286 results found
Antoniou SA, Florez ID, Markar S, et al., 2022, AGREE-S: AGREE II extension for surgical interventions: appraisal instrument., Surg Endosc, Vol: 36, Pages: 5547-5558
BACKGROUND: The Appraisal of Guidelines Research and Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument was developed to evaluate the quality of clinical practice guidelines. Evidence suggests that development, reporting, and appraisal of guidelines on surgical interventions may be better informed by modification of the instrument. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to develop an AGREE II extension specifically designed for appraisal of guidelines of surgical interventions. METHODS: In a three-part project funded by the United European Gastroenterology and the European Association for Endoscopic Surgery, (i) we identified factors that were associated with higher quality of surgical guidelines, (ii) we statistically calibrated the AGREE II instrument in the context of surgical guidelines using correlation, reliability, and factor analysis, and (iii) we undertook a Delphi consensus process of stakeholders to inform the development of an AGREE II extension instrument for surgical interventions. RESULTS: Several features were prioritized by stakeholders as of particular importance for guidelines of surgical interventions, including development of a guideline protocol, consideration of practice variability and surgical expertise in different settings, and specification of infrastructures required to implement the recommendations. The AGREE-S-AGREE II extension instrument for surgical interventions has 25 items, compared to the 23 items of the original AGREE II instrument, organized into the following 6 domains: Scope and purpose, Stakeholders, Evidence synthesis, Development of recommendations, Editorial independence, and Implementation and update. As the original instrument, it concludes with an overall appraisal of the quality of the guideline and a judgement on whether the guideline is recommended for use. Several items were amended and rearranged among domains, and an item was deleted. The Rigor of Development domain of the original AGREE II was divided into Evidence Synthesis and Development of Rec
Markar SR, 2022, Prolonging Survival in Advanced Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma With Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors., Gastroenterology, Vol: 163
Cools-Lartigue J, Markar S, Mueller C, et al., 2022, An International Cohort Study of Prognosis Associated with Pathologically Complete Response Following Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy versus Chemoradiotherapy of Surgical Treated Esophageal Adenocarcinoma., Ann Surg
OBJECTIVE: To compare overall (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) in esophageal adenocarcinoma patients with a complete pathological response (pCR) following neoadjuvant chemotherapy (nCT) or neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT). BACKGROUND: In the absence of survival differences in several prior studies comparing nCT with nCRT, the higher rate of pCR after nCRT has been suggested as reason to prefer this modality over nCT. METHODS: An international cohort study included data from 8 high-volume centers. Inclusion criteria was patients with esophageal adenocarcinoma, between 2008 and 2018, who had a pCR following nCT or nCRT. Univariate analysis was used to compare demographic factors, and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis used to compare 5-year OS and RFS between groups. RESULTS: 465 patients with pCR following neoadjuvant treatment were included; 132 received nCT and 333 received nCRT. There was no statistically significant difference in 5-year OS between groups (78.8% (nCT) vs. 65.5% (nCRT), P=0.099), with a similar result demonstrated in multivariate analysis (HR=1.19, 95%CI 0.77 to 1.84). 5-year RFS was significantly reduced in patients with a pCR following neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (75.3% (nCRT) vs. 87.1% (nCT), P=0.026). Multivariate analysis confirmed nCRT was associated with a poorer 5-year RFS (HR=1.70, 95%CI 1.22 to 2.99). nCRT associated with a significantly greater prevalence of 5-year distant recurrence (Odds ratio=2.50, 95%CI 1.25-4.99). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this international cohort study show that the prognosis of pCR following different neoadjuvant regimes differs, bringing into question the validity of this measure as an oncological surrogate when comparing neoadjuvant treatment schemes for esophageal adenocarcinoma.
