339 results found
Moussa O, Ardissino M, Eichhorn C, et al., 2021, Atrial fibrillation and obesity: long-term incidence and outcomes after bariatric surgery, European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, Vol: 28, Pages: e22-e24, ISSN: 2047-4873
Beatty JW, Clarke JM, Sounderajah V, et al., 2021, Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on emergency adult surgical patients and surgical services: an international multi-center cohort study and department survey., Annals of Surgery, ISSN: 0003-4932
OBJECTIVES: The PREDICT study aimed to determine how the COVID-19 pandemic affected surgical services and surgical patients and to identify predictors of outcomes in this cohort. BACKGROUND: High mortality rates were reported for surgical patients with COVID-19 in the early stages of the pandemic. However, the indirect impact of the pandemic on this cohort is not understood, and risk predictors are yet to be identified. METHODS: PREDICT is an international longitudinal cohort study comprising surgical patients presenting to hospital between March and August 2020, conducted alongside a survey of staff redeployment and departmental restructuring. A subgroup analysis of 3176 adult emergency patients, recruited by 55 teams across 18 countries is presented. RESULTS: Among adult emergency surgical patients, all-cause in-hospital mortality (IHM) was 3 6%, compared to 15 5% for those with COVID-19. However, only 14 1% received a COVID-19 test on admission in March, increasing to 76 5% by July.Higher Clinical Frailty Scale scores (CFS >7 aOR 18 87), ASA grade above 2 (aOR 4 29), and COVID-19 infection (aOR 5 12) were independently associated with significantly increased IHM.The peak months of the first wave were independently associated with significantly higher IHM (March aOR 4 34; April aOR 4 25; May aOR 3 97), compared to non-peak months.During the study, UK operating theatre capacity decreased by a mean of 63 6% with a concomitant 27 3% reduction in surgical staffing. CONCLUSION: The first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic significantly impacted surgical patients, both directly through co-morbid infection and indirectly as shown by increasing mortality in peak months, irrespective of COVID-19 status.Higher CFS scores and ASA grades strongly predict outcomes in surgical patients and are an important risk assessment tool during the pandemic.
Jones B, Sands C, Alexiadou K, et al., 2021, The metabolomic effects of tripeptide gut hormone infusion compared to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and caloric restriction, Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN: 0021-972X
Context: The gut-derived peptide hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin (OXM), and peptide YY (PYY) are regulators of energy intake and glucose homeostasis, and are thought to contribute to the glucose-lowering effects of bariatric surgery. Objective: To establish the metabolomic effects of a combined infusion of GLP-1, OXM and PYY (tripeptide “GOP”) in comparison to a placebo infusion, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery, and a very low-calorie diet (VLCD). Design and setting: Sub-analysis of a single-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study of GOP infusion (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01945840), including VLCD and RYGB comparator groups. Patients and interventions: 25 obese patients with type 2 diabetes or prediabetes were randomly allocated to receive a 4-week subcutaneous infusion of GOP (n=14) or 0.9% saline control (SAL; n=11). An additional 22 patients followed a VLCD, and 21 underwent RYGB surgery. Main outcome measures: Plasma and urine samples collected at baseline and 4 weeks into each intervention were subjected to cross-platform metabolomic analysis, followed by unsupervised and supervised modelling approaches to identify similarities and differences between the effects of each intervention. Results: Aside from glucose, very few metabolites were affected by GOP, contrasting with major metabolomic changes seen with VLCD and RYGB. Conclusions: Treatment with GOP provides a powerful glucose-lowering effect but does not replicate the broader metabolomic changes seen with VLCD and RYGB. The contribution of these metabolomic changes to the clinical benefits of RYGB remains to be elucidated.
