114 results found
Javed A, Machin M, Gwozdz A, et al., 2023, Meta-analysis of lytic catheter-based intervention for acute proximal deep vein thrombosis in the reduction of post-thrombotic syndrome, Journal of Vascular Surgery: Venous and Lymphatic Disorders, ISSN: 2213-333X
Nimura M, Lane T, Rawashdeh M, et al., 2023, Study protocol for Neuromuscular Stimulation for Rehabilitation after general and vascular surgery - a pilot randomised clinical study, BMJ Open, Vol: 13, ISSN: 2044-6055
Objectives To investigate the acceptability and safety of neuromuscular stimulation (NMES) as an adjunct for rehabilitation after vascular and general surgery.Methods and analysis Prospective, single-centre, single-blind, parallel group, randomised controlled study. This study will be conducted in a single-centre, secondary care setting (National Healthcare Service Hospital) in the UK. All patients aged over 18 years undergoing vascular or general surgery with Rockwood Frailty Score of 3 or above on admission. Exclusion is inability or unwillingness to participate in trial, implanted electrical device, pregnancy and acute deep vein thrombosis. Target number of recruitment is 100. Participants will be randomly assigned to active NMES group (group A) or placebo NMES group (group B) prior to surgery. Participants will be blinded and asked to use the NMES device, 1–6 sessions daily (30 min per session) after surgery in addition to standard National Health Service rehabilitation care until discharge. The primary study outcomes are acceptability and safety of NMES assessed by the device satisfaction questionnaire on discharge and adverse events recorded during hospital stay. The secondary outcomes are the postoperative recovery and cost-effectiveness compared between two groups, assessed by various activity tests, mobility and independence measures and questionnaires.Ethics and dissemination Ethical approvals were provided by London-Harrow Research Ethics Committee (REC) and the Health Research Authority (HRA), Ref: 21/PR/0250. Findings will be published in a peer-reviewed journal and presented at national and international conferences.Trial registration number NCT04784962.
Bergner R, Onida S, Velineni R, et al., 2023, Metabolic profiling reveals changes in serum predictive of venous ulcer healing, Annals of Surgery, Vol: 277, Pages: e467-e474, ISSN: 0003-4932
Objective: The aim of this study was to identify potential biomarkers predictive of healing or failure to heal in a population with venous leg ulceration.Summary Background Data: Venous leg ulceration presents important physical, psychological, social and financial burdens. Compression therapy is the main treatment, but it can be painful and time-consuming, with significant recurrence rates. The identification of a reliable biochemical signature with the ability to identify nonhealing ulcers has important translational applications for disease prognostication, personalized health care and the development of novel therapies.Methods: Twenty-eight patients were assessed at baseline and at 20 weeks. Untargeted metabolic profiling was performed on urine, serum, and ulcer fluid, using mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.Results: A differential metabolic phenotype was identified in healing (n = 15) compared to nonhealing (n = 13) venous leg ulcer patients. Analysis of the assigned metabolites found ceramide and carnitine metabolism to be relevant pathways. In this pilot study, only serum biofluids could differentiate between healing and nonhealing patients. The ratio of carnitine to ceramide was able to differentiate between healing phenotypes with 100% sensitivity, 79% specificity, and 91% accuracy.Conclusions: This study reports a metabolic signature predictive of healing in venous leg ulceration and presents potential translational applications for disease prognostication and development of targeted therapies.