Nilsson M, Olafsdottir H, Alexandersson von Doebeln G, et al., 2022, Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy and Surgery for Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Versus Definitive Chemoradiotherapy With Salvage Surgery as Needed: The Study Protocol for the Randomized Controlled NEEDS Trial, FRONTIERS IN ONCOLOGY, Vol: 12, ISSN: 2234-943X
Chidambaram S, Sounderajah V, Maynard N, et al., 2022, Evaluation of post-operative surveillance strategies for esophageal and gastric cancers: a systematic review and meta-analysis, DISEASES OF THE ESOPHAGUS, ISSN: 1120-8694
Kamarajah SK, Markar SR, Phillips AW, et al., 2022, Survival benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy following neoadjuvant therapy and oesophagectomy in oesophageal adenocarcinoma., Eur J Surg Oncol
BACKGROUND: The evidence assessing the additional benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) following neoadjuvant therapy (NAT; i.e. chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy) and oesophagectomy for oesophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) are limited. This study aimed to determine whether AC improves long-term survival in patients receiving NAT and oesophagectomy. METHODS: Patients receiving oesophagectomy for EAC following NAT from 2004 to 2016 were identified from the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB). To account for immortality bias, patients with survival ≤3 months were excluded to account for immortality bias. Propensity score matching (PSM) and Cox regression was performed to account for selection bias and analyze impact of AC on overall survival. RESULTS: Overall, 12,972 (91%) did not receive AC and 1,255 (9%) received AC. After PSM there were 2,485 who did not receive AC and 1,254 who did. After matching, AC was associated with improved survival (median: 38.5 vs 32.3 months, p < 0.001), which remained after multivariable adjustment (HR: 0.78, CI95%: 0.71-0.87). On multivariable interaction analyses, this benefit persisted in subgroup analysis for nodal status: N0 (HR: 0.85, CI95%: 0.69-0.96), N1 (HR: 0.66, CI95%: 0.56-0.78), N2/3 (HR: 0.80, CI95%: 0.66-0.97) and margin status: R0 (HR: 0.77, CI95%: 0.69-0.86), R1 (HR: 0.60, CI95%: 0.43-0.85). Further, patients with stable disease following NAT (HR: 0.60, CI95%: 0.59-0.80) or downstaged (HR: 0.80, CI95%: 0.68-0.95) disease had significant survival benefit after AC, but not patients with upstaged disease. CONCLUSION: AC following NAT and oesophagectomy is associated with improved survival, even in node-negative and margin-negative disease. NAT response may be crucial in identifying patients who will benefit maximally from AC, and thus future research should be focused on identifying molecular phenotype of tumours that respond to chemotherapy to improve outcomes.
Puri A, Patel NM, Sounderajah V, et al., 2022, Development of the ParaOesophageal hernia SympTom (POST) tool, BRITISH JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Vol: 109, Pages: 727-732, ISSN: 0007-1323
Chidambaram S, Maheswaran Y, Chan C, et al., 2022, Misinformation about the human gut microbiome in YouTube videos: cross-sectional study, JMIR Formative Research, Vol: 6, ISSN: 2561-326X
Background: Social media platforms such as YouTube are integral tools for disseminating information about health and wellness to the public. However, anecdotal reports have cited that the human gut microbiome has been a particular focus of dubious, misleading, and, on occasion, harmful media content. Despite these claims, there have been no published studies investigating this phenomenon within popular social media platforms.Objective: The aim of this study is to (1) evaluate the accuracy and reliability of the content in YouTube videos related to the human gut microbiome and (2) investigate the correlation between content engagement metrics and video quality, as defined by validated criteria.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, videos about the human gut microbiome were searched for on the United Kingdom version of YouTube on September 20, 2021. The 600 most-viewed videos were extracted and screened for relevance. The contents and characteristics of the videos were extracted and independently rated using the DISCERN quality criteria by 2 researchers.Results: Overall, 319 videos accounting for 62,354,628 views were included. Of the 319 videos, 73.4% (n=234) were produced in North America and 78.7% (n=251) were uploaded between 2019 and 2021. A total of 41.1% (131/319) of videos were produced by nonprofit organizations. Of the videos, 16.3% (52/319) included an advertisement for a product or promoted a health-related intervention for financial purposes. Videos by nonmedical education creators had the highest total and preferred viewership. Daily viewership was the highest for videos by internet media sources. The average DISCERN and Health on the Net Foundation Code of Conduct scores were 49.5 (SE 0.68) out of 80 and 5.05 (SE 2.52) out of 8, respectively. DISCERN scores for videos by medical professionals (mean 53.2, SE 0.17) were significantly higher than for videos by independent content creators (mean 39.1, SE 5.58; P<.001). Videos including promotional mate
