Imperial College London


Faculty of MedicineSchool of Public Health

Director of WHO Collaborating Centre



+44 (0)20 7594 8814s.rawaf




Ms Ela Augustyniak +44 (0)20 7594 8603




311Reynolds BuildingCharing Cross Campus





Publication Type

219 results found

GBD 2017 Pancreatic Cancer Collaborators, 2019, The global, regional, and national burden of pancreatic cancer and its attributable risk factors in 195 countries and territories, 1990-2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017., Lancet Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Vol: 4, Pages: 934-947, ISSN: 2468-1253

BACKGROUND: Worldwide, both the incidence and death rates of pancreatic cancer are increasing. Evaluation of pancreatic cancer burden and its global, regional, and national patterns is crucial to policy making and better resource allocation for controlling pancreatic cancer risk factors, developing early detection methods, and providing faster and more effective treatments. METHODS: Vital registration, vital registration sample, and cancer registry data were used to generate mortality, incidence, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) estimates. We used the comparative risk assessment framework to estimate the proportion of deaths attributable to risk factors for pancreatic cancer: smoking, high fasting plasma glucose, and high body-mass index. All of the estimates were reported as counts and age-standardised rates per 100 000 person-years. 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs) were reported for all estimates. FINDINGS: In 2017, there were 448 000 (95% UI 439 000-456 000) incident cases of pancreatic cancer globally, of which 232 000 (210 000-221 000; 51·9%) were in males. The age-standardised incidence rate was 5·0 (4·9-5·1) per 100 000 person-years in 1990 and increased to 5·7 (5·6-5·8) per 100 000 person-years in 2017. There was a 2·3 times increase in number of deaths for both sexes from 196 000 (193 000-200 000) in 1990 to 441 000 (433 000-449 000) in 2017. There was a 2·1 times increase in DALYs due to pancreatic cancer, increasing from 4·4 million (4·3-4·5) in 1990 to 9·1 million (8·9-9·3) in 2017. The age-standardised death rate of pancreatic cancer was highest in the high-income super-region across all years from 1990 to 2017. In 2017, the highest age-standardised death rates were observed in Greenland (17·4 [15·8-19·0] per 100 000 person-years) and Uruguay (12·1 [10·9-13·5] per 100 000 person-years). These countri

Journal article

GBD 2017 Colorectal Cancer Collaborators, 2019, The global, regional, and national burden of colorectal cancer and its attributable risk factors in 195 countries and territories, 1990-2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017., Lancet Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Vol: 4, Pages: 913-933, ISSN: 2468-1253

BACKGROUND: Data about the global, regional, and country-specific variations in the levels and trends of colorectal cancer are required to understand the impact of this disease and the trends in its burden to help policy makers allocate resources. Here we provide a status report on the incidence, mortality, and disability caused by colorectal cancer in 195 countries and territories between 1990 and 2017. METHODS: Vital registration, sample vital registration, verbal autopsy, and cancer registry data were used to generate incidence, death, and disability-adjusted life-year (DALY) estimates of colorectal cancer at the global, regional, and national levels. We also determined the association between development levels and colorectal cancer age-standardised DALY rates, and calculated DALYs attributable to risk factors that had evidence of causation with colorectal cancer. All of the estimates are reported as counts and age-standardised rates per 100 000 person-years, with some estimates also presented by sex and 5-year age groups. FINDINGS: In 2017, there were 1·8 million (95% UI 1·8-1·9) incident cases of colorectal cancer globally, with an age-standardised incidence rate of 23·2 (22·7-23·7) per 100 000 person-years that increased by 9·5% (4·5-13·5) between 1990 and 2017. Globally, colorectal cancer accounted for 896 000 (876 300-915 700) deaths in 2017, with an age-standardised death rate of 11·5 (11·3-11·8) per 100 000 person-years, which decreased between 1990 and 2017 (-13·5% [-18·4 to -10·0]). Colorectal cancer was also responsible for 19·0 million (18·5-19·5) DALYs globally in 2017, with an age-standardised rate of 235·7 (229·7-242·0) DALYs per 100 000 person-years, which decreased between 1990 and 2017 (-14·5% [-20·4 to -10·3]). Slovakia, the Netherlands, and New Zealand had the highest age-standa