Judges D, Liu C, Onida S, et al., 2023, Left common iliac vein diameter in patients referred for lower limb venous duplex ultrasound, VASCULAR, ISSN: 1708-5381
The Vascular and Endovascular Research Network VERN Executive Committee, Hitchman L, Birmpili P, et al., 2023, The DEFINITE Audit: a prospective audit of diabetic foot debridement in theatre, Journal of Vascular Societies Great Britain and Ireland
Turner B, Jasionowska S, Machin M, et al., 2023, Systematic review and meta-analysis of exercise therapy for venous leg ulcer healing and recurrence, Journal of vascular surgery. Venous and lymphatic disorders, Vol: 11, Pages: 219-226, ISSN: 2213-3348
Objective:National guidelines in the United Kingdom have recommended regular exercise for individuals with venous leg ulceration. However, data on the effects of exercise on ulcer healing and recurrence are sparse. In the present study, we aimed to quantify the evidence for exercise regarding venous ulcer healing with respect to the primary outcomes of the proportion of healed ulcers and rate of ulcer recurrence. The secondary outcomes were improvement in ulcer symptoms, ulcer healing time, quality of life, compliance, and adverse events reported.Methods:The review followed PRISMA (preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses) guidelines using a registered protocol (CRD42021220925). The MEDLINE and Embase databases and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, ClinicalTrials.gov, European Union Clinical Trials, and International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number registries were searched up to April 6, 2022 and included studies comparing exercise therapy and compression vs compression alone. Data for the proportion of healed ulcers were pooled using a fixed effects meta-analysis.Results:After screening 1046 reports, 7 were included, with 121 participants allocated to exercise therapy and 125 to compression alone. All the reports were of randomized controlled trials and had reported ulcer healing at 12 weeks, with a pooled relative risk of ulcer healing of 1.38 for exercise vs compression (95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.71). Only one study had reported on recurrence; thus, data pooling was not performed. No differences between exercise and usual care were demonstrated. Compliance with exercise ranged from 33% to 81%. The included studies demonstrated low enrollment and a high risk of bias. Also, most of the trials had failed to demonstrate any differences in activity completed between the intervention and control arms.Conclusions:A paucity of studies has examined leg ulcer recurrence after exercise programs, with no evidence to s
Jasionowska S, Turner B, Machin M, et al., 2022, Systematic review of exercise therapy in the management of post-thrombotic syndrome, Phlebology, Vol: 37, Pages: 695-700, ISSN: 0268-3555
ObjectivesExercise improves haemodynamic parameters in patients with chronic venous disease. There is a paucity of evidence on its effect in post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS). The aim of this systematic review is to assess the impact of exercise in PTS.MethodsAdhering to PRISMA guidelines and following PROSPERO registration (CRD42021220924), MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EMBASE database, and trial registries were searched on 19th May 2022.ResultsOne article met the inclusion criteria and a narrative synthesis was carried out. The included randomised controlled trial reported a between-group mean difference of 4.6 points (p = .027) in the VEINES-QOL score and −2.0 points (p = .14) in the Villalta score, in favour of exercise therapy. The statistical significance threshold was not reached.ConclusionData on exercise in PTS remains sparse but exercise appears to be a safe intervention. In the context of this literature, a potential future trial and outcome reporting measures are suggested.
Turner B, Machin M, Jasionowska S, et al., 2022, Systematic review and meta-analysis of the additional benefit of pharmacological thromboprophylaxis for endovenous varicose vein interventions, Annals of Surgery, ISSN: 0003-4932
Objective: The primary objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to elucidate the rate of venous thromboembolism (VTE) following endovenous varicose vein intervention with mechanical thromboprophylaxis and additional pharmacological thromboprophylaxis, versus mechanical thromboprophylaxis alone.Summary Background Data: The VTE rate following endovenous procedures is higher than other day-case procedures and could be reduced with pharmacological thromboprophylaxis.Methods: The review followed PRISMA guidelines with a registered protocol (PROSPERO: CRD42021274963). Studies of endovenous intervention for superficial venous incompetence reporting the predefined outcomes with at least 30 patients were eligible. Data were pooled with a fixed effects model.Results: There were 221 trials included in the review (47 randomised trial arms, 105 prospective cohort studies and 69 retrospective studies). In randomised trial arms, the rate of deep venous thrombosis with additional pharmacological thromboprophylaxis was 0.52% (95% CI 0.23-1.19%) (9 studies; 1095 patients; 2 events), versus 2.26% (95% CI 1.81-2.82%) (38 studies; 6951 patients; 69 events) with mechanical thromboprophylaxis alone. The rate of pulmonary embolism in randomised trial arms with additional pharmacological thromboprophylaxis was 0.45% (95% CI 0.09-2.35) (5 studies, 460 participants, 1 event) versus 0.23% (95% CI 0.1-0.52%) (28 studies, 4834 participants, 3 events) for mechanical measures alone. The rate of EHIT grade III-IV was 0.35% (95% CI 0.09-1.40) versus 0.88% (95% CI 0.28-2.70%). There was one VTE-related mortality and one instance of major bleeding, with low rates of minor bleeding.Conclusions: There is a significant reduction in the rate of DVT with additional pharmacological thromboprophylaxis and routine prescription of anticoagulation following endovenous varicose vein intervention should be considered. VTE risk for individual study participants is heterogeneous and risk stratifica
Shaydakov ME, Ting W, Sadek M, et al., 2022, Extended anticoagulation for venous thromboembolism: A survey of the American Venous Forum and the European Venous Forum, JOURNAL OF VASCULAR SURGERY-VENOUS AND LYMPHATIC DISORDERS, Vol: 10, Pages: 1012-+, ISSN: 2213-333X
Thygesen JH, Tomlinson C, Hollings S, et al., 2022, COVID-19 trajectories among 57 million adults in England: a cohort study using electronic health records, LANCET DIGITAL HEALTH, Vol: 4, Pages: E542-E557
- Author Web Link
- Citations: 8
Ambler GK, Hitchman L, Benson RA, et al., 2022, Comment on: Collaborative research: population-based data and validation are necessary, BRITISH JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Vol: 109, Pages: E111-E112, ISSN: 0007-1323
Bootun R, Onida S, Lane T, et al., 2022, Varicose veins, Surgery (Oxford), Vol: 40, Pages: 411-419, ISSN: 0263-9319
Varicose veins are common and have a negative impact on people's quality of life. Treatment has been shown to improve the quality of life in those affected and is endorsed by international clinical practice guidelines. In the UK, traditional techniques of saphenofemoral and saphenopopliteal junctional ligation with or without stripping have been largely superseded by minimally invasive day surgery techniques under local anaesthesia. The most performed procedures include radiofrequency ablation and endovenous laser ablation, both of which may be associated with procedural discomfort and complications relating to the use of thermal energy. More recently, novel techniques, including mechanochemical ablation and cyanoacrylate glue, have entered the clinical arena with promising results. However, newer complications are also emerging (especially for cyanoacrylate). Saphenous sparing techniques also exist, selectively disconnecting refluxing points between the superficial and deep venous systems (CHIVA) or by removing incompetent tributaries via selective phlebectomy (ASVAL). This article discusses the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of varicose veins, including the latest endovascular and targeted open surgical techniques.
Ambler G, Hitchman L, Benson R, et al., 2022, Surgical collaboratives – here to stay, British Journal of Surgery, ISSN: 0007-1323
Machin M, Younan H-C, Guéroult A, et al., 2022, Systematic review of inframalleolar endovascular interventions and rates of limb salvage, wound healing, restenosis, rest pain, reintervention and complications, Vascular, Vol: 30, Pages: 105-114, ISSN: 0967-2109
ObjectivesPeripheral artery disease is estimated to affect 237 million individuals worldwide. Critical limb ischaemia, also known as chronic limb threatening ischaemia is a consequence of the progression of peripheral artery disease which occurs in ∼21% of patients over a five-year period. The aim of this systematic review is to assess the use of additional below-the-ankle angioplasty in comparison to the use of above-the-ankle angioplasty alone, and the subsequent rates of amputation, wound healing, restenosis, rest pain, reintervention and complications.MethodsThis systematic review was undertaken in accordance with PRISMA guidelines following a registered protocol (CRD42019154893). Online databases were searched using a search strategy of 20 keywords. Included articles reported the outcome for inframalleolar (pedal artery, pedal arch, plantar arteries) angioplasty with additional proximal angioplasty in comparison to proximal angioplasty alone. GRADE assessment was applied to assess the quality of the evidence.ResultsAfter screening 1089 articles, 10 articles met the inclusion criteria. Comparative performance assessment of below-the-ankle with above-the-ankle versus above-the-ankle angioplasty alone was undertaken in 3 articles, with the remaining 7 articles reporting outcomes of below-the-ankle with above-the-ankle angioplasty with no distinct comparator group. Significant decrease in major lower limb amputation at the last follow-up in the below-the-ankle group when compared with the above-the-ankle angioplasty alone group was observed in a single study (3.45% vs. 14.9%, p < 0.05). Improved wound healing rate at follow-up in the below-the-ankle group versus above-the-ankle angioplasty alone group was also reported in a single study (59.3% vs. 38.1%, p < 0.05). Subsequent rate of amputation after below-the-ankle angioplasty has been estimated as 23.5%.ConclusionTo date, there is a lack of studies assessing inframalleolar in