Kamarajah SK, Griffiths EA, Phillips AW, et al., 2022, Robotic Techniques in Esophagogastric Cancer Surgery: An Assessment of Short- and Long-Term Clinical Outcomes., Ann Surg Oncol, Vol: 29, Pages: 2812-2825
BACKGROUND: Robotic esophagogastric cancer surgery is gaining widespread adoption. This population-based cohort study aimed to compare rates of textbook outcomes (TOs) and survival from robotic minimally invasive techniques for esophagogastric cancer. METHODS: Data from the United States National Cancer Database (NCDB) (2010-2017) were used to identify patients with non-metastatic esophageal or gastric cancer receiving open surgery (to the esophagus, n = 11,442; stomach, n = 22,183), laparoscopic surgery (to the esophagus [LAMIE], n = 4827; stomach [LAMIG], n = 6359), or robotic surgery (to the esophagus [RAMIE], n = 1657; stomach [RAMIG], n = 1718). The study defined TOs as 15 or more lymph nodes examined, margin-negative resections, hospital stay less than 21 days, no 30-day readmissions, and no 90-day mortalities. Multivariable logistic regression and Cox analyses were used to account for treatment selection bias. RESULTS: Patients receiving robotic surgery were more commonly treated in high-volume academic centers with advanced clinical T and N stage disease. From 2010 to 2017, TO rates increased for esophageal and gastric cancer treated via all surgical techniques. Compared with open surgery, significantly higher TO rates were associated with RAMIE (odds ratio [OR], 1.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.27-1.58) and RAMIG (OR 1.30; 95% CI 1.17-1.45). For esophagectomy, long-term survival was associated with both TO (hazard ratio [HR 0.64, 95% CI 0.60-0.67) and RAMIE (HR 0.92; 95% CI 0.84-1.00). For gastrectomy, long-term survival was associated with TO (HR 0.58; 95% CI 0.56-0.60) and both LAMIG (HR 0.89; 95% CI 0.85-0.94) and RAMIG (HR 0.88; 95% CI 0.81-0.96). Subset analysis in high-volume centers confirmed similar findings. CONCLUSION: Despite potentially adverse learning curve effects and more advanced tumor stages captured during the study period, both RAMIE and RAMIG performed in mostly high-volume centers were associated with improved TO and long-term sur
Kamarajah SK, Griffiths EA, Phillips AW, et al., 2022, ASO Author Reflections: Modern-Day Implementation of Robotic Esophagogastric Cancer Surgery., Ann Surg Oncol, Vol: 29, Pages: 2826-2827
Kamarajah SK, Griffiths EA, Phillips AW, et al., 2022, ASO Visual Abstract: Robotic Techniques in Esophagogastric Cancer Surgery: An Assessment of Short- and Long-Term Clinical Outcomes., Ann Surg Oncol, Vol: 29, Pages: 2828-2829
Logullo P, Florez ID, Antoniou GA, et al., 2022, AGREE-S: AGREE II extension for surgical interventions - United European Gastroenterology and European Association for Endoscopic Surgery methodological guide., United European Gastroenterol J, Vol: 10, Pages: 425-434
BACKGROUND: The Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument has been developed to inform the methodology, reporting and appraisal of clinical practice guidelines. Evidence suggests that the quality of surgical guidelines can be improved, and the structure and content of AGREE II can be modified to help enhance the quality of guidelines of surgical interventions. OBJECTIVE: To develop an extension of AGREE II specifically designed for guidelines of surgical interventions. METHODS: In the tripartite Guideline Assessment Project (GAP) funded by United European Gastroenterology and the European Association for Endoscopic Surgery, (i) we assessed the quality of surgical guidelines and we identified factors associated with higher quality (GAP I); (ii) we applied correlation analysis, factor analysis and the item response theory to inform an adaption of AGREE II for the purposes of surgical guidelines (GAP II); and (iii) we developed an AGREE II extension for surgical interventions, informed by the results of GAP I, GAP II, and a Delphi process of stakeholders, including representation from interventional and surgical disciplines; the Guideline International Network (GIN); the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group; the Enhancing the QUAlity and Transparency Of health Research (EQUATOR) initiative; and representation of surgical journal editors and patient/public. RESULTS: We developed AGREE-S, an AGREE II extension for surgical interventions, which comprises 24 items organized in 6 domains; Scope and purpose, Stakeholders, Evidence synthesis, Development of recommendations, Editorial independence, and Implementation and update. The panel of stakeholders proposed 3 additional items: development of a guideline protocol, consideration of practice variability and surgical/interventional expertise in different settings, and specification of infrastructures required to implement the recommendations.