Moussa O, Ortega P, Mansour S, et al., 2021, Bariatric surgical services within a pandemic can continue safely: the initial experience of a UK centre of excellence., Obesity Surgery, ISSN: 0960-8923
Van Den Heede K, Chidambaram S, Winter Beatty J, et al., 2021, The PanSurg-PREDICT Study: endocrine surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic, World Journal of Surgery, Vol: 45, Pages: 2315-2324, ISSN: 0364-2313
BACKGROUND: In the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, patients have continued to present with endocrine (surgical) pathology in an environment depleted of resources. This study investigated how the pandemic affected endocrine surgery practice. METHODS: PanSurg-PREDICT is an international, multicentre, prospective, observational cohort study of emergency and elective surgical patients in secondary/tertiary care during the pandemic. PREDICT-Endocrine collected endocrine-specific data alongside demographics, COVID-19 and outcome data from 11-3-2020 to 13-9-2020. RESULTS: A total of 380 endocrine surgery patients (19 centres, 12 countries) were analysed (224 thyroidectomies, 116 parathyroidectomies, 40 adrenalectomies). Ninety-seven percent were elective, and 63% needed surgery within 4 weeks. Eight percent were initially deferred but had surgery during the pandemic; less than 1% percent was deferred for more than 6 months. Decision-making was affected by capacity, COVID-19 status or the pandemic in 17%, 5% and 7% of cases. Indication was cancer/worrying lesion in 61% of thyroidectomies and 73% of adrenalectomies and calcium 2.80 mmol/l or greater in 50% of parathyroidectomies. COVID-19 status was unknown at presentation in 92% and remained unknown before surgery in 30%. Two-thirds were asked to self-isolate before surgery. There was one COVID-19-related ICU admission and no mortalities. Consultant-delivered care occurred in a majority (anaesthetist 96%, primary surgeon 76%). Post-operative vocal cord check was reported in only 14% of neck endocrine operations. Both of these observations are likely to reflect modification of practice due to the pandemic. CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected endocrine surgical decision-making, case mix and personnel delivering care. Significant variation was seen in COVID-19 risk mitigation measures. COVID-19-related complications were uncommon. This analysis demonstrates the safety of endocrine surgery during this
Williams SP, Purkayastha S, Chaturvedi S, et al., 2021, The GP-OH (General Practice - Organizational Health) Survey: Development and Validation of a Novel Instrument to Measure Organizational Health in General Practice., Hosp Top, Pages: 1-11
Primary care healthcare organizations are complex and multidimensional, and there has been much discussion about the potential dangers of focusing on outcomes as quality indicators in isolation without understanding the processes and system characteristics that drive them. Organizational health, as a concept, shifts the focus of measurement upstream and considers the elements needed for sustainable long-term success. This study has both designed and tested the first survey seeking to measure organizational health specifically within the context of primary care. A stepwise approach was taken to ensure that the validity and reliability of the survey was examined at multiple stages.Supplemental data for this article is available online at https://doi.org/10.1080/00185868.2021.1947164.
Lam K, Purkayastha S, Kinross JM, 2021, The ethical digital surgeon, Journal of Medical Internet Research, Vol: 23, Pages: 1-3, ISSN: 1438-8871
This viewpoint explores the ethical and regulatory consequences of the digital transformation of the operating room. Surgical robotics is undergoing significant change and future advances will center around the capture and use of data. The consequences of creating this surgical data pipeline must be understood and digital surgical systems must prioritize the safeguarding of patient data. Moreover, data protection laws and frameworks must adapt to the changing nature of surgical data. Finally, digital surgeons must understand changing data legislation and best practice on data governance to act as guardians not only for their own but also for their patients’ data.
Salem V, Demetriou L, Behary P, et al., 2021, Weight loss by low calorie diet versus gastric bypass surgery in people with diabetes results in divergent brain activation patterns: an functional MRI study, Diabetes Care, Vol: 44, Pages: 1842-1851, ISSN: 0149-5992
OBJECTIVE: Weight loss achieved with very-low-calorie diets (VLCDs) can produce remission of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but weight regain very often occurs with reintroduction of higher calorie intakes. In contrast, bariatric surgery produces clinically significant and durable weight loss, with diabetes remission that translates into reductions in mortality. We hypothesized that in patients living with obesity and prediabetes/T2D, longitudinal changes in brain activity in response to food cues as measured using functional MRI would explain this difference.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Sixteen participants underwent gastric bypass surgery, and 19 matched participants undertook a VLCD (meal replacement) for 4 weeks. Brain responses to food cues and resting-state functional connectivity were assessed with functional MRI pre- and postintervention and compared across groups.RESULTS: We show that Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) results in three divergent brain responses compared with VLCD-induced weight loss: 1) VLCD resulted in increased brain reward center food cue responsiveness, whereas in RYGB, this was reduced; 2) VLCD resulted in higher neural activation of cognitive control regions in response to food cues associated with exercising increased cognitive restraint over eating, whereas RYGB did not; and 3) a homeostatic appetitive system (centered on the hypothalamus) is better engaged following RYGB-induced weight loss than VLCD.CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these findings point to divergent brain responses to different methods of weight loss in patients with diabetes, which may explain weight regain after a short-term VLCD in contrast to enduring weight loss after RYGB.