Tan K, Salim S, Machin M, et al., 2022, Abdominal aortic aneurysm clinical practice guidelines: a methodological assessment using the AGREE II instrument, BMJ Open, Vol: 12, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 2044-6055
Objectives: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) provide evidence-based information on patient management; however, methodological differences exist in the development of CPGs. This study examines the methodological quality of AAA CPGs using a validated assessment tool. Design: Medline, EMBASE and online CPG databases were searched from 1946 to 31st October 2021. Full-text, English language, evidence-based AAA CPGs were included. Consensus-based CPGs, summaries of CPGs or CPGs which were only available upon purchase were excluded. Five reviewers assessed their quality using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation II instrument. An overall guideline assessment scaled score of ≥80% was considered as the threshold to recommend CPG use in clinical practice.Results: Seven CPGs were identified. Scores showed good inter-reviewer reliability (ICC 0.943, 95% CI 0.915-0.964). On average, CPGs performed adequately with mean scaled scores of over 50% in all domains. However, between CPGs, significant methodological heterogeneity was observed in all domains. Four CPGs scored ≥80% (European Society of Cardiology, the Society of Vascular Surgery, the European Society of Vascular Surgery, and the National Institute of Health and Care Excellence), supporting their use in clinical practice.Conclusions: Four CPGs were considered of adequate methodological quality to recommend their use in clinical practice; nonetheless, these still showed areas for improvement, potentially through performing economic analysis and trial application of recommendations. A structured approach employing validated CPG creation tools should be used to improve rigour of AAA CPGs. Future work should also evaluate recommendation accuracy using validated appraisal tools.
Gimzewska M, Berthelot M, Sarai P, et al., 2022, Evaluation of a novel wireless near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) device in the detection of tourniquet induced ischaemia, BMJ Innovations, ISSN: 2055-8074
Sutanto SA, Tan M, Onida S, et al., 2022, A systematic review on isolated coil embolization for pelvic venous reflux, Journal of vascular surgery. Venous and lymphatic disorders, Vol: 10, Pages: 224-232.e9, ISSN: 2213-3348
OBJECTIVE: Pelvic venous reflux (PVR) can present with symptoms such as chronic pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, and dyspareunia, resulting in a decreased quality of life among those affected. Percutaneous coil embolization (CE) is a common intervention for PVR; however, the efficacy and safety of its use in isolation has yet to be reviewed. METHODS: The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were systematically searched from 1990 to July 20, 2020, for studies reporting on adult patients undergoing isolated CE for PVR. Articles not in English, case reports, studies reporting on pediatric patients, and studies not performing isolated CE were excluded. Search, review, and data extraction were performed by two independent reviewers (S.S. and M.T.). Changes in pain before and after CE was evaluated through a pooled analysis of visual analogue scale scores in seven studies. RESULTS: A total of 970 patients (range, 3-218, 100% female) undergoing isolated ovarian vein or mixed veins embolization from 20 studies were included. Pooled analysis revealed mean improvements of 5.47 points (95% CI, 4.77-6.16) on the visual analogue scale. Common symptoms such as urinary urgency and dyspareunia reported significant improvements of 78-100% and 60-89.5% respectively. Complications were rare, with coil migration (n = 19) being the most common. Recurrence rates differed based on the varying symptoms and studies, with recurrence in pain 1-2 years after CE ranging from 5.9-25%. Two randomized controlled trials revealed improved clinical outcomes with CE as compared with vascular plugs and hysterectomy. CONCLUSIONS: The current data suggests that isolated CE is technically effective and can result in clinical improvement among patients with PVR. However, further trials are required to ascertain its long-term effects.