Kamarajah SK, Phillips AW, Hanna GB, et al., 2022, Is Local Endoscopic Resection a Viable Therapeutic Option for Early Clinical Stage T1a and T1b Esophageal Adenocarcinoma? A Propensity-matched Analysis, ANNALS OF SURGERY, Vol: 275, Pages: 700-705, ISSN: 0003-4932
Asplund J, Mattsson F, Plecka-Östlund M, et al., 2022, Annual surgeon and hospital volume of gastrectomy and gastric adenocarcinoma survival in a population-based cohort study., Acta Oncol, Vol: 61, Pages: 425-432
BACKGROUND: It is uncertain whether centralization of gastrectomy to fewer surgeons and larger centers improves survival in gastric adenocarcinoma in Western populations. The aim of this study was to examine if higher annual surgeon or hospital volumes of gastrectomy increase gastric adenocarcinoma survival in a population-based Swedish cohort. METHODS: This study included almost all patients who underwent curatively intended gastrectomy for gastric adenocarcinoma in Sweden between 2006 and 2015 with follow-up throughout 2020. Data were collected from medical records and national registries. Annual surgeon and hospital volumes of gastrectomies were analyzed by categorization into four equal-sized groups and as continuous variables. The outcomes were 5-year all-cause mortality (main) and 5-year disease-specific mortality. Cox regression produced hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), adjusted for sex, age, education, comorbidity, pathological tumor stage, pre-operative therapy, calendar period, and mutually for hospital or surgeon volume. RESULTS: The study included 1774 patients. Higher annual surgeon volume did not decrease the risk of 5-year all-cause mortality when comparing the highest and lowest quartiles (HR = 1.07, 95% CI 0.86-1.34) or when analyzed as a continuous variable (HR = 1.03, 95% 1.00-1.06). Higher annual hospital volume did not significantly decrease the risk of 5-year all-cause mortality (highest versus lowest quartiles: HR = 0.89, 95% CI 0.71-1.10; continuous variable: HR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.95-1.02). The results for 5-year disease-specific mortality were similar. CONCLUSIONS: This study, mirroring routine clinical practices in an entire Western country, indicates that neither annual surgeon volume nor annual hospital volume of gastrectomy influences the long-term survival in gastric adenocarcinoma.
Kroese TE, van Hillegersberg R, Schoppmann S, et al., 2022, Definitions and treatment of oligometastatic oesophagogastric cancer according to multidisciplinary tumour boards in Europe, EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CANCER, Vol: 164, Pages: 18-29, ISSN: 0959-8049
Eyck BM, Klevebro F, Van der Wilk BJ, et al., 2022, Lasting symptoms and long-term health-related quality of life after totally minimally invasive, hybrid and open Ivor Lewis esophagectomy, EJSO, Vol: 48, Pages: 582-588, ISSN: 0748-7983
Kamarajah SK, Phillips AW, Hanna GB, et al., 2022, Definitive Chemoradiotherapy Compared to Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy With Esophagectomy for Locoregional Esophageal Cancer: National Population-based Cohort Study, ANNALS OF SURGERY, Vol: 275, Pages: 526-533, ISSN: 0003-4932
Sounderajah V, Ashrafian H, Karthikesalingam A, et al., 2022, Developing Specific Reporting Standards in Artificial Intelligence Centred Research, ANNALS OF SURGERY, Vol: 275, Pages: E547-E548, ISSN: 0003-4932
Chidambaram S, Markar SR, 2022, Clinical utility and applicability of circulating tumor DNA testing in esophageal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis., Dis Esophagus, Vol: 35