Kamocka A, Parmar C, Kurzatkowski K, et al., 2021, Outcomes of bariatric surgery in extreme obesity: results from the United Kingdom National Bariatric Surgery Registry for patients with a body mass index >70 kg/m2., Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases, ISSN: 1550-7289
BACKGROUND: Bariatric and metabolic surgery (BMS) is an established safe, effective, and durable treatment for obesity and its complications. However, there is still a paucity of evidence on surgery outcomes in patients suffering from extreme obesity. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate outcomes of BMS in weight loss and the resolution of co-morbidities in patients with a body mass index (BMI) ≥70kg/m2. SETTING: National Health Service and private hospitals in the United Kingdom. METHODS: This cohort study analyzed prospectively collected records from the UK National Bariatric Surgery Registry of patients with a BMI ≥70 kg/m2 undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), sleeve gastrectomy (SG), or adjustable gastric band (AGB) between January 2009 and June 2014. RESULTS: There were 230 patients (64% female) eligible for inclusion in the study: 22 underwent AGB; 102 underwent SG, and 106 underwent RYGB. Preoperative weight and BMI values were comparable (76 ± 7 kg/m2 for AGB; 75 ± 5 kg/m2 for SG; 74 ± 5 kg/m2 for RYGB). The median postoperative follow-up was 13 months for AGB (10-22 mo), 18 for SG (6-28 mo), and 15 for RYGB (6-24 mo). Patients undergoing RYGB and SG exhibited the greatest postoperative total body weight loss (35 ± 13% and 31 ± 15%, respectively; P = .14), which led to postoperative BMIs of 48 ± 10 kg/m2 and 51 ± 11 kg/m2, respectively (P = .14). All procedures conferred a reduction in the incidence of co-morbidities, including type 2 diabetes, and led to improved functional statuses. The overall complication rate was 7%, with 3 deaths (1%) within 30 days of surgery. CONCLUSION: This study found that primary BMS in patients with a BMI >70kg/m2 has an acceptable safety profile and is associated with good medium-term clinical outcomes. RYGB and SG are associated with better weight loss and great improvements in co-morbidities than AGB. Given the noninferiority of SG outcomes and SG'
Raglan O, MacIntyre D, Mitra A, et al., 2021, The association between obesity and weight loss after bariatric surgery on the vaginal microbiota, Microbiome, Vol: 9, Pages: 1-17, ISSN: 2049-2618
Background: Obesity and vaginal microbiome (VMB) dysbiosis are each risk factors for adverse reproductive and oncological health outcomes in women. Here we investigated the relationship between obesity, vaginal bacterial composition, local inflammation and bariatric surgery.Methods: Vaginal bacterial composition assessed by high-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes and local cytokine levels measured using a multiplexed Magnetic Luminex Screening Assay were compared between 67 obese and 42 non-obese women. We further assessed temporal changes in the microbiota and cytokines in a subset of 27 women who underwent bariatric surgery. Results: The bacterial component of the vaginal microbiota in obese women was characterised by a lower prevalence of a Lactobacillus-dominant VMB and higher prevalence of a high diversity (Lactobacillus spp., and Gardnerella- spp. depleted) VMB, compared with non-obese subjects (p<0.001). Obese women had higher relative abundance of Dialister species (p<0.001), Anaerococcus vaginalis (p=0.021) and Prevotella timonensis (p=0.020) and decreased relative abundance of Lactobacillus crispatus (p=0.014). Local vaginal IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IFNγ, MIP-1α, and TNFα levels were all higher among obese women, however only IL-1β and IL-8 correlated with VMB species diversity. In a subset of obese women undergoing bariatric surgery, there were no significant overall differences in VMB following surgery, however 75% of these women remained obese at six months. Prior to surgery there was no relationship between body mass index (BMI) and VMB structure, however post-surgery women with a Lactobacillus-dominant VMB had a significantly lower BMI than those with a high diversity VMB.Conclusions: Obese women have a significantly different vaginal microbiota composition with increased levels of local inflammation compared to non-obese women. Bariatric surgery does not change the VMB, however, those with the greatest
Van den Heede K, Chidambaram S, Beatty JW, et al., 2021, The PanSurg-PREDICT study: endocrine surgery during the COVID-19 pandemic (Apr, 10.1007/s00268-021-06099-z, 2021), World Journal of Surgery, Pages: 1-1, ISSN: 0364-2313