Journal article

Alatab S, Sepanlou SG, Ikuta K, Vahedi H, Bisignano C, Safiri S, Sadeghi A, Nixon MR, Abdoli A, Abolhassani H, Alipour V, Almadi MAH, Almasi-Hashiani A, Anushiravani A, Arabloo J, Atique S, Awasthi A, Badawi A, Baig AAA, Bhala N, Bijani A, Biondi A, Borzì AM, Burke KE, Carvalho F, Daryani A, Dubey M, Eftekhari A, Fernandes E, Fernandes JC, Fischer F, Haj-Mirzaian A, Haj-Mirzaian A, Hasanzadeh A, Hashemian M, Hay SI, Hoang CL, Househ M, Ilesanmi OS, Jafari Balalami N, James SL, Kengne AP, Malekzadeh MM, Merat S, Meretoja TJ, Mestrovic T, Mirrakhimov EM, Mirzaei H, Mohammad KA, Mokdad AH, Monasta L, Negoi I, Nguyen TH, Nguyen CT, Pourshams A, Poustchi H, Rabiee M, Rabiee N, Ramezanzadeh K, Rawaf DL, Rawaf S, Rezaei N, Robinson SR, Ronfani L, Saxena S, Sepehrimanesh M, Shaikh MA, Sharafi Z, Sharif M, Siabani S, Sima AR, Singh JA, Soheili A, Sotoudehmanesh R, Suleria HAR, Tesfay BE, Tran B, Tsoi D, Vacante M, Wondmieneh AB, Zarghi A, Zhang Z-J, Dirac M, Malekzadeh R, Naghavi Met al., 2019, The global, regional, and national burden of inflammatory bowel disease in 195 countries and territories, 1990–2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017, The Lancet Gastroenterology & Hepatology, ISSN: 2468-1253

BackgroundThe burden of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is rising globally, with substantial variation in levels and trends of disease in different countries and regions. Understanding these geographical differences is crucial for formulating effective strategies for preventing and treating IBD. We report the prevalence, mortality, and overall burden of IBD in 195 countries and territories between 1990 and 2017, based on data from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2017.MethodsWe modelled mortality due to IBD using a standard Cause of Death Ensemble model including data mainly from vital registrations. To estimate the non-fatal burden, we used data presented in primary studies, hospital discharges, and claims data, and used DisMod-MR 2.1, a Bayesian meta-regression tool, to ensure consistency between measures. Mortality, prevalence, years of life lost (YLLs) due to premature death, years lived with disability (YLDs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) were estimated. All of the estimates were reported as numbers and rates per 100 000 population, with 95% uncertainty intervals (UI).FindingsIn 2017, there were 6·8 million (95% UI 6·4–7·3) cases of IBD globally. The age-standardised prevalence rate increased from 79·5 (75·9–83·5) per 100 000 population in 1990 to 84·3 (79·2–89·9) per 100 000 population in 2017. The age-standardised death rate decreased from 0·61 (0·55–0·69) per 100 000 population in 1990 to 0·51 (0·42–0·54) per 100 000 population in 2017. At the GBD regional level, the highest age-standardised prevalence rate in 2017 occurred in high-income North America (422·0 [398·7–446·1] per 100 000) and the lowest age-standardised prevalence rates were observed in the Caribbean (6·7 [6·3–7·2] per 100 000 population). High Socio-demogra

Journal article

Quezada Yamamoto H, Rawaf S, Mastellos N, Dubois Eet al., 2019, Primary care integration of sexual and reproductive health services for chlamydia testing across WHO-Europe: a systematic review, BMJ Open, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2044-6055

Objective To identify current uptake of chlamydia testing (UCT) as a sexual and reproductive health service (SRHS) integrated in primary care settings of the WHO European region, with the aim to shape policy and quality of care.Design Systematic review for studies published from January 2001 to May 2018 in any European language.Data sources OVID Medline, EMBASE, Maternal and Infant Care and Global Health.Eligibility criteria Published studies, which involved women or men, adolescents or adults, reporting a UCT indicator in a primary care within a WHO European region country. Study designs considered were: randomised control trials (RCTs), quasi-experimental, observational (eg, cohort, case–control, cross-sectional) and mixed-methods studies as well as case reports.Data extraction and synthesis Two independent reviewers screened the sources and validated the selection process. The BRIGGS Critical Appraisal Checklist for Analytical Cross-Sectional Studies, the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool 2011 and Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) checklists were considered for quality and risk of bias assessment.Results 24 studies were finally included, of which 15 were cross-sectional, 4 cohort, 2 RCTs, 2 case–control studies and 1 mixed-methods study. A majority of the evidence cites the UK model, followed by the Netherlands, Denmark, Norway and Belgium only. Acceptability if offered test in primary healthcare (PHC) ranged from 55% to 81.4% in women and from 9.5% to 70.6% when both genders were reported together. Men may have a lower UCT compared with women. When both genders were reported together, the lowest acceptability was 9.5% in the Netherlands. Denmark presented the highest percentage of eligible people who tested in a PHC setting (87.3%).Conclusions Different health systems may influence UCT in PHC. The regional use of a common testing rate indicator is suggested to homogenise reporting. There is very little evidence on integration of SRHS such as chla