Esophageal cancer is an aggressive malignancy with a relatively poor prognosis even after multimodality therapy. Currently, patients undergo a series of investigations that can be invasive and costly or pose secondary risks to their health. In other malignancies, liquid biopsies of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) are used in clinical practice for diagnostic and surveillance purposes. This systematic review summarizes the latest evidence for the clinical applicability of ctDNA technology in esophageal cancer. A systematic review of the literature was performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Review and Scopus databases. Articles were evaluated for the use of ctDNA for diagnosis and monitoring of patients with esophageal cancer. Quality assessment of studies was performed using the QUADAS-2 tool. A meta-analysis was performed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of sequencing methodologies. We included 15 studies that described the use of ctDNA technology in the qualitative synthesis and eight studies involving 414 patients in the quantitative analysis. Of these, four studies assessed its utility in cancer diagnosis, while four studies evaluated its use for prognosis and monitoring. The pooled sensitivity and specificity for diagnostic studies were 71.0% (55.7-82.6%) and 98.6% (33.9-99.9%), while the pooled sensitivity and specificity for surveillance purposes were 48.9% (29.4-68.8%) and 95.5% (90.6-97.9%). ctDNA technology is an acceptable method for diagnosis and monitoring with a moderate sensitivity and high specificity that is enhanced in combination with current imaging methods. Further work should demonstrate the practical integration of ctDNA in the diagnostic and surveillance clinical pathway.
Markar SR, Zaninotto G, Castoro C, et al., 2022, Lasting Symptoms After Esophageal Resection (LASER) European Multicenter Cross-sectional Study, ANNALS OF SURGERY, Vol: 275, Pages: E392-E400, ISSN: 0003-4932
Zaninotto G, Markar S, 2022, Management of oesophageal achalasia in POEM (and Google) times, British Journal of Surgery, Vol: 109, Pages: 150-151, ISSN: 0007-1323
Sounderajah V, 2022, Quality assessment standards in artificial intelligence diagnostic accuracy systematic reviews: a meta-research study, npj Digital Medicine, Vol: 5, Pages: 1-13, ISSN: 2398-6352
Artificial intelligence (AI) centred diagnostic systems are increasingly recognized as robust solutions in healthcare delivery pathways. In turn, there has been a concurrent rise in secondary research studies regarding these technologies in order to influence key clinical and policymaking decisions. It is therefore essential that these studies accurately appraise methodological quality and risk of bias within shortlisted trials and reports. In order to assess whether this critical step is performed, we undertook a meta-research study evaluating adherence to the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2 (QUADAS-2) tool within AI diagnostic accuracy systematic reviews. A literature search was conducted on all studies published from 2000 to December 2020. Of 50 included reviews, 36 performed quality assessment, of which 27 utilised the QUADAS-2 tool. Bias was reported across all four domains of QUADAS-2. 243 of 423 studies (57.5%) across all systematic reviews utilising QUADAS-2 reported a high or unclear risk of bias in the patient selection domain, 110 (26%) reported a high or unclear risk of bias in the index test domain, 121 (28.6%) in the reference standard domain and 157 (37.1%) in the flow and timing domain. This study demonstrates incomplete uptake of quality assessment tools in reviews of AI-based diagnostic accuracy studies and highlights inconsistent reporting across all domains of quality assessment. Poor standards of reporting act as barriers to clinical implementation. The creation of an AI specific extension for quality assessment tools of diagnostic accuracy AI studies may facilitate the safe translation of AI tools into clinical practice.