Moussa O, Ardissino M, Vincent M, et al., 2021, Long-term cardiovascular outcomes after orlistat therapy in patients with obesity: a nationwide, propensity score matched cohort study, European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy, ISSN: 2055-6845
Aims:The rising prevalence of obesity and its associated comorbidities represent a growing public health issue; in particular, obesity is known to be a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Despite the evidence behind the efficacy of orlistat in achieving weight loss in patients with obesity, no study thus far has quantified its long-term effect on cardiovascular outcomes. The purpose of this study is to explore long-term cardiovascular outcomes after orlistat therapy.Methods and results:A propensity-score matched cohort study was conducted on the nation-wide electronic primary and integrated secondary healthcare records of the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). The 36 876 patients with obesity in the CPRD database who had completed a course of orlistat during follow-up were matched on a 1:1 basis with equal numbers of controls who had not taken orlistat. Patients were followed up for a median of 6 years for the occurrence of the primary composite endpoint of major adverse cardiovascular events (fatal or non-fatal myocardial infarction or ischaemic stroke), and a number of secondary endpoints including primary endpoint components individually, the occurrence of new-onset heart failure, coronary revascularization, new chronic kidney disease stage III+ (CKD3+), and all-cause mortality. During the median study follow-up of 6 years, the occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events was lower in the orlistat cohort [hazard ratio (HR) 0.74; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.66–0.83, P < 0.001]. Patients who took orlistat experienced lower rates of myocardial infarction (HR 0.77; 95% CI 0.66–0.88, P < 0.001) and ischaemic stroke (HR 0.68; 95% CI 0.56 to −0.84, P < 0.001) as well as new-onset heart failure (HR 0.79; 95% CI 0.67–0.94, P = 0.007). There was no differences in revascularization rates (HR 1.12; 95% CI 0.91–1.38, P = 0.27)
Vaghela U, Rabinowicz S, Bratsos P, et al., 2021, Using a secure continually updating web-source processing pipeline supporting a Real-time data synthesis and analysis of scientific literature: development and validation study, Journal of Medical Internet Research, Vol: 23, ISSN: 1438-8871
Background: The scale and quality of the global scientific response to the COVID-19 pandemic have unquestionably saved lives. However, the COVID-19 pandemic has also triggered an unprecedented “infodemic”; the velocity and volume of data production have overwhelmed many key stakeholders such as clinicians and policy makers, as they have been unable to process structured and unstructured data for evidence-based decision making. Solutions that aim to alleviate this data synthesis–related challenge are unable to capture heterogeneous web data in real time for the production of concomitant answers and are not based on the high-quality information in responses to a free-text query.Objective: The main objective of this project is to build a generic, real-time, continuously updating curation platform that can support the data synthesis and analysis of a scientific literature framework. Our secondary objective is to validate this platform and the curation methodology for COVID-19–related medical literature by expanding the COVID-19 Open Research Dataset via the addition of new, unstructured data.Methods: To create an infrastructure that addresses our objectives, the PanSurg Collaborative at Imperial College London has developed a unique data pipeline based on a web crawler extraction methodology. This data pipeline uses a novel curation methodology that adopts a human-in-the-loop approach for the characterization of quality, relevance, and key evidence across a range of scientific literature sources.Results: REDASA (Realtime Data Synthesis and Analysis) is now one of the world’s largest and most up-to-date sources of COVID-19–related evidence; it consists of 104,000 documents. By capturing curators’ critical appraisal methodologies through the discrete labeling and rating of information, REDASA rapidly developed a foundational, pooled, data science data set of over 1400 articles in under 2 weeks. These articles provide COVID-19&ndas
Goh ET, Denning M, Purkayastha S, et al., 2021, Determinants of Psychological Well-Being in Healthcare Workers During the Covid-19 Pandemic: A Multinational Cross-Sectional Study, Publisher: OXFORD UNIV PRESS, ISSN: 0007-1323