Shaydakov ME, Ting W, Sadek M, et al., 2021, Review of the current evidence for topical treatment for venous leg ulcers, JOURNAL OF VASCULAR SURGERY-VENOUS AND LYMPHATIC DISORDERS, Vol: 10, Pages: 241-+, ISSN: 2213-333X
- Author Web Link
- Citations: 2
Salim S, Machin M, Patterson BO, et al., 2021, Global Epidemiology of Chronic Venous Disease A Systematic Review With Pooled Prevalence Analysis, ANNALS OF SURGERY, Vol: 274, Pages: 971-976, ISSN: 0003-4932
- Author Web Link
- Citations: 12
The Vascular and Endovascular Research Network, COVIDSurg Collaborative, Shalhoub J, 2021, Impact of COVID-19 on Vascular Patients Worldwide: Analysis of the COVIDSurg Data, The Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery: a journal on cardiac, vascular and thoracic surgery, ISSN: 0021-9509
Khatri C, Ward AE, Nepogodiev D, et al., 2021, Outcomes after perioperative SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with proximal femoral fractures: an international cohort study, BMJ Open, Vol: 11, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 2044-6055
Objectives Studies have demonstrated high rates of mortality in people with proximal femoral fracture and SARS-CoV-2, but there is limited published data on the factors that influence mortality for clinicians to make informed treatment decisions. This study aims to report the 30-day mortality associated with perioperative infection of patients undergoing surgery for proximal femoral fractures and to examine the factors that influence mortality in a multivariate analysis.Setting Prospective, international, multicentre, observational cohort study.Participants Patients undergoing any operation for a proximal femoral fracture from 1 February to 30 April 2020 and with perioperative SARS-CoV-2 infection (either 7 days prior or 30-day postoperative).Primary outcome 30-day mortality. Multivariate modelling was performed to identify factors associated with 30-day mortality.Results This study reports included 1063 patients from 174 hospitals in 19 countries. Overall 30-day mortality was 29.4% (313/1063). In an adjusted model, 30-day mortality was associated with male gender (OR 2.29, 95% CI 1.68 to 3.13, p<0.001), age >80 years (OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.31, p=0.013), preoperative diagnosis of dementia (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.15 to 2.16, p=0.005), kidney disease (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.18 to 2.55, p=0.005) and congestive heart failure (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.48, p=0.025). Mortality at 30 days was lower in patients with a preoperative diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.6 (0.42 to 0.85), p=0.004). There was no difference in mortality in patients with an increase to delay in surgery (p=0.220) or type of anaesthetic given (p=0.787).Conclusions Patients undergoing surgery for a proximal femoral fracture with a perioperative infection of SARS-CoV-2 have a high rate of mortality. This study would support the need for providing these patients with individualised medical and anaesthetic care, including medical optimisation before t
Gwilym B, Maheswaran R, Edwards A, et al., 2021, Income deprivation and groin wound surgical site infection: cross-sectional analysis from the Groin wound Infection after Vascular Exposure (GIVE) multicentre cohort study, Surgical Infections, ISSN: 1096-2964
Geoghegan L, Super J, Machin M, et al., 2021, Are venous thromboembolism risk assessment tools reliable in the stratification of microvascular risk following lower extremity reconstruction?, JPRAS Open, Vol: 29, Pages: 45-54, ISSN: 2352-5878
IntroductionThe incidence of flap failure is significantly higher in the lower extremity compared to free tissue transfer in the head, neck and breast. The most common cause of flap failure is venous thrombosis. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk assessment tools in this high-risk cohort and to assess the ability of such tools to identify patients at risk of developing microvascular venous thrombosis and venous thromboembolism following lower extremity free flap reconstruction.MethodsA single centre retrospective cohort study was conducted between August 2012-August 2019. Adult patients who had undergone free tissue transfer following open lower extremity fractures were eligible for inclusion. All patients were retrospectively risk assessed using the Department of Health (DoH), Modified Caprini and Padua VTE risk assessment tools.ResultsFifty-eight patients were included; all were at high risk of DVT according to the DoH (mean score ± SD, 3.7 ± 0.93), Caprini (10.2 ± 1.64) and Padua (5.4 ± 0.86) risk assessment tools. All patients received appropriate thromboprophylaxis; the incidence of symptomatic hospital acquired VTE was 3.5%. Micro-anastomotic venous thrombosis occurred in 4 patients resulting in one amputation. Partial flap necrosis occurred in 7 patients. There were no significant differences in scaled Caprini (median score, 10 vs 9, z = 1.289, p = 0.09), DoH (3 vs 3, z = 0.344, p = 0.36), and Padua (5 vs 5.5, z= -0.944, p = 0.17) scores between those with and without microvascular venous thrombosis.ConclusionThis data suggests that current VTE risk assessment tools do not predict risk of microvascular venous thrombosis following lower extremity reconstruction. Further prospective studies are required to optimise risk prediction models and thromboprophylaxis use in this cohort.