Kamarajah SK, Markar SR, 2022, Esophagectomy or Total Gastrectomy for Siewert 2 Gastroesophageal Junction (GEJ) Adenocarcinoma: An Ongoing Debate., Ann Surg Oncol, Vol: 29
Wiggins T, Jamel S, Hakky S, et al., 2021, Assurance of surgical quality within multicenter randomized controlled trials for bariatric and metabolic surgery: a systematic review, 11th Annual Scientific Meeting of the British-Obesity-and-Metabolic-Surgery-Society (BOMSS), Publisher: ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, Pages: 124-132, ISSN: 1550-7289
Tukanova K, Chidambaram S, Guidozzi N, et al., 2021, Physiotherapy regimens in esophagectomy and gastrectomy: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Annals of Surgical Oncology, Vol: 29, ISSN: 1068-9265
BackgroundEsophageal and gastric cancer surgery are associated with considerable morbidity, specifically postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs), potentially accentuated by underlying challenges with malnutrition and cachexia affecting respiratory muscle mass. Physiotherapy regimens aim to increase the respiratory muscle strength and may prevent postoperative morbidity.ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to assess the impact of physiotherapy regimens in patients treated with esophagectomy or gastrectomy.MethodsAn electronic database search was performed in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, CINAHL and Pedro databases. A meta-analysis was performed to assess the impact of physiotherapy on the functional capacity, incidence of PPCs and postoperative morbidity, in-hospital mortality rate, length of hospital stay (LOS) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL).ResultsSeven randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and seven cohort studies assessing prehabilitation totaling 960 patients, and five RCTs and five cohort studies assessing peri- or postoperative physiotherapy with 703 total patients, were included. Prehabilitation resulted in a lower incidence of postoperative pneumonia and morbidity (Clavien–Dindo score ≥ II). No difference was observed in functional exercise capacity and in-hospital mortality following prehabilitation. Meanwhile, peri- or postoperative rehabilitation resulted in a lower incidence of pneumonia, shorter LOS, and better HRQoL scores for dyspnea and physical functioning, while no differences were found for the QoL summary score, global health status, fatigue, and pain scores.ConclusionThis meta-analysis suggests that implementing an exercise intervention may be beneficial in both the preoperative and peri- or postoperative periods. Further investigation is needed to understand the mechanism through which exercise interventions improve clinical outcomes and which patient subgroup will gain the maximal benefit.
Tukanova K, Chidambaram S, Guidozzi N, et al., 2021, ASO author reflections: the role of physiotherapy regimens in esophagectomy and gastrectomy for cancer, Annals of Surgical Oncology, Vol: 29, Pages: 3168-3169, ISSN: 1068-9265
PASTDespite advancements in surgical management, esophageal and gastric cancer surgery is still associated with a significant morbidity. Traditionally, esophagectomy and gastrectomy via an open surgical approach has been the treatment of choice for esophageal and gastric cancer, respectively.1,2 Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocols commonly include physiotherapy regimens or early mobilization intervention. These programs are well-established in colorectal cancer surgery and have shown to reduce postoperative complication rates and shortened the length of hospital stay (LOS).3Only a small number of studies have assessed the role of respiratory physiotherapy in gastrointestinal cancer surgery, while this patient group commonly present with pre-existing respiratory disease and is particularly at risk for malnutrition and loss of muscle mass.4 Although there is growing evidence of the benefits of physiotherapy implementation in decreasing the risk for postoperative morbidity, there is currently insufficient strong evidence for routine implementation of standardized respiratory physiotherapy in esophageal and gastric cancer surgery.PRESENTThis is the first meta-analysis assessing the effect of prehabilitation and peri- or postoperative physiotherapy regimens on postoperative mortality and morbidity in esophageal and gastric cancer surgery.5 A lower incidence of pneumonia was observed following both prehabilitation and peri- or postoperative rehabilitation. Furthermore, a lower incidence of postoperative morbidity was seen in patients undergoing prehabilitation, while peri- or postoperative rehabilitation resulted in a shorter LOS and better health-related quality-of-life scores for dyspnea and physical functioning. These results suggest that implementation of a physiotherapy regimen in both the pre- and peri- or postoperative setting may be beneficial. This meta-analysis is however limited by the lack of a standardized physiotherapy protocol for patients unde