Salem V, Demetriou L, Behary P, et al., 2021, Weight loss by low-calorie diet versus gastric bypass surgery in people with diabetes results in divergent brain activation patterns which may explain differences in long-term outcomes: an FMRI study, The Diabetes UK Professional Conference 2021, Publisher: Wiley, Pages: 1-1, ISSN: 0742-3071
Objective: Clinically significant weight loss can produce remission of type 2 diabetes. Bariatric surgery (specifically, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, RYGB) produces durable weight loss that translates into reductions in mortality. In contrast, weight regain is very common after very low-calorie diets (VLCD). No study has investigated longitudinal changes in brain activity using functional MRI in patients living with obesity and prediabetes/type 2 diabetes to explain this difference.Methods: Visual food cue responses and resting state connectivity was assessed with functional MRI pre- and post-intervention and compared between 16 participants who underwent gastric bypass surgery and 19 age, gender, and disease stage matched participants who undertook a VLCD for 4 weeks.Results: Brain responses to RYGB-induced weight loss diverge from those induced by VLCD in three domains: (i) dieting resulted in increased responsiveness to visual food cues in reward areas whereas after RYGB this was reduced; (ii) dieting therefore engaged greater activation of brain regions involved in cognitive control, associated with the need to exercise increased restraint over eating; and (iii) a homeostatic appetitive system (centred on the hypothalamus) was better engaged following RYGB-induced weight loss than dieting.Conclusion: This study provides a holistic view of multiple divergent brain responses to different methods of weight loss in patients with diabetes, which may explain weight regain after a short-term VLCD in contrast with the enduring weight loss after RYGB.
Denning M, Goh ET, Tan B, et al., 2021, Determinants of burnout and other aspects of psychological well-being in healthcare workers during the Covid-19 pandemic: A multinational cross-sectional study, PLOS ONE, Vol: 16, ISSN: 1932-6203
Vaghela U, Rabinowicz S, Bratsos P, et al., 2021, Using a secure, continually updating, web source processing pipeline to support the real-time data synthesis and analysis of scientific literature: development and validation study, Publisher: JMIR Publications
Background:The scale and quality of the global scientific response to the COVID-19 pandemic have unquestionably saved lives. However, the COVID-19 pandemic has also triggered an unprecedented “infodemic”; the velocity and volume of data production have overwhelmed many key stakeholders such as clinicians and policy makers, as they have been unable to process structured and unstructured data for evidence-based decision making. Solutions that aim to alleviate this data synthesis–related challenge are unable to capture heterogeneous web data in real time for the production of concomitant answers and are not based on the high-quality information in responses to a free-text query.Objective:The main objective of this project is to build a generic, real-time, continuously updating curation platform that can support the data synthesis and analysis of a scientific literature framework. Our secondary objective is to validate this platform and the curation methodology for COVID-19–related medical literature by expanding the COVID-19 Open Research Dataset via the addition of new, unstructured data.Methods:To create an infrastructure that addresses our objectives, the PanSurg Collaborative at Imperial College London has developed a unique data pipeline based on a web crawler extraction methodology. This data pipeline uses a novel curation methodology that adopts a human-in-the-loop approach for the characterization of quality, relevance, and key evidence across a range of scientific literature sources.Results:REDASA (Realtime Data Synthesis and Analysis) is now one of the world’s largest and most up-to-date sources of COVID-19–related evidence; it consists of 104,000 documents. By capturing curators’ critical appraisal methodologies through the discrete labeling and rating of information, REDASA rapidly developed a foundational, pooled, data science data set of over 1400 articles in under 2 weeks. These articles provide COVID-19–re
Moussa O, Ardissino M, Tang A, et al., 2021, Long-term cerebrovascular outcomes after bariatric surgery: A nationwide cohort study, CLINICAL NEUROLOGY AND NEUROSURGERY, Vol: 203, ISSN: 0303-8467