Geoghegan L, Onida S, Davies AH, 2021, The use of venous-specific preference based measures in health economic evaluation: Comparing apples and pears?, PHLEBOLOGY, Vol: 37, Pages: 84-85, ISSN: 0268-3555
Cruddas L, Onida S, Davies AH, 2021, Venous aneurysms: When should we intervene?, PHLEBOLOGY, Vol: 37, Pages: 3-4, ISSN: 0268-3555
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- Citations: 2
COVIDSurg Collaborative Co-authors, 2021, Machine learning risk prediction of mortality for patients undergoing surgery with perioperative SARS-CoV-2: the COVIDSurg mortality score, British Journal of Surgery, Vol: 108, Pages: 1274-1292, ISSN: 0007-1323
Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic tens of millions of operations have been cancelled1 as a result of excessive postoperative pulmonary complications (51.2 per cent) and mortality rates (23.8 per cent) in patients with perioperative SARS-CoV-2 infection2. There is an urgent need to restart surgery safely in order to minimize the impact of untreated non-communicable disease.As rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection in elective surgery patients range from 1–9 per cent3–8, vaccination is expected to take years to implement globally9 and preoperative screening is likely to lead to increasing numbers of SARS-CoV-2-positive patients, perioperative SARS-CoV-2 infection will remain a challenge for the foreseeable future.To inform consent and shared decision-making, a robust, globally applicable score is needed to predict individualized mortality risk for patients with perioperative SARS-CoV-2 infection. The authors aimed to develop and validate a machine learning-based risk score to predict postoperative mortality risk in patients with perioperative SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Guni A, Machin M, Onida S, et al., 2021, Acute iliofemoral DVT – what evidence is required to justify catheter-directed thrombolysis?, Phlebology, Vol: 36, Pages: 339-341, ISSN: 0268-3555
Staniszewska A, Gimzewska M, Onida S, et al., 2021, Lower extremity arterial interventions in England, ANNALS OF THE ROYAL COLLEGE OF SURGEONS OF ENGLAND, Vol: 103, Pages: 360-366, ISSN: 0035-8843
- Author Web Link
- Citations: 1
Ravikumar R, Lane TRA, Babber A, et al., 2021, A randomised controlled trial of neuromuscular stimulation in non-operative venous disease improves clinical and symptomatic status, Phlebology, Vol: 36, Pages: 290-302, ISSN: 0268-3555
BackgroundThis randomised controlled trial investigates the dosing effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) in patients with chronic venous disease (CVD).MethodsSeventy-six patients with CEAP C3-C5 were randomised to Group A (no NMES), B (30 minutes of NMES daily) or C (60 minutes of NMES daily). Primary outcome was percentage change in Femoral Vein Time Averaged Mean Velocity (TAMV) at 6 weeks. Clinical severity scores, disease-specific and generic quality of life (QoL) were assessed.ResultsSeventy-six patients were recruited - mean age 60.8 (SD14.4) and 47:29 male. Six patients lost to follow-up. Percentage change in TAMV (p<0.001) was significantly increased in Groups B and C. Aberdeen Varicose Veins Questionnaire Score (-6.9, p=0.029) and Venous Clinical Severity Score (-4, p-0.003) improved in Group C, and worsened in Group A (+1, p=0.025).ConclusionsDaily NMES usage increases flow parameters, with twice daily usage improving QoL and clinical severity at 6 weeks in CVD patients.
Cruddas L, Onida S, Davies AH, 2021, What, if anything, should replace the Villalta score for post thrombotic syndrome?, PHLEBOLOGY, Vol: 36, Pages: 595-596, ISSN: 0268-3555
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- Citations: 1
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