Journal article

Fitzmaurice C, Abate D, Abbasi N, Abbastabar H, Abd-Allah F, Abdel-Rahman O, Abdelalim A, Abdoli A, Abdollahpour I, Abdulle ASM, Abebe ND, Abraha HN, Abu-Raddad LJ, Abualhasan A, Adedeji IA, Advani SM, Afarideh M, Afshari M, Aghaali M, Agius D, Agrawal S, Ahmadi A, Ahmadian E, Ahmadpour E, Ahmed MB, Akbari ME, Akinyemiju T, Al-Aly Z, AlAbdulKader AM, Alahdab F, Alam T, Alamene GM, Alemnew BTT, Alene KA, Alinia C, Alipour V, Aljunid SM, Bakeshei FA, Almadi MAH, Almasi-Hashiani A, Alsharif U, Alsowaidi S, Alvis-Guzman N, Amini E, Amini S, Amoako YA, Anbari Z, Anber NH, Andrei CL, Anjomshoa M, Ansari F, Ansariadi A, Appiah SCY, Arab-Zozani M, Arabloo J, Arefi Z, Aremu O, Areri HA, Artaman A, Asayesh H, Asfaw ET, Ashagre AF, Assadi R, Ataeinia B, Atalay HT, Ataro Z, Atique S, Ausloos M, Avila-Burgos L, Avokpaho EFGA, Awasthi A, Awoke N, Ayala Quintanilla BP, Ayanore MA, Ayele HT, Babaee E, Bacha U, Badawi A, Bagherzadeh M, Bagli E, Balakrishnan S, Balouchi A, Bärnighausen TW, Battista RJ, Behzadifar M, Behzadifar M, Bekele BB, Belay YB, Belayneh YM, Berfield KKS, Berhane A, Bernabe E, Beuran M, Bhakta N, Bhattacharyya K, Biadgo B, Bijani A, Bin Sayeed MS, Birungi C, Bisignano C, Bitew H, Bjørge T, Bleyer A, Bogale KA, Bojia HA, Borzì AM, Bosetti C, Bou-Orm IR, Brenner H, Brewer JD, Briko AN, Briko NI, Bustamante-Teixeira MT, Butt ZA, Carreras G, Carrero JJ, Carvalho F, Castro C, Castro F, Catalá-López F, Cerin E, Chaiah Y, Chanie WF, Chattu VK, Chaturvedi P, Chauhan NS, Chehrazi M, Chiang PP-C, Chichiabellu TY, Chido-Amajuoyi OG, Chimed-Ochir O, Choi J-YJ, Christopher DJ, Chu D-T, Constantin M-M, Costa VM, Crocetti E, Crowe CS, Curado MP, Dahlawi SMA, Damiani G, Darwish AH, Daryani A, das Neves J, Demeke FM, Demis AB, Demissie BW, Demoz GT, Denova-Gutiérrez E, Derakhshani A, Deribe KS, Desai R, Desalegn BB, Desta M, Dey S, Dharmaratne SD, Dhimal M, Diaz D, Dinberu MTT, Djalalinia S, Doku DT, Drake TM, Dubey M, Dubljanin E, Duken EE, Ebrahimi H, Effiong A, Eftekhari A Eet al., Global, regional, and national cancer incidence, mortality, years of life lost, years lived with disability, and disability-adjusted life-years for 29 cancer groups, 1990 to 2017, JAMA Oncology, ISSN: 2374-2437

Importance Cancer and other noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are now widely recognized as a threat to global development. The latest United Nations high-level meeting on NCDs reaffirmed this observation and also highlighted the slow progress in meeting the 2011 Political Declaration on the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases and the third Sustainable Development Goal. Lack of situational analyses, priority setting, and budgeting have been identified as major obstacles in achieving these goals. All of these have in common that they require information on the local cancer epidemiology. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study is uniquely poised to provide these crucial data.Objective To describe cancer burden for 29 cancer groups in 195 countries from 1990 through 2017 to provide data needed for cancer control planning.Evidence Review We used the GBD study estimation methods to describe cancer incidence, mortality, years lived with disability, years of life lost, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs). Results are presented at the national level as well as by Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a composite indicator of income, educational attainment, and total fertility rate. We also analyzed the influence of the epidemiological vs the demographic transition on cancer incidence.Findings In 2017, there were 24.5 million incident cancer cases worldwide (16.8 million without nonmelanoma skin cancer [NMSC]) and 9.6 million cancer deaths. The majority of cancer DALYs came from years of life lost (97%), and only 3% came from years lived with disability. The odds of developing cancer were the lowest in the low SDI quintile (1 in 7) and the highest in the high SDI quintile (1 in 2) for both sexes. In 2017, the most common incident cancers in men were NMSC (4.3 million incident cases); tracheal, bronchus, and lung (TBL) cancer (1.5 million incident cases); and prostate cancer (1.3 million incident cases). The most common causes of cancer deaths and DALYs for m

Journal article

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