Samarasinghe S, Sudlow A, Dimitriadis GK, et al., 2021, Simple tool to prioritize access to bariatric surgery for people living with obesity during the COVID-19 pandemic, British Journal of Surgery, Vol: 108, Pages: e179-e180, ISSN: 0007-1323
Russell VR, Ibrahim M, Phillips G, et al., 2021, Imperforate hymen mimicking acute appendicitis in an adolescent woman: a rare presentation, BMJ CASE REPORTS, Vol: 14
Lam K, Iqbal F, Purkayastha S, et al., 2021, A protocol for a Delphi study investigating the ethical and data governance issues of artificial intelligence in surgery, JMIR Research Protocols, Vol: 10, ISSN: 1929-0748
Background: The rapid uptake of digital technology into the operating room has the potential to improve patient outcomes, increase efficiency of the use of operating rooms, and allow surgeons to progress quickly up learning curves. These technologies are, however, dependent on huge amounts of data, and the consequences of their mismanagement are significant. While the field of artificial intelligence ethics is able to provide a broad framework for those designing and implementing these technologies into the operating room, there is a need to determine and address the ethical and data governance challenges of using digital technology in this unique environment.Objective: The objectives of this study are to define the term digital surgery and gain expert consensus on the key ethical and data governance issues, barriers, and future research goals of the use of artificial intelligence in surgery.Methods: Experts from the fields of surgery, ethics and law, policy, artificial intelligence, and industry will be invited to participate in a 4-round consensus Delphi exercise. In the first round, participants will supply free-text responses across 4 key domains: ethics, data governance, barriers, and future research goals. They will also be asked to provide their understanding of the term digital surgery. In subsequent rounds, statements will be grouped, and participants will be asked to rate the importance of each issue on a 9-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (not at all important) to 9 (critically important). Consensus is defined a priori as a score of 7 to 9 by 70% of respondents and 1 to 3 by less than 30% of respondents. A final online meeting round will be held to discuss inclusion of statements and draft a consensus document.Results: Full ethical approval has been obtained for the study by the local research ethics committee at Imperial College, London (20IC6136). We anticipate round 1 to commence in January 2021.Conclusions: The results of this study will define the t
Kenkre J, Ahmed A, Purkayastha S, et al., 2021, Who will benefit from bariatric surgery for diabetes? A protocol for an observational cohort study, BMJ Open, Vol: 11, ISSN: 2044-6055
Introduction Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and obesity are pandemic diseases that lead to a great deal of morbidity and mortality. The most effective treatment for obesity and T2DM is bariatric or metabolic surgery; it can lead to long-term diabetes remission with 4 in 10 of those undergoing surgery having normal blood glucose on no medication 1 year postoperatively. However, surgery carries risks and, additionally, due to resource limitations, there is a restricted number of patients who can access this treatment. Moreover, not all those who undertake surgery respond equally well metabolically. The objective of the current research is to prospectively investigate predictors of T2DM response following metabolic surgery, including those directly involved in its aetiopathogenesis such as fat distribution and genetic variants. This will inform development of a clinically applicable model to help prioritise this therapy to those predicted to have remission.Methods and analysis A prospective multicentre observational cohort study of adult patients with T2DM and obesity undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Patients will be comprehensively assessed before surgery to determine their clinical, metabolic, psychological, genetic and fat distribution profiles. A multivariate logistic regression model will be used to assess the value of the factors derived from the preoperative assessment in terms of prediction of diabetes remission.Ethics and dissemination Formal ethics review was undertaken with a favourable opinion (UK HRA RES reference number 18/LO/0931). The dissemination plan is to present the results at conferences, in peer-reviewed journals as well as to lay media and to patient organisations.Trial registration details ClinicalTrials.gov, Identifier: NCT03842475.
Arhi CS, Dudley R, Moussa O, et al., 2021, The Complex Association Between Bariatric Surgery and Depression: a National Nested-Control Study, OBESITY SURGERY, Vol: 31, Pages: 1994-2001, ISSN: 0960-8923
Ilesanmi I, Tharakan G, Alexiadou K, et al., 2021, Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Increases Glycemic Variability and Time in Hypoglycemia in Patients With Obesity and Prediabetes or Type 2 Diabetes: A Prospective Cohort Study, DIABETES CARE, Vol: 44, Pages: 614-617, ISSN: 0149-5992
Miras A, Kamocka A, Pérez-Pevida B, et al., 2021, The effect of standard versus longer intestinal bypass on GLP-1 regulation and glucose metabolism in patients with type 2 diabetes undergoing roux-en-Y gastric bypass. The long-limb study, Diabetes Care, Vol: 44, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 0149-5992
ObjectiveRoux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) characteristically enhances post-prandial levels of Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), a mechanism that contributes to its profound glucose-lowering effects. This enhancement is thought to be triggered by bypass of food to the distal small intestine with higher densities of neuroendocrine L-cells. We hypothesised that if this is the predominant mechanism behind the enhanced secretion of GLP-1, a longer intestinal bypass would potentiate the post-prandial peak in GLP-1, translating into higher insulin secretion and thus additional improvements in glucose tolerance. To investigate this, we conducted a mechanistic study comparing two variants of RYGB that differ in the length of intestinal bypass.Research Design and MethodsFifty-three patients with type 2 diabetes and obesity were randomised to either ‘standard limb’ RYGB (50cm biliopancreatic limb) or ‘long limb’ RYGB (150cm biliopancreatic limb). They underwent measurements of GLP-1 and insulin secretion following a mixed meal and insulin sensitivity using euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamps at baseline, 2 weeks and at 20% weight loss after surgery.ResultsBoth groups exhibited enhancement in post-prandial GLP-1 secretion and improvements in glycaemia compared to baseline. There were no significant differences in post-prandial peak concentrations of GLP-1, time to peak, insulin secretion, and insulin sensitivity. ConclusionThe findings of this study demonstrate that lengthening of the intestinal bypass in RYGB does not affect GLP-1 secretion. Thus, the characteristic enhancement of GLP-1 response after RYGB might not depend on delivery of nutrients to more distal intestinal segments.
Zakka K, Chidambaram S, Mansour S, et al., 2021, SARS-CoV-2 and obesity: "CoVesity"-a pandemic within a pandemic, Obesity Surgery, Vol: 31, Pages: 1745-1754, ISSN: 0960-8923
Individuals who are overweight or suffering from obesity are in a chronic state of low-grade inflammation, making them particularly susceptible to developing severe forms of respiratory failure. Studies conducted in past pandemics link obesity with worse health outcomes. This population is thus of particular concern within the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, considering the cessation of obesity management services. This systematic review highlights  the reciprocal link between the obesity and COVID-19 pandemics,  obesity as a risk factor for more severe disease in past pandemics,  potential mechanisms that make individual’s suffering from obesity more susceptible to severe disease and higher viral load, and  the need to safely resume bariatric services as recommended by expert guidelines, in order to mitigate the health outcomes of an already vulnerable population.
Ardissino M, Watson F, Amin R, et al., 2021, Atherosclerotic disease burden after bariatric surgery in patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes, JOURNAL OF DIABETES, Vol: 13, Pages: 640-647, ISSN: 1753-0393
Williams SP, Purkayastha S, Chaturvedi S, et al., 2021, Organizational health and independent sector healthcare organizations, International Journal of Healthcare Management, Pages: 1-8, ISSN: 2047-9719
With an increasing proportion of UK healthcare delivered by independent sector providers (ISPs) it is important that performance data is reviewed with a similar rigour as within the public sector. However, there is a relative paucity of work considering quotients of performance in the independent healthcare sector. This study sets out to measure organizational health within ISPs in the UK and juxtapose this with contemporaneous data taken from public sector NHS organizations. Survey data was tested for construct validity with fit of the existing factor structure of the Healthcare-OH survey examined using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Multiple-group CFA was used to establish measurement invariance to permit comparison of latent sum scores between ISP and NHS organizations. Measurement invariance analysis evaluated the fit of sequential invariance models, proceeding iteratively to establish partial metric and scalar invariance. Latent sum scores comparisons demonstrated ISPs outperformed NHS trusts across all elements of organizational health. This is the first time organizational health has been measured in ISPs explicitly for comparison with results in the public sector. Comparative measurement and analysis in this way is novel and has the potential of fostering a two-way learning process for the ultimate benefit of both NHS and ISP organizations.
Moussa O, Ardissino M, Muttoni S, et al., 2021, Long-term incidence and outcomes of obesity-related peripheral vascular disease after bariatric surgery, LANGENBECKS ARCHIVES OF SURGERY, Vol: 406, Pages: 1029-1036, ISSN: 1435-2443
Erridge S, Moussa O, McIntyre C, et al., 2021, Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Obese Patients: a UK Population Analysis, OBESITY SURGERY, Vol: 31, Pages: 1986-1993, ISSN: 0960-8923
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