Markar S, Santoni G, Maret-Ouda J, et al., 2021, Hospital Volume of Antireflux Surgery in Relation to Endoscopic and Surgical Re-interventions., Ann Surg, Vol: 274, Pages: e1138-e1143
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that higher hospital volume decreases endoscopic and surgical re-intervention rates after antireflux surgery. BACKGROUND: Antireflux surgery for gastro-esophageal reflux disease is followed by varying rates of re-interventions. Whether hospital volume influences re-intervention rates is uncertain. METHODS: This population-based cohort study used nationwide data from Denmark, Finland, and Sweden for patients having undergone primary antireflux surgery. Hospitals were divided into tertiles based upon annual volume, that is, 3 equal-sized groups. The outcomes were 30-day surgical re-intervention, endoscopic re-intervention, and secondary antireflux surgery. Multivariable Cox regression provided hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for risk of the first outcome occurrence. Incidence rate ratios were calculated to count all outcome occurrences. All risk estimates were adjusted for age, sex, comorbidity, type of antireflux surgery, year of surgery, and country. RESULTS: Among 33,060 patients and a median follow-up of 12 years after antireflux surgery, the frequencies of 30-day re-intervention, endoscopic re-intervention, and secondary antireflux surgery were 1.2%, 4.6%, and 7.0%, respectively. When comparing the highest with the lowest tertiles, higher hospital volume did not decrease HRs of 30-day re-intervention (adjusted HR = 1.14, 95% CI 0.73-1.77), endoscopic re-intervention (HR = 1.21, 95% CI 0.96-1.51), or secondary antireflux surgery (HR = 1.28, 95% CI 1.05-1.54), but rather increased point estimates. The incidence rate ratios showed similar patterns. CONCLUSIONS: Higher hospital volume of primary antireflux surgery may not decrease risk of endoscopic or surgical re-intervention, suggesting that centralization will not decrease rates of postoperative complications or recurrence of gastro-esophageal reflux disease.
Markar SR, Hanna GB, 2021, Response to the Comment on: "Reintervention After Antireflux Surgery for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in England'' Markar et al. Ann Surg 2020;271:709-715, ANNALS OF SURGERY, Vol: 274, Pages: E763-E764, ISSN: 0003-4932
Kamarajah SK, Markar SR, Phillips AW, et al., 2021, Palliative gastrectomy for metastatic gastric adenocarcinoma: A national population-based cohort study., Surgery, Vol: 170, Pages: 1702-1710
BACKGROUND: The impact of palliative gastrectomy for metastatic gastric adenocarcinoma, especially by site of metastasis remains unclear. METHODS: The National Cancer Database, 2010-2015, was used to identify patients with clinical metastatic (cM1) gastric adenocarcinoma (n = 19,411) at diagnosis. The main variable was index management for cM1 gastric adenocarcinoma (ie, no treatment, palliative chemotherapy, or palliative gastrectomy). Cox multivariable analyses were used to account for treatment selection bias and reported as hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: Of 19,411 patients, 10,893 (56%) received palliative chemotherapy, and only 1,101 (6%) received palliative gastrectomy only. The median survival was 6.1 months, and 5-year survival was 4% in the entire cohort. Patients receiving palliative gastrectomy had a significantly longer survival than patients without any treatment or palliative chemotherapy (median: 12.8 vs 1.8 vs 9.5 months, P < .001), which remained after multivariable adjustment (HR: 0.76, 95% confidence interval: 0.71-0.81, P < .001) compared with palliative chemotherapy. Stratified analyses by clinical nodal stage (cN) demonstrated survival benefit with palliative gastrectomy: cN0 (HR: 0.71, 95% confidence interval: 0.62-0.82), cN1 (HR: 0.68, 95% confidence interval: 0.59-0.79), cN2 (HR: 0.86, 95% confidence interval: 0.70-0.94), and cN3 (HR: 0.82, 95% confidence interval: 0.70-0.92) over palliative chemotherapy. Stratified analyses by metastasis site demonstrated that palliative gastrectomy remained superior compared with palliative chemotherapy for metastatic disease limited to liver, bone, and peritoneum, but equivalent to lung metastasis and inferior to brain metastasis. CONCLUSION: Palliative gastrectomy appears to have a modest survival benefit over palliative chemotherapy alone. Differences in outcomes by site of metastasis warrant further research to understand tumor biology and identify specific subgroups
Kamarajah SK, Phillips AW, Griffiths EA, et al., 2021, ASO Visual Abstract: Esophagectomy or Total Gastrectomy for Siewert 2 Gastroesophageal Junction (GEJ) Adenocarcinoma? A Registry-Based Analysis., Ann Surg Oncol, Vol: 28, Pages: 517-518
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