Imperial College London

ProfessorSoniaSaxena

Faculty of MedicineSchool of Public Health

Professor of Primary Care
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 7594 0839s.saxena

 
 
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Location

 

332Reynolds BuildingCharing Cross Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

223 results found

Blackwell J, Saxena S, Petersen I, Hotopf M, Creese H, Bottle A, Alexakis C, Pollok RCet al., 2021, Depression in individuals who subsequently develop inflammatory bowel disease: a population-based nested case-control study, GUT, Vol: 70, Pages: 1642-1648, ISSN: 0017-5749

Journal article

Greenfield G, Okoli O, Quezada Yamamoto H, Blair M, Saxena S, Majeed F, Hayhoe Bet al., 2021, Characteristics of frequently attending children in hospital emergency departments: a systematic review, BMJ Open, ISSN: 2044-6055

Objective: To summarise the literature on frequent attendances to hospital emergency departments and describe sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of children who attend EDs frequently.Setting: Hospital emergency departments.Participants: Children <21 years, attending hospital emergency departments frequently.Primary outcome measures: Outcomes measures were defined separately in each study, and were predominantly the number of ED attendances per year.Results: We included 21 studies representing 6,513,627 children. Between 0.3% to 75% of all paediatric ED users were frequent users. Most studies defined 4 or more visits per year as a “frequent ED” usage. Children who were frequent ED users were more likely to be less than 5 years old. In the US, patients with public insurance were more likely to be frequent attenders. Frequent ED users more likely to be frequent users of primary care and have long-term conditions; the most common diagnoses were infections and gastroenteritis.Conclusions: The review included a wide range of information across various health systems, however children who were frequent ED users have some universal characteristics in common. Policies to reduce frequent attendance might usefully focus on preschool children and supporting primary care in responding to primary-care oriented conditions.

Journal article

Norton C, Syred J, Kerry S, Artom M, Sweeney L, Hart A, Czuber-Dochan W, Taylor SJC, Mihaylova B, Roukas C, Aziz Q, Miller L, Pollok R, Saxena S, Stagg I, Terry H, Zenasni Z, Dibley L, Moss-Morris Ret al., 2021, Supported online self-management versus care as usual for symptoms of fatigue, pain and urgency/incontinence in adults with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD-BOOST): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial, TRIALS, Vol: 22

Journal article

Saxena S, Skirrow H, Wighton K, 2021, Should the UK vaccinate children and adolescents against covid-19?, BMJ: British Medical Journal, Vol: 374, ISSN: 0959-535X

Journal article

Coughlan CH, Ruzangi J, Neale FK, Nezafat Maldonado B, Blair M, Bottle A, Saxena S, Hargreaves Det al., 2021, Social and ethnic group differences in healthcare use by children aged 0-14 years: a population-based cohort study in England from 2007 to 2017., Archives of Disease in Childhood, ISSN: 0003-9888

OBJECTIVE: To describe social and ethnic group differences in children's use of healthcare services in England, from 2007 to 2017. DESIGN: Population-based retrospective cohort study. SETTING/PATIENTS: We performed individual-level linkage of electronic health records from general practices and hospitals in England by creating an open cohort linking data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink and Hospital Episode Statistics. 1 484 455 children aged 0-14 years were assigned to five composite ethnic groups and five ordered groups based on postcode mapped to index of multiple deprivation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Age-standardised annual general practitioner (GP) consultation, outpatient attendance, emergency department (ED) visit and emergency and elective hospital admission rates per 1000 child-years. RESULTS: In 2016/2017, children from the most deprived group had fewer GP consultations (1765 vs 1854 per 1000 child-years) and outpatient attendances than children in the least deprived group (705 vs 741 per 1000 child-years). At the end of the study period, children from the most deprived group had more ED visits (447 vs 314 per 1000 child-years) and emergency admissions (100 vs 76 per 1000 child-years) than children from the least deprived group.In 2016/2017, children from black and Asian ethnic groups had more GP consultations than children from white ethnic groups (1961 and 2397 vs 1824 per 1000 child-years, respectively). However, outpatient attendances were lower in children from black ethnic groups than in children from white ethnic groups (732 vs 809 per 1000 child-years). By 2016/2017, there were no differences in outpatient, ED and in-patient activity between children from white and Asian ethnic groups. CONCLUSIONS: Between 2007 and 2017, children living in more deprived areas of England made greater use of emergency services and received less scheduled care than children from affluent neighbourhoods. Children from Asian and black ethnic grou

Journal article

Ram B, Chalkley A, van Sluijs E, Phillips R, Venkatraman T, Hargreaves D, Viner R, Saxena Set al., 2021, Impact of The daily Mile on children's physical and mental health and educational attainment in primary schools; iMprOVE cohort study protocol, BMJ Open, Vol: 11, ISSN: 2044-6055

Introduction: School-based active mile initiatives such as The Daily Mile (TDM) are widely promoted to address shortfalls in meeting physical activity recommendations. The iMprOVE Study aims to examine the impact of TDM on children’s physical and mental health and educational attainment throughout primary school.Methods and analysis: iMprOVE is a longitudinal quasi-experimental cohort study. We will send a survey to all state-funded primary schools in Greater London to identify participation in TDM. The survey responses will be used for non-random allocation to either the intervention group (Daily Mile schools) or to the control group (non-Daily Mile schools). We aim to recruit 3533 year 1 children (aged 5–6 years) from 77 primary schools and follow them up annually until the end of their primary school years. Data collection taking place at baseline (children in school year 1) and each primary school year thereafter includes device-based measures of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and questionnaires to measure mental health (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) and educational attainment (ratings from ‘below expected’ to ‘above expected levels’). The primary outcome is the mean change in MVPA minutes from baseline to year 6 during the school day among the intervention group compared with controls. We will use multilevel linear regression models adjusting for sociodemographic data and participation in TDM. The study is powered to detect a 10% (5.5 min) difference between the intervention and control group which would be considered clinically significant.Ethics and dissemination: Ethics has been approved from Imperial College Research Ethics Committee, reference 20IC6127. Key findings will be disseminated to the public through research networks, social, print and media broadcasts, community engagement opportunities and schools. We will work with policy-makers for direct application and impact of our findings.

Journal article

Blackwell J, Alexakis C, Saxena S, Creese H, Bottle R, Petersen I, Matthew H, Pollok Ret al., 2021, The association between antidepressant medication use and steroid dependency in patients with ulcerative colitis: a population-based study, BMJ Open Gastroenterology, Vol: 8, ISSN: 2054-4774

Background: Animal studies indicate a potential protective role of antidepressant medication (ADM) in models of colitis but the effect of their use in humans with ulcerative colitis (UC) remains unclear. Objective: To study the relationship between ADM use and corticosteroid dependency in UC. Design: Using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink we identified patients diagnosed with UC between 2005-2016. We grouped patients according to serotonin selective reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) and tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) exposure in the 3 years following diagnosis: 'continuous users', 'intermittent users' and 'non users'. We used logistic regression to estimate the adjusted risk of corticosteroid dependency between ADM exposure groups. Results: We identified 6373 patients with UC. 5,230 (82%) use no ADMs, 627 (10%) were intermittent SSRI users and 282 (4%) were continuous SSRI users, 246 (4%) were intermittent TCA users and 63 (1%) were continuous TCA users. Corticosteroid dependency was more frequent in continuous SSRI and TCA users compared with non-users (19% vs. 24% vs. 14%, respectively, χ2 p=0.002). Intermittent SSRI and TCA users had similar risks of developing corticosteroid dependency to non-users (SSRI: OR 1.19, 95%CI 0.95-1.50, TCA: OR 1.14, CI 0.78-1.66). Continuous users of both SSRIs and TCAs had significantly higher risks of corticosteroid dependency compared to non-users (SSRI: OR 1.62, CI 1.15-2.27, TCA: OR 2.02, CI 1.07-3.81). Conclusions: Continuous ADM exposure has no protective effect in routine clinical practice in UC and identifies a population of patients requiring more intensive medical therapy. ADM use is a flag for potentially worse clinical outcomes in UC.

Journal article

Venkatraman T, Honeyford C, Ram B, Esther MFVS, Costelloe C, Saxena Set al., 2021, Identifying local authority need for, and uptake of, school-based physical activity promotion in England – a cluster analysis, Journal of Public Health, ISSN: 1741-3842

Background:School-based physical activity interventions such as The Daily Mile (TDM) are widely promoted in children’s physical activity guidance. However, targeting such interventions to areas of greatest need is challenging since determinants vary across geographical areas. Our study aimed to identify local authorities in England with the greatest need to increase children’s physical activity and assess whether TDM reaches school populations in areas with the highest need.Methods:This was a cross-sectional study using routinely collected data from Public Health England. Datasets on health, census and the built environment were linked. We conducted a hierarchical cluster analysis to group local authorities by ‘need’ and estimated the association between ‘need’ and registration to TDM.Results:We identified three clusters of high, medium and low need for physical activity interventions in 123 local authorities. Schools in high-need areas were more likely to be registered with TDM (incidence rate ratio 1.25, 95% confidence interval: 1.12–1.39) compared with low-need areas.Conclusions:Determinants of children’s physical activity cluster geographically across local authorities in England. TDM appears to be an equitable intervention reaching schools in local authorities with the highest needs. Health policy should account for clustering of health determinants to match interventions with populations most in need.

Journal article

Phillips SM, Summerbell C, Hobbs M, Hsketh KR, Saxena S, Muir C, Hillier-Brown FCet al., 2021, A systematic review of the validity, reliability, and feasibility of measurement tools used to assess the physical activity and sedentary behaviour of pre-school aged children, International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, ISSN: 1479-5868

Physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour (SB) of pre-school aged children are associated with important health and developmental outcomes. Accurate measurement of these behaviours in young children is critical for research and practice in this area. The aim of this review was to examine the validity, reliability, and feasibility of measurement tools used to assess PA and SB of pre-school aged children.Searches of electronic databases, and manual searching, were conducted to identify articles that examined the measurement properties (validity, reliability or feasibility) of measurement tools used to examine PA and/or SB of pre-school aged children (3-7 years old). Following screening, data were extracted and risk of bias assessment completed on all included articles. A total of 69 articles, describing 75 individual studies were included. Studies assessed measurement tools for PA (n=27), SB (n=5), and both PA and SB (n=43). Outcome measures of PA and SB differed between studies (e.g. moderate to vigorous activity, step count, posture allocation). Most studies examined the measurement properties of one measurement tool only (n=65). Measurement tools examined included: calorimetry, direct observation, combined heart rate and accelerometry, heart rate monitors, accelerometers, pedometers, and proxy report (parent, carer or teacher reported) measures (questionnaires or diaries). Studies most frequently assessed the validity (criterion and convergent) (n=65), face and content validity (n=2), test-retest reliability (n=10) and intra-instrument reliability (n=1) of the measurement tools. Feasibility data was abstracted from 41 studies.Multiple measurement tools used to measure PA and SB in pre-school aged children showed some degree of validity, reliability and feasibility, but often for different purposes. Accelerometers, including the Actigraph (in particular GT3X versions), Actical, ActivPAL and Fitbit (Flex and Zip), and proxy reported measurement tools used in co

Journal article

Blackwell J, Saxena S, Jayasooriya N, Bottle A, Petersen I, Hotopf M, Alexakis C, Pollok RCet al., 2021, Prevalence and duration of gastrointestinal symptoms before diagnosis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease and predictors of timely specialist review: a population-based study, Journal of Crohn's and Colitis, Vol: 15, Pages: 203-211, ISSN: 1873-9946

Background and AimsLack of timely referral and significant waits for specialist review amongst individuals with unresolved gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms can result in delayed diagnosis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD).AimsTo determine the frequency and duration of GI symptoms and predictors of timely specialist review before the diagnosis of both Crohn’s Disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC).MethodsCase-control study of IBD matched 1:4 for age and sex to controls without IBD using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink from 1998-2016.ResultsWe identified 19,555 cases of IBD, and 78,114 controls. 1 in 4 cases of IBD reported gastrointestinal symptoms to their primary care physician more than 6 months before receiving a diagnosis. There is a significant excess prevalence of GI symptoms in each of the 10 years before IBD diagnosis. GI symptoms were reported by 9.6% and 10.4% at 5 years before CD and UC diagnosis respectively compared to 5.8% of controls. Amongst patients later diagnosed with IBD, <50% received specialist review within 18 months from presenting with chronic GI symptoms. Patients with a previous diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome or depression were less likely to receive timely specialist review (IBS: HR=0.77, 95%CI 0.60-0.99, depression: HR=0.77, 95%CI 0.60-0.98).ConclusionsThere is an excess of GI symptoms 5 years before diagnosis of IBD compared to the background population which are likely attributable to undiagnosed disease. Previous diagnoses of IBS and depression are associated with delays in specialist review. Enhanced pathways are needed to accelerate specialist referral and timely IBD diagnosis.

Journal article

Greenfield G, Blair M, Aylin P, Saxena S, Majeed F, Bottle Ret al., 2021, Characteristics of frequent paediatric users of emergency departments in England: an observational study using routine national data, Emergency Medicine Journal, Vol: 38, Pages: 146-150, ISSN: 1472-0205

BACKGROUND:Frequent attendances of the same users in emergency departments (ED) can intensify workload pressures and are common among children, yet little is known about the characteristics of paediatric frequent users in EDs. AIM:To describe the volume of frequent paediatric attendance in England and the demographics of frequent paediatric ED users in English hospitals. METHOD:We analysed the Hospital Episode Statistics dataset for April 2014-March 2017. The study included 2 308 816 children under 16 years old who attended an ED at least once. Children who attended four times or more in 2015/2016 were classified as frequent users. The preceding and subsequent years were used to capture attendances bordering with the current year. We used a mixed effects logistic regression with a random intercept to predict the odds of being a frequent user in children from different sociodemographic groups. RESULTS:One in 11 children (9.1%) who attended an ED attended four times or more in a year. Infants had a greater likelihood of being a frequent attender (OR 3.24, 95% CI 3.19 to 3.30 vs 5 to 9 years old). Children from more deprived areas had a greater likelihood of being a frequent attender (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.54 to 1.59 vs least deprived). Boys had a slightly greater likelihood than girls (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.06). Children of Asian and mixed ethnic groups were more likely to be frequent users than those from white ethnic groups, while children from black and 'other' had a lower likelihood (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.05; OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.06; OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.90; OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.87 to 0.92, respectively). CONCLUSION:One in 11 children was a frequent attender. Interventions for reducing paediatric frequent attendance need to target infants and families living in deprived areas.

Journal article

Venkatraman T, Honeyford K, Costelloe C, Ram B, van Sluijs EMF, Viner R, Saxena Set al., 2021, Sociodemographic profiles, educational attainment and physical activity associated with The Daily Mile™ registration in primary schools in England – a national cross-sectional linkage study, Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol: 75, Pages: 137-144, ISSN: 0143-005X

ObjectiveTo examine primary school and local authority characteristics associated with registrationfor The Daily Mile (TDM), an active mile initiative aimed at increasing physical activity inchildren.DesignA cross-sectional linkage study using routinely collected data.SettingAll state funded primary schools in England from 2012-2018(n=15,815).Results3,502 of all 15,815(22.1%) state funded primary schools in England were registered to doTDM, ranging from 16% in the East Midlands region to 31% in Inner London.Primary schools registered for TDM had larger mean pupil numbers compared with schoolsthat had not registered (300 vs 269 respectively). There was a higher proportion of TDMregistered schools in urban areas compared with non-urban areas. There was local authorityvariation in the likelihood of school registration (ICC: 0.094).After adjusting for school and local authority characteristics, schools located in a majorurban conurbation (OR 1.46 (95%CI:1.24-1.71) urban vs. rural) and schools with a higherproportion of disadvantaged pupils had higher odds of being registered to the TDM (OR 1.16(95%CI:1.02-1.33)). Area based physical activity and schools’ educational attainment wasnot significantly associated with registration to TDM.ConclusionOne in five primary schools in England has registered for The Daily Mile since 2012. TDMappears to be a wide-reaching school based physical activity intervention that is reachingmore disadvantaged primary school populations in urban areas where obesity prevalence ishighest. TDM registered schools include those with both high and low educationalattainment and are in areas with high and low physical activity

Journal article

Hargreaves D, Hanna J, Grinspan ZM, Dunkley C, Saxena S, Cross H, Young People with Epilepsy Groupet al., 2021, Our health-care system is failing young people with epilepsy., Lancet Neurol, Vol: 20, Pages: 26-27

Journal article

Saxena S, Pankaj AK, Panwar S, Rani A, Chopra J, Rani Aet al., 2021, Histological changes at the commissure of the lip on approaching from its cutaneous to the mucosa region in males., Natl J Maxillofac Surg, Vol: 12, Pages: 88-92, ISSN: 0975-5950

Introduction: The morphology of the epithelium of the oral lips comprised keratinized external epithelium (anteriorly) and nonkeratinized or sometimes parakeratinized mucous membrane epithelium (posteriorly). Knowledge of morphometry of the lip lining helps in deciding the best site for choosing graft for its better uptake during several dermal grafting procedures following trauma or tumor excision following craniofacial cancers or cosmetic procedures. Materials and Methods: Ten human male cadavers were procured at the Department of Anatomy King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh. The rectangle-shaped skin specimen through the right commissure of the lip which included the skin, mucocutaneous junction, and mucosa was stained with hematoxylin and eosin stain. A total of 30 slides were prepared. Thus, the readings were obtained for three regions, respectively, with the help of CAT-CAM E-series HD cameras which were installed in a light microscope. Results: Thickness of skin (epidermis + dermis) of the lip ranged from 756 μm to 1068 μm among males. Epidermal thickness increases on moving from the cutaneous region to the mucosa region of the lip. The lowest contribution of the stratum corneum in thickness of the epidermis was observed in the vermillion region, while the highest contribution was observed in the skin region. It was found to be absent in the mucosa region of the lip. Rete pegs at the dermoepidermal junction was found to be maximum in the vermillion region and minimum in the skin region. Its depth increased as we move from the skin to the mucosa region of the lip. Depth of the dermis was found to be maximum in the skin region, while minimum in the vermillion region. It ranged between 291 μm and 693 μm. Conclusion: Care should be taken while using dermal fillers in lip augmentation surgeries, especially in the vermillion region due to its close proximity to musculature in the core of the lip.

Journal article

Blackwell J, Saxena S, Jayasooriya N, Petersen I, Hotopf M, Creese H, Bottle A, Pollok RCG, POP-IBD Study Groupet al., 2020, Stoma Formation in Crohn's Disease and the Likelihood of Antidepressant Use: A Population-Based Cohort Study., Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The impact of a temporary or permanent stoma on mental health in Crohn's Disease (CD) is unknown. The aim was to examine the association between intestinal surgery and stoma formation and subsequent antidepressant medication (ADM) use. METHODS: Using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, we identified individuals with CD who underwent intestinal surgery between 1998-2018. We excluded individuals with a prescription for an ADM in the 6 months before surgery. Individuals were stratified into three groups: no stoma, temporary stoma, and permanent stoma. We used Kaplan-Meier curves to examine initiation of ADM after intestinal surgery and Cox regression to identify risk factors for ADM use after intestinal surgery. RESULTS: We identified 1,272 cases of CD undergoing their first intestinal surgery. Of these, 871 (68.5%) had no stoma, 191 (15.0%) had a temporary stoma and 210 (16.5%) had a permanent stoma. The 10-year cumulative incidence of ADM use was 26.4%, 33.4% and 37.3% respectively. Individuals with a permanent stoma were 71% more likely to receive an ADM than those with no stoma (HR 1.71, 95% CI 1.20-2.44). Individuals with a temporary stoma reversed within 12 months had a similar likelihood of ADM use to those without stoma formation (HR 0.99, 95% CI 0.64-1.53) whereas temporary stoma formation with late reversal after 12 months was associated with significantly greater likelihood of ADM use (HR 1.85, 95% CI 1.15-2.96). CONCLUSIONS: Permanent stomas and temporary stomas with late reversal surgery are associated with increased ADM use after intestinal surgery, likely associated with increased anxiety and depression.

Journal article

Ziauddeen N, Woods-Townsend K, Saxena S, Gilbert R, Alwan NAet al., 2020, Schools and COVID-19: reopening Pandora's box?, Public Health in Practice, Vol: 1, ISSN: 2666-5352

Schools in countries across the world are reopening as lockdown to slow progression of COVID-19 is eased. The UK government ordered school closures in England from March 20, 2020, later than the rest of Europe. A temporary and limited return for some year groups was trialled from June 2020. Teachers, school governors, the public and doctors have openly challenged the decision. The UK government has struggled to provide enough detailed information to convince the public, teachers and health practitioners, that effective systems for protection, including test, trace and isolate, are in place to prevent and manage outbreaks in schools. Risks of infection on reopening to children, staff and families must be weighed against the harms of closure to children's education and social development. The potential consequences, if the re-opening of schools is managed badly, is subsequent waves of COVID-19 infection leading to more deaths, further school closures and prolonged restrictions, losing any ground gained thus far. This article weighs the evidence for risks and benefits of reopening schools during the pandemic.

Journal article

Creese H-M, Taylor-Robinson D, Saglani S, Saxena Set al., 2020, Primary care of children and young people with asthma during the Covid-19 era, British Journal of General Practice, Vol: 70, Pages: 528-529, ISSN: 0960-1643

Around 1.1 million children and young people (CYP)currently receive treatment for asthma in the United Kingdom (UK)(1). The UK performs poorly compared with other European countries in children's outcomes of asthma management and has had amongst the highest number of reported asthma deaths in Europesince 1998 (2). We evaluate evidenceofthe impact of Covid-19 on CYP with asthma and consider what actionsgeneral practitioners can take to protect these children from serious harm.

Journal article

Sharland E, Long P, Sharland M, Bielicki J, Saxena S, Wong ICK, Barker Cet al., 2020, Early origins of oral penicillin dosing for children, Archives of Disease in Childhood, Vol: 105, Pages: 1118-1119, ISSN: 1468-2044

Journal article

Haagsma JA, James SL, Castle CD, Dingels ZV, Fox JT, Hamilton EB, Liu Z, Lucchesi LR, Roberts NLS, Sylte DO, Adebayo OM, Ahmadi A, Ahmed MB, Aichour MTE, Alahdab F, Alghnam SA, Aljunid SM, Al-Raddadi RM, Alsharif U, Altirkawi K, Anjomshoa M, Antonio CAT, Appiah SCY, Aremu O, Arora A, Asayesh H, Assadi R, Awasthi A, Ayala Quintanilla BP, Balalla S, Banstola A, Barker-Collo SL, Bärnighausen TW, Bazargan-Hejazi S, Bedi N, Behzadifar M, Behzadifar M, Benjet C, Bennett DA, Bensenor IM, Bhaumik S, Bhutta ZA, Bijani A, Borges G, Borschmann R, Bose D, Boufous S, Brazinova A, Campuzano Rincon JC, Cárdenas R, Carrero JJ, Carvalho F, Castañeda-Orjuela CA, Catalá-López F, Choi J-YJ, Christopher DJ, Crowe CS, Dalal K, Daryani A, Davitoiu DV, Degenhardt L, De Leo D, De Neve J-W, Deribe K, Dessie GA, deVeber GA, Dharmaratne SD, Doan LP, Dolan KA, Driscoll TR, Dubey M, El-Khatib Z, Ellingsen CL, El Sayed Zaki M, Endries AY, Eskandarieh S, Faro A, Fereshtehnejad S-M, Fernandes E, Filip I, Fischer F, Franklin RC, Fukumoto T, Gezae KE, Gill TK, Goulart AC, Grada A, Guo Y, Gupta R, Haghparast Bidgoli H, Haj-Mirzaian A, Haj-Mirzaian A, Hamadeh RR, Hamidi S, Haro JM, Hassankhani H, Hassen HY, Havmoeller R, Hendrie D, Henok A, Híjar M, Hole MK, Homaie Rad E, Hossain N, Hostiuc S, Hu G, Igumbor EU, Ilesanmi OS, Irvani SSN, Islam SMS, Ivers RQ, Jacobsen KH, Jahanmehr N, Jakovljevic M, Jayatilleke AU, Jha RP, Jonas JB, Jorjoran Shushtari Z, Jozwiak JJ, Jürisson M, Kabir A, Kalani R, Kasaeian A, Kelbore AG, Kengne AP, Khader YS, Khafaie MA, Khalid N, Khan EA, Khoja AT, Kiadaliri AA, Kim Y-E, Kim D, Kisa A, Koyanagi A, Kuate Defo B, Kucuk Bicer B, Kumar M, Lalloo R, Lam H, Lami FH, Lansingh VC, Leasher JL, Li S, Linn S, Lunevicius R, Machado FR, Magdy Abd El Razek H, Magdy Abd El Razek M, Mahotra NB, Majdan M, Majeed A, Malekzadeh R, Malik MA, Malta DC, Manda A-L, Mansournia MA, Massenburg BB, Maulik PK, Meheretu HAA, Mehndiratta MM, Melese A, Mendoza W, Mengesha MM, Meretoja TJ, Meretoja A Met al., 2020, Burden of injury along the development spectrum: associations between the Socio-demographic Index and disability-adjusted life year estimates from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017, Injury Prevention, Vol: 26, Pages: i12-i626, ISSN: 1353-8047

BACKGROUND: The epidemiological transition of non-communicable diseases replacing infectious diseases as the main contributors to disease burden has been well documented in global health literature. Less focus, however, has been given to the relationship between sociodemographic changes and injury. The aim of this study was to examine the association between disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) from injury for 195 countries and territories at different levels along the development spectrum between 1990 and 2017 based on the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 estimates. METHODS: Injury mortality was estimated using the GBD mortality database, corrections for garbage coding and CODEm-the cause of death ensemble modelling tool. Morbidity estimation was based on surveys and inpatient and outpatient data sets for 30 cause-of-injury with 47 nature-of-injury categories each. The Socio-demographic Index (SDI) is a composite indicator that includes lagged income per capita, average educational attainment over age 15 years and total fertility rate. RESULTS: For many causes of injury, age-standardised DALY rates declined with increasing SDI, although road injury, interpersonal violence and self-harm did not follow this pattern. Particularly for self-harm opposing patterns were observed in regions with similar SDI levels. For road injuries, this effect was less pronounced. CONCLUSIONS: The overall global pattern is that of declining injury burden with increasing SDI. However, not all injuries follow this pattern, which suggests multiple underlying mechanisms influencing injury DALYs. There is a need for a detailed understanding of these patterns to help to inform national and global efforts to address injury-related health outcomes across the development spectrum.

Journal article

James SL, Castle CD, Dingels ZV, Fox JT, Hamilton EB, Liu Z, S Roberts NL, Sylte DO, Henry NJ, LeGrand KE, Abdelalim A, Abdoli A, Abdollahpour I, Abdulkader RS, Abedi A, Abosetugn AE, Abushouk AI, Adebayo OM, Agudelo-Botero M, Ahmad T, Ahmed R, Ahmed MB, Eddine Aichour MT, Alahdab F, Alamene GM, Alanezi FM, Alebel A, Alema NM, Alghnam SA, Al-Hajj S, Ali BA, Ali S, Alikhani M, Alinia C, Alipour V, Aljunid SM, Almasi-Hashiani A, Almasri NA, Altirkawi K, Abdeldayem Amer YS, Amini S, Loreche Amit AM, Andrei CL, Ansari-Moghaddam A, T Antonio CA, Yaw Appiah SC, Arabloo J, Arab-Zozani M, Arefi Z, Aremu O, Ariani F, Arora A, Asaad M, Asghari B, Awoke N, Ayala Quintanilla BP, Ayano G, Ayanore MA, Azari S, Azarian G, Badawi A, Badiye AD, Bagli E, Baig AA, Bairwa M, Bakhtiari A, Balachandran A, Banach M, Banerjee SK, Banik PC, Banstola A, Barker-Collo SL, Bärnighausen TW, Barrero LH, Barzegar A, Bayati M, Baye BA, Bedi N, Behzadifar M, Bekuma TT, Belete H, Benjet C, Bennett DA, Bensenor IM, Berhe K, Bhardwaj P, Bhat AG, Bhattacharyya K, Bibi S, Bijani A, Bin Sayeed MS, Borges G, Borzì AM, Boufous S, Brazinova A, Briko NI, Budhathoki SS, Car J, Cárdenas R, Carvalho F, Castaldelli-Maia JM, Castañeda-Orjuela CA, Castelpietra G, Catalá-López F, Cerin E, Chandan JS, Chanie WF, Chattu SK, Chattu VK, Chatziralli I, Chaudhary N, Cho DY, Kabir Chowdhury MA, Chu D-T, Colquhoun SM, Constantin M-M, Costa VM, Damiani G, Daryani A, Dávila-Cervantes CA, Demeke FM, Demis AB, Demoz GT, Demsie DG, Derakhshani A, Deribe K, Desai R, Nasab MD, da Silva DD, Dibaji Forooshani ZS, Doyle KE, Driscoll TR, Dubljanin E, Adema BD, Eagan AW, Eftekhari A, Ehsani-Chimeh E, Sayed Zaki ME, Elemineh DA, El-Jaafary SI, El-Khatib Z, Ellingsen CL, Emamian MH, Endalew DA, Eskandarieh S, Faris PS, Faro A, Farzadfar F, Fatahi Y, Fekadu W, Ferede TY, Fereshtehnejad S-M, Fernandes E, Ferrara P, Feyissa GT, Filip I, Fischer F, Folayan MO, Foroutan M, Francis JM, Franklin RC, Fukumoto T, Geberemariyam BS, Gebre AK, Gebreet al., 2020, Global injury morbidity and mortality from 1990 to 2017: results from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017, Injury Prevention, Vol: 26, Pages: i96-i114, ISSN: 1353-8047

BACKGROUND: Past research in population health trends has shown that injuries form a substantial burden of population health loss. Regular updates to injury burden assessments are critical. We report Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 Study estimates on morbidity and mortality for all injuries. METHODS: We reviewed results for injuries from the GBD 2017 study. GBD 2017 measured injury-specific mortality and years of life lost (YLLs) using the Cause of Death Ensemble model. To measure non-fatal injuries, GBD 2017 modelled injury-specific incidence and converted this to prevalence and years lived with disability (YLDs). YLLs and YLDs were summed to calculate disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). FINDINGS: In 1990, there were 4 260 493 (4 085 700 to 4 396 138) injury deaths, which increased to 4 484 722 (4 332 010 to 4 585 554) deaths in 2017, while age-standardised mortality decreased from 1079 (1073 to 1086) to 738 (730 to 745) per 100 000. In 1990, there were 354 064 302 (95% uncertainty interval: 338 174 876 to 371 610 802) new cases of injury globally, which increased to 520 710 288 (493 430 247 to 547 988 635) new cases in 2017. During this time, age-standardised incidence decreased non-significantly from 6824 (6534 to 7147) to 6763 (6412 to 7118) per 100 000. Between 1990 and 2017, age-standardised DALYs decreased from 4947 (4655 to 5233) per 100 000 to 3267 (3058 to 3505). INTERPRETATION: Injuries are an important cause of health loss globally, though mortality has declined between 1990 and 2017. Future research in injury burden should focus on prevention in high-burden populations, improving data collection and ensuring access to medical care.

Journal article

Greenfield G, Blair M, Aylin P, Saxena S, Majeed F, Hoffman M, Bottle Aet al., 2020, Frequent attendances at emergency departments in England, Emergency Medicine Journal, Vol: 37, Pages: 597-599, ISSN: 1472-0205

Background: A small proportion of patients referred to as ‘frequent attenders’ account for a large proportion of hospital activity such as emergency departments (ED) attendances and admissions. There is lack of recent, national estimates of the volume of frequent ED attenders. We aimed to estimate the volume and age distribution of frequent ED attenders in English hospitals.Method: We included all attendances at all major EDs across England in the financial year 2016–2017. Patients who attended 3 times or more were classified as frequent attenders. We used a logistic regression model to predict the odds of being a frequent attender by age group.Results: 14,829,519 attendances were made by 10,062,847 patients who attended at least once. 73.5% of ED attenders attended once and accounted for 49.8% of the total ED attendances. 9.5% of ED attenders attended 3 times or more; they accounted for 27.1% of the ED attendances. While only 1.2% attended 6 times or more, their contribution was 7.6% of the total attendances. Infants and adults aged over 80 years were significantly more likely to be frequent attenders than adults aged 30-59 years (OR=2.11, 95% CI 2.09 to 2.13, OR=2.22, 95% CI 2.20 to 2.23, respectively). The likelihood of hospital admission rose steeply with the number of attendances a patient had.Conclusion: One in ten patients attending the ED are frequent attenders and account for over a quarter of attendances. Emergency care systems should consider better ways of reorganising health services to meet the needs of patients who attend EDs frequently.

Journal article

Ma R, Cecil E, Bottle A, French R, Saxena Set al., 2020, Impact of a pay-for-performance scheme for long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) advice on contraceptive uptake and abortion in British primary care: An interrupted time series study, PLoS Medicine, Vol: 17, Pages: e1003333-e1003333, ISSN: 1549-1277

BackgroundLong-acting reversible contraception (LARC) is among the most effective contraceptive methods, but uptake remains low even in high-income settings. In 2009/2010, a target-based pay-for-performance (P4P) scheme in Britain was introduced for primary care physicians (PCPs) to offer advice about LARC methods to a specified proportion of women attending for contraceptive care to improve contraceptive choice. We examined the impact and equity of this scheme on LARC uptake and abortions.Methods and findingsWe examined records of 3,281,667 women aged 13 to 54 years registered with a primary care clinic in Britain (England, Wales, and Scotland) using Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) from 2004/2005 to 2013/2014. We used interrupted time series (ITS) analysis to examine trends in annual LARC and non-LARC hormonal contraception (NLHC) uptake and abortion rates, stratified by age and deprivation groups, before and after the P4P was introduced in 2009/2010. Between 2004/2005 and 2013/2014, crude LARC uptake rates increased by 32.0% from 29.6 per 1,000 women to 39.0 per 1,000 women, compared with 18.0% decrease in NLHC uptake. LARC uptake among women of all ages increased immediately after the P4P with step change of 5.36 per 1,000 women (all values are per 1,000 women unless stated, 95% CI 5.26–5.45, p < 0.001). Women aged 20 to 24 years had the largest step change (8.40, 8.34–8.47, p < 0.001) and sustained trend increase (3.14, 3.08–3.19, p < 0.001) compared with other age groups. NLHC uptake fell in all women with a step change of −22.8 (−24.5 to −21.2, p < 0.001), largely due to fall in combined hormonal contraception (CHC; −15.0, −15.5 to −14.5, p < 0.001). Abortion rates in all women fell immediately after the P4P with a step change of −2.28 (−2.98 to −1.57, p = 0.002) and sustained decrease in trend of −0.88 (−1.12 to −0.63, p < 0.001). The largest

Journal article

Creese H, Mason K, Schluter DK, Taylor-Robinson D, Saxena Set al., 2020, Early years pathways to inequalities in childhood asthma? A causal mediation analysis, EUPHA, Publisher: OXFORD UNIV PRESS, Pages: V434-V434, ISSN: 1101-1262

Conference paper

Ma R, Cecil E, French R, Bottle A, Saxena Set al., 2020, Impact of financial incentives for primary care to give long acting reversible contraceptive advice, Publisher: OXFORD UNIV PRESS, ISSN: 1101-1262

Conference paper

Ram B, Venkatraman T, Foley K, Honeyford K, Ells L, van Sluijs E, Hargreaves D, Greaves F, Viner R, Saxena Set al., 2020, Impact of school-based physical activity interventions in primary schools: measuring what matters, European Public Health Conference, Publisher: Oxford University Press, Pages: 1-2, ISSN: 1101-1262

BackgroundA growing number of small studies suggest that school-based physical activity initiatives can help children achieve the recommended 60 minutes of physical activity per day. However, the heterogeneity of outcomes and measures used in small studies prevents pooling of results to demonstrate whether short-term health benefits are sustained. Qualitative studies suggest many benefits that are not represented by outcomes in trials to date. The aim of this study was to generate a list of outcomes that have been studied to develop a core outcome set (COS) acceptable to key stakeholders for future studies evaluating school-based physical activity initiatives.MethodsWe searched six databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, CENTRAL and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews) systematically for reviews of school-based physical activity interventions, and extracted relevant studies to identify the outcomes and measures used in each paper. A long list was generated from the literature and a previous workshop with stakeholders. This study is registered with COMET (#1322), and with PROSPERO (CRD42019146621).Results75/121 cited studies drawn from 53/2409 reviews met our inclusion criteria. We grouped 65 outcomes into 3 domains: (i) physical activity and health (ii) social and emotional health, and (iii) educational attainment. We will conduct two Delphi survey rounds with four stakeholder groups (health professionals, researchers, educators and parents) to rate the importance of each outcome. A core outcome set will be generated from a consensus process.ConclusionsThere is currently a large variation of outcomes and measures studied that precludes evidence synthesis of the impact of school-based physical activity interventions. Consensus methods are needed to focus research on the outcomes that matter the most to key stakeholders and to provide tools for future studies to assess long-term impact.Key messagesVariations in outcomes studied precludes evidence synt

Conference paper

Jansen D, Kosola S, Arevalo LC, Gaspar de Matos M, Boode K, Saxena S, Dratva Jet al., 2020, Child and adolescent health needs attention now, and in the aftermath of the COVID-19 pandemic, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PUBLIC HEALTH, Vol: 65, Pages: 723-725, ISSN: 1661-8556

Journal article

Wiens KE, Lindstedt PA, Blacker BF, Johnson KB, Baumann MM, Schaeffer LE, Abbastabar H, Abd-Allah F, Abdelalim A, Abdollahpour I, Abegaz KH, Abejie AN, Abreu LG, Abrigo MRM, Abualhasan A, Accrombessi MMK, Acharya D, Adabi M, Adamu AA, Adebayo OM, Adedoyin RA, Adekanmbi V, Adetokunboh OO, Adhena BM, Afarideh M, Ahmad S, Ahmadi K, Ahmed AE, Ahmed MB, Ahmed R, Akalu TY, Alahdab F, Al-Aly Z, Alam N, Alam S, Alamene GM, Alanzi TM, Alcalde-Rabanal JE, Ali BA, Alijanzadeh M, Alipour V, Aljunid SM, Almasi A, Almasi-Hashiani A, Al-Mekhlafi HM, Altirkawi KA, Alvis-Guzman N, Alvis-Zakzuk NJ, Amini S, Amit AML, Andrei CL, Anjomshoa M, Anoushiravani A, Ansari F, Antonio CAT, Antony B, Antriyandarti E, Arabloo J, Aref HMA, Aremu O, Armoon B, Arora A, Aryal KK, Arzani A, Asadi-Aliabadi M, Atalay HT, Athari SS, Athari SM, Atre SR, Ausloos M, Awoke N, Ayala Quintanilla BP, Ayano G, Ayanore MA, Aynalem IV YA, Azari S, Azzopardi PS, Babaee E, Babalola TK, Badawi A, Bairwa M, Bakkannavar SM, Balakrishnan S, Bali AG, Banach M, Banoub JAM, Barac A, Bärnighausen TW, Basaleem H, Basu S, Bay VD, Bayati M, Baye E, Bedi N, Beheshti MMB, Behzadifar M, Behzadifar M, Bekele BB, Belayneh YM, Bell ML, Bennett DA, Berbada DA, Bernstein RS, Bhat AG, Bhattacharyya K, Bhattarai S, Bhaumik S, Bhutta ZA, Bijani A, Bikbov B, Birihane IV BM, Biswas RK, Bohlouli S, Bojia I HAA, Boufous S, Brady OJ, Bragazzi NL, Briko AN, Briko NI, Britton GB, Burugina Nagaraja S, Busse R, Butt ZA, Cámera LLAA, Campos-Nonato IR, Cano J, Car J, Cárdenas R, Carvalho F, Castañeda-Orjuela CA, Castro F, Chanie WF, Chatterjee P, Chattu VK, Chichiabellu TYY, Chin KL, Christopher DJ, Chu D-T, Cormier NM, Costa VM, Culquichicon C, Daba MS, Damiani G, Dandona L, Dandona R, Dang AK, Darwesh AM, Darwish AH, Daryani A, Das JK, Das Gupta R, Dash AP, Davey G, Dávila-Cervantes CA, Davis AC, Davitoiu DV, De la Hoz FP, Demis AB, Demissie DB, Demissie GD, Demoz GT, Denova-Gutiérrez E, Deribe K, Desalew A, Deshpande A, Dharmaratne SD, Dhillonet al., 2020, Mapping geographical inequalities in oral rehydration therapy coverage in low-income and middle-income countries, 2000–17, The Lancet Global Health, Vol: 8, Pages: e1038-e1060, ISSN: 2214-109X

BackgroundOral rehydration solution (ORS) is a form of oral rehydration therapy (ORT) for diarrhoea that has the potential to drastically reduce child mortality; yet, according to UNICEF estimates, less than half of children younger than 5 years with diarrhoea in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) received ORS in 2016. A variety of recommended home fluids (RHF) exist as alternative forms of ORT; however, it is unclear whether RHF prevent child mortality. Previous studies have shown considerable variation between countries in ORS and RHF use, but subnational variation is unknown. This study aims to produce high-resolution geospatial estimates of relative and absolute coverage of ORS, RHF, and ORT (use of either ORS or RHF) in LMICs.MethodsWe used a Bayesian geostatistical model including 15 spatial covariates and data from 385 household surveys across 94 LMICs to estimate annual proportions of children younger than 5 years of age with diarrhoea who received ORS or RHF (or both) on continuous continent-wide surfaces in 2000–17, and aggregated results to policy-relevant administrative units. Additionally, we analysed geographical inequality in coverage across administrative units and estimated the number of diarrhoeal deaths averted by increased coverage over the study period. Uncertainty in the mean coverage estimates was calculated by taking 250 draws from the posterior joint distribution of the model and creating uncertainty intervals (UIs) with the 2·5th and 97·5th percentiles of those 250 draws.FindingsWhile ORS use among children with diarrhoea increased in some countries from 2000 to 2017, coverage remained below 50% in the majority (62·6%; 12 417 of 19 823) of second administrative-level units and an estimated 6 519 000 children (95% UI 5 254 000–7 733 000) with diarrhoea were not treated with any form of ORT in 2017. Increases in ORS use corresponded with declines in RHF in many locations, resulting in relatively co

Journal article

Mainous AG, Saxena S, de Rochars VMB, Macceus Det al., 2020, COVID-19 highlights health promotion and chronic disease prevention amid health disparities, British Journal of General Practice, ISSN: 0960-1643

Journal article

Saxena S, 2020, Routine vaccination during covid-19 pandemic response (vol 369, m2393, 2020), BMJ-BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL, Vol: 369, ISSN: 1756-1833

Journal article

Saxena S, Skirrow H, Bedford H, 2020, Routine vaccination during covid-19 pandemic response, BMJ-BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL, Vol: 369, ISSN: 1756-1833

Journal article

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