Imperial College London

ProfessorSoniaSaxena

Faculty of MedicineSchool of Public Health

Professor of Primary Care
 
 
 
//

Contact

 

+44 (0)20 7594 0839s.saxena

 
 
//

Location

 

332Reynolds BuildingCharing Cross Campus

//

Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

238 results found

Ma R, Foley K, Saxena S, 2022, Experiences of access and use of contraceptive care during COVID-19 lockdown in the UK: a web-based survey., BJGP Open

BACKGROUND: The first wave of lockdown measures to control the covid-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom (UK) resulted in suspension of "non-essential" services including contraception. AIM: To examine women's perceptions and experiences of contraceptive care in the UK during the first lockdown. DESIGN & SETTING: Cross-sectional survey during lockdown period from March to June 2020. METHOD: We designed an online questionnaire asking women aged 16-54 their experiences of contraceptive care during lockdown. Questions were based on Maxwell's evaluation framework on access, acceptability, relevance, and equity. It was promoted on social media from 27th May to ninth June 2020. We conducted descriptive analysis of quantitative data and thematic analysis of free text data. RESULTS: 214 responses were analysed. General practice was the source of contraception for 43% and 52% of respondents before and during the lockdown respectively. 55% (118/214) of respondents including regular and new users were uncertain where or how to get contraception during the pandemic. Respondents reported reduced access to contraception during lockdown, some thought sexual health clinics and general practices were closed.Remote consultations and electronic prescriptions facilitated contraceptive access for some respondents. Long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) was unavailable in some areas due to restrictions, alternatives were not acceptable to those who used methods for non-contraceptive benefits to treat medical conditions e.g., menorrhagia. CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlighted the need for better information and signposting for contraception during lockdown. Contraception including LARC should be reframed as an essential service with robust signposting for pandemic planning and beyond.

Journal article

Foley K, Maile E, Bottle R, Neale F, Viner R, Kenny S, Majeed F, Hargreaves D, Saxena Set al., 2022, Impact of covid-19 on primary care contacts with children and young people aged 0-24 years in England; longitudinal trends study 2015-2020, British Journal of General Practice, ISSN: 0960-1643

Background: The NHS response to covid-19 altered provision and access to primary care.Aim: To examine the impact of covid-19 on general practitioner (GP) contacts with children and young people in England. Design and Setting: Longitudinal trends analysis using electronic health records from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink Aurum database.Methods: We included all children and young people younger than 25 years registered with a GP. We compared the number of total, remote and face-to-face contacts during the first UK lockdown (March to June 2020) with the mean contacts for comparable weeks from 2015 to 2019.Results: We examined 47 607 765 GP contacts with 4 307 120 million children and young people. GP contacts fell 41% during the first lockdown compared with previous years. Children aged 1-14 had greater falls in total contacts (>50%) compared with infants and 15-24s. Face-to-face contacts fell by 88% with the greatest falls occurring among children aged 1-14 (> 90%). Remote contacts more than doubled, increasing most in infants (over 2.5 fold). Total contacts for respiratory illnesses fell by 74% whereas contacts for common non-transmissible conditions shifted largely to remote, mitigating the total fall (31%). Conclusion: During the covid-19 pandemic, children and young people’s contact with GPs fell, particularly for face-to-face assessment. This may be explained by a lower incidence of respiratory illnesses due to fewer social contacts and changing health seeking behaviour. The large shift to remote contacts mitigated total falls in contacts for some age groups and for common non-transmissible conditions.

Journal article

Blackwell J, Saxena S, Jayasooriya N, Petersen I, Hotopf M, Creese H, Bottle A, Pollok RCG, POP-IBD Study Groupet al., 2022, Stoma Formation in Crohn's Disease and the Likelihood of Antidepressant Use: A Population-Based Cohort Study., Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol, Vol: 20, Pages: e703-e710

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The impact of a temporary or permanent stoma on mental health in Crohn's Disease (CD) is unknown. The aim was to examine the association between intestinal surgery and stoma formation and subsequent antidepressant medication (ADM) use. METHODS: Using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, we identified individuals with CD who underwent intestinal surgery between 1998-2018. We excluded individuals with a prescription for an ADM in the 6 months before surgery. Individuals were stratified into three groups: no stoma, temporary stoma, and permanent stoma. We used Kaplan-Meier curves to examine initiation of ADM after intestinal surgery and Cox regression to identify risk factors for ADM use after intestinal surgery. RESULTS: We identified 1,272 cases of CD undergoing their first intestinal surgery. Of these, 871 (68.5%) had no stoma, 191 (15.0%) had a temporary stoma and 210 (16.5%) had a permanent stoma. The 10-year cumulative incidence of ADM use was 26.4%, 33.4% and 37.3% respectively. Individuals with a permanent stoma were 71% more likely to receive an ADM than those with no stoma (HR 1.71, 95% CI 1.20-2.44). Individuals with a temporary stoma reversed within 12 months had a similar likelihood of ADM use to those without stoma formation (HR 0.99, 95% CI 0.64-1.53) whereas temporary stoma formation with late reversal after 12 months was associated with significantly greater likelihood of ADM use (HR 1.85, 95% CI 1.15-2.96). CONCLUSIONS: Permanent stomas and temporary stomas with late reversal surgery are associated with increased ADM use after intestinal surgery, likely associated with increased anxiety and depression.

Journal article

Phillips SM, Summerbell C, Hobbs M, Hsketh KR, Saxena S, Muir C, Hillier-Brown FCet al., 2021, A systematic review of the validity, reliability, and feasibility of measurement tools used to assess the physical activity and sedentary behaviour of pre-school aged children, International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, Vol: 18, Pages: 1-28, ISSN: 1479-5868

Physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour (SB) of pre-school aged children are associated with important health and developmental outcomes. Accurate measurement of these behaviours in young children is critical for research and practice in this area. The aim of this review was to examine the validity, reliability, and feasibility of measurement tools used to assess PA and SB of pre-school aged children.Searches of electronic databases, and manual searching, were conducted to identify articles that examined the measurement properties (validity, reliability or feasibility) of measurement tools used to examine PA and/or SB of pre-school aged children (3-7 years old). Following screening, data were extracted and risk of bias assessment completed on all included articles. A total of 69 articles, describing 75 individual studies were included. Studies assessed measurement tools for PA (n=27), SB (n=5), and both PA and SB (n=43). Outcome measures of PA and SB differed between studies (e.g. moderate to vigorous activity, step count, posture allocation). Most studies examined the measurement properties of one measurement tool only (n=65). Measurement tools examined included: calorimetry, direct observation, combined heart rate and accelerometry, heart rate monitors, accelerometers, pedometers, and proxy report (parent, carer or teacher reported) measures (questionnaires or diaries). Studies most frequently assessed the validity (criterion and convergent) (n=65), face and content validity (n=2), test-retest reliability (n=10) and intra-instrument reliability (n=1) of the measurement tools. Feasibility data was abstracted from 41 studies.Multiple measurement tools used to measure PA and SB in pre-school aged children showed some degree of validity, reliability and feasibility, but often for different purposes. Accelerometers, including the Actigraph (in particular GT3X versions), Actical, ActivPAL and Fitbit (Flex and Zip), and proxy reported measurement tools used in co

Journal article

Greenfield G, Okoli O, Quezada Yamamoto H, Blair M, Saxena S, Majeed F, Hayhoe Bet al., 2021, Characteristics of frequently attending children in hospital emergency departments: a systematic review, BMJ Open, Vol: 11, Pages: 1-7, ISSN: 2044-6055

Objective: To summarise the literature on frequent attendances to hospital emergency departments and describe sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of children who attend EDs frequently.Setting: Hospital emergency departments.Participants: Children <21 years, attending hospital emergