previously referred to as 'Vjushkovia triplicostata', is referable to G. prima. At least, seven individuals comprising cranial remains and virtually the entire postcranium are represented, and we describe this material in detail for the first time. An updated phylogenetic analysis confirms previous results that a monophyletic Garjainia is the sister taxon to a clade containing Erythrosuchus, Shansisuchus and Chalishevia. Muscle scars on many limb elements are clear, allowing reconstruction of the proximal locomotor musculature. We calculate the body mass of G. prima to have been 147-248 kg, similar to that of an adult male lion. Large body size in erythrosuchids may have been attained as part of a trend of increasing body size after the Permo-Triassic mass extinction and allowed erythrosuchids to become the dominant carnivores of the Early and Middle Triassic.

Journal article

Dean CD, Chiarenza AA, Maidment SCR, 2020, Formation binning: a new method for increased temporal resolution in regional studies, applied to the Late Cretaceous dinosaur fossil record of North America, PALAEONTOLOGY, Vol: 63, Pages: 881-901, ISSN: 0031-0239

Journal article

Butler RJ, Sennikov AG, Dunne EM, Ezcurra MD, Hedrick BP, Maidment SCR, Meade LE, Raven TJ, Gower DJet al., 2019, Cranial anatomy and taxonomy of the erythrosuchid archosauriform 'Vjushkovia triplicostata' Huene, 1960, from the Early Triassic of European Russia, ROYAL SOCIETY OPEN SCIENCE, Vol: 6, ISSN: 2054-5703

Journal article

Maidment SCR, Woodruff DC, Horner JR, 2018, A NEW SPECIMEN OF THE ORNITHISCHIAN DINOSAUR HESPEROSAURUS MJOSI FROM THE UPPER JURASSIC MORRISON FORMATION OF MONTANA, USA, AND IMPLICATIONS FOR GROWTH AND SIZE IN MORRISON STEGOSAURS, JOURNAL OF VERTEBRATE PALEONTOLOGY, Vol: 38, ISSN: 0272-4634

Journal article

Barrett PM, Maidment SCR, 2017, The evolution of ornithischian quadrupedality, JOURNAL OF IBERIAN GEOLOGY, Vol: 43, Pages: 363-377, ISSN: 1698-6180

Journal article

Maidment SCR, Kirkpatrick C, Craik-Smith B, Blythe JEet al., 2017, A new ornithischian dinosaur and the terrestrial vertebrate fauna from a bone bed in the Wealden of Ardingly, West Sussex, PROCEEDINGS OF THE GEOLOGISTS ASSOCIATION, Vol: 128, Pages: 332-339, ISSN: 0016-7878

Journal article

Raven TJ, Maidment SCR, 2017, A new phylogeny of Stegosauria (Dinosauria, Ornithischia), Palaeontology, Vol: 60, Pages: 401-408, ISSN: 1475-4983

The stegosaurs are some of the most easily recognisable dinosaurs, but they are surprisingly rare as fossils. Consequently much remains unknown about their palaeobiology, and every new stegosaurian find contributes to understanding the evolution of the clade. Since the last attempt to examine the evolutionary relationships of Stegosauria, new specimens have come to light, including the most complete individual of Stegosaurus ever found, new taxa have been described and, perhaps most importantly, new methods for analysis of cladistic datasets have been produced. In the light of these new data and technological advances, the phylogenetic relationships of the stegosaurs and basal armoured dinosaurs are investigated. The inclusionof continuous data results in much better resolution than was previously obtained, and the resulting single most parsimonious tree supports re-erection of the genera Miragaia and Hesperosaurus, which had previously been synonymized with Dacentrurus and Stegosaurus respectively. The recently described genus Alcovasaurus is resolved as a basal thyreophoran, but this is likely to be due to a combination of a very high degree of missing data and the questionable ontogenetic stage of the specimen. Examination of the effects of continuous data on the analysis suggest that while it contains a phylogenetic signal congruent with that of discrete data and provides better resolution than discrete data alone, it can affect topologies in unpredictable ways, particularly in areas of the tree where there are large amounts of missing data. The phylogeny presented here will form the basis for future work on the palaeobiology of the plated dinosaurs.

Journal article

Maidment SCR, Brassey C, Barrett PM, 2015, The postcranial skeleton of an exceptionally complete individual of the plated dinosaur Stegosaurus stenops (Dinosauria: Thyreophora) from the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation of Wyoming, U.S.A., PLOS One, Vol: 10, ISSN: 1932-6203

Although Stegosaurus is one of the most iconic dinosaurs, well-preservedfossils are rare and as a consequence there is still much that remains unknownabout the taxon. A new, exceptionally complete individual affords theopportunity to describe the anatomy of Stegosaurus in detail for the first time inover a century, and enables additional comparisons with other stegosauriandinosaurs. The new specimen is from the Red Canyon Ranch Quarry, near ShellWyoming, and appears to have been so well preserved because it was buriedrapidly in a pond or body of standing water immediately after death. The quarryis probably located in the middle part of the Morrison Formation, which isbelieved to be Tithonian in age in this area. The specimen is referable toStegosaurus stenops based on the possession of an edentulous anterior portion ofthe dentary and elevated postzygapophyses on the cervical vertebrae. Newinformation provided by the specimen concerns the morphology of thevertebrae, the iliosacral block and dermal armor. Several aspects of itsmorphology indicate the individual was not fully skeletally mature at the time ofdeath, corroborating a previous histological study.

Journal article

Bates K, Maidment SC, Schachner ER, Barrett PMet al., 2015, Comments and corrections on 3D modeling studies of locomotor muscle moment arms in archosaurs., PeerJ, Vol: 3, ISSN: 2167-8359

In a number of recent studies we used computer modeling to investigate the evolution of muscle leverage (moment arms) and function in extant and extinct archosaur lineages (crocodilians, dinosaurs including birds and pterosaurs). These studies sought to quantify the level of disparity and convergence in muscle moment arms during the evolution of bipedal and quadrupedal posture in various independent archosaur lineages, and in doing so further our understanding of changes in anatomy, locomotion and ecology during the group's >250 million year evolutionary history. Subsequent work by others has led us to re-evaluate our models, which revealed a methodological error that impacted on the results obtained from the abduction-adduction and long-axis rotation moment arms in our published studies. In this paper we present corrected abduction-adduction and long axis rotation moment arms for all our models, and evaluate the impact of this new data on the conclusions of our previous studies. We find that, in general, our newly corrected data differed only slightly from that previously published, with very few qualitative changes in muscle moments (e.g., muscles originally identified as abductors remained abductors). As a result the majority of our previous conclusions regarding the functional evolution of key muscles in these archosaur groups are upheld.

Journal article

Bertazzo S, Maidment S, Kallepitis C, Fearn S, Stevens MM, Xie HNet al., 2015, Fibres and cellular structures preserved in 75-million–year-old dinosaur specimens, Nature Communications, Vol: 6, ISSN: 2041-1723

Exceptionally preserved organic remains are known throughout the vertebrate fossil record, and recently, evidence has emerged that such soft tissue might contain original components. We examined samples from eight Cretaceous dinosaur bones using nano-analytical techniques; the bones are not exceptionally preserved and show no external indication of soft tissue. In one sample, we observe structures consistent with endogenous collagen fibre remains displaying ~67 nm banding, indicating the possible preservation of the original quaternary structure. Using ToF-SIMS, we identify amino-acid fragments typical of collagen fibrils. Furthermore, we observe structures consistent with putative erythrocyte remains that exhibit mass spectra similar to emu whole blood. Using advanced material characterization approaches, we find that these putative biological structures can be well preserved over geological timescales, and their preservation is more common than previously thought. The preservation of protein over geological timescales offers the opportunity to investigate relationships, physiology and behaviour of long extinct animals.

Journal article

Bates KT, Falkingham PL, Macaulay S, Brassey C, Maidment SCRet al., 2015, Downsizing a giant: re-evaluating Dreadnoughtus body mass, Biology Letters, Vol: 11, ISSN: 1744-957X

Estimates of body mass often represent the founding assumption on which biomechanicaland macroevolutionary hypotheses are based. Recently, a scalingequation was applied to a newly discovered titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur(Dreadnoughtus), yielding a 59 300 kg body mass estimate for this animal.Herein, we use a modelling approach to examine the plausibility of this massestimate for Dreadnoughtus. We find that 59 300 kg for Dreadnoughtus ishighly implausible and demonstrate that masses above 40 000 kg requirehigh body densities and expansions of soft tissue volume outside the skeletonseveral times greater than found in living quadrupedal mammals. Similarresults from a small sample of other archosaurs suggests that lower-end massestimates derived from scaling equations are most plausible for Dreadnoughtus,based on existing volumetric and density data from extant animals. Althoughvolumetric models appear to more tightly constrain dinosaur body mass, thereremains a clear need to further support these models with more exhaustive datafrom living animals. The relative and absolute discrepancies in mass predictionsbetween volumetric models and scaling equations also indicate aneed to systematically compare predictions across a wide size and taxonomicrange to better inform studies of dinosaur body size.

Journal article

Brassey CA, Maidment SCR, Barrett PM, 2015, Body mass estimates of an exceptionally complete Stegosaurus (Ornithischia: Thyreophora): comparing volumetric and linear bivariate mass estimation methods, Biology Letters, Vol: 11, ISSN: 1744-957X

Body mass is a key biological variable, but difficult to assess from fossils.Various techniques exist for estimating body mass from skeletal parameters,but few studies have compared outputs from different methods. Here, weapply several mass estimation methods to an exceptionally complete skeletonof the dinosaur Stegosaurus. Applying a volumetric convex-hullingtechnique to a digital model of Stegosaurus, we estimate a mass of 1560 kg(95% prediction interval 1082–2256 kg) for this individual. By contrast,bivariate equations based on limb dimensions predict values between 2355and 3751 kg and require implausible amounts of soft tissue and/or highbody densities. When corrected for ontogenetic scaling, however, volumetricand linear equations are brought into close agreement. Our results raise concernsregarding the application of predictive equations to extinct taxa withno living analogues in terms of overall morphology and highlight the sensitivityof bivariate predictive equations to the ontogenetic status of thespecimen. We emphasize the significance of rare, complete fossil skeletonsin validating widely applied mass estimation equations based on incompleteskeletal material and stress the importance of accurately determiningspecimen age prior to further analyses.

Journal article

Balikova D, Maidment S, Muxworthy AR, 2015, The age of the Morrison Formation (Western Interior, USA): A Magnetostratigraphic Approach (poster), Magnetic Interactions 2015

Conference paper

Maidment SCR, Henderson DM, Barrett PM, 2014, What drove reversions to quadrupedality in ornithischian dinosaurs? Testing hypotheses using centre of mass modelling, Naturwissenschaften, Vol: 101, Pages: 989-1001, ISSN: 0028-1042

The exceptionally rare transition to quadrupedalismfrom bipedal ancestors occurred on three independent occasionsin ornithischian dinosaurs. The possible driving forcesbehind these transitions remain elusive, but several hypotheses—includingthe development of dermal armour and theexpansion of head size and cranial ornamentation—have beenproposed to account for this major shift in stance. Wemodelled the position of the centre of mass (CoM) in severalexemplar ornithischian taxa and demonstrate that the anteriorshifts in CoM position associated with the development of anenlarged skull ornamented with horns and frills for display/defence may have been one of the drivers promoting ceratopsianquadrupedality. A posterior shift in CoM position coincidentwith the development of extensive dermal armour inthyreophorans demonstrates this cannot have been a primarycausative mechanism for quadrupedality in this clade.Quadrupedalism developed in response to different selectivepressures in each ornithischian lineage, indicating differentevolutionary pathways to convergent quadrupedalmorphology.

Journal article

Maidment SCR, Bates KT, Barrett PM, 2014, Three-dimensional computational modeling of pelvic locomotor muscle moment arms in Edmontosaurus (Dinosauria, Hadrosauridae) and comparisons with other archosaurs., Hadrosaurs, Editors: Eberth, Evans, Bloomington, Publisher: Indiana University Press, Pages: 433-448, ISBN: 9780253013903

Book chapter

McDonald AT, Maidment SCR, Barrett PM, You H-L, Dodson Pet al., 2014, Osteology of the basal hadrosauroid Equijubus normani (Dinosauria, Ornithopoda) from the Early Cretaceous of China, Hadrosaurs, Editors: Eberth, Evans, Bloomington, Publisher: Indiana University Press, Pages: 44-72, ISBN: 9780253013903

Book chapter

Maidment SCR, Bates KT, Falkingham PL, VanBuren C, Arbour V, Barrett PMet al., 2014, Locomotion in ornithischian dinosaurs: an assessment using three-dimensional computational modelling, BIOLOGICAL REVIEWS, Vol: 89, Pages: 588-617, ISSN: 1464-7931

Journal article

Maidment SCR, Barrett PM, 2014, Osteological correlates for quadrupedality in ornithischian dinosaurs, ACTA PALAEONTOLOGICA POLONICA, Vol: 59, Pages: 53-70, ISSN: 0567-7920

Journal article

Maidment SCR, Barrett PM, 2012, Does morphological convergence imply functional similarity? A test using the evolution of quadrupedalism in ornithischian dinosaurs, PROCEEDINGS OF THE ROYAL SOCIETY B-BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES, Vol: 279, Pages: 3765-3771, ISSN: 0962-8452

Journal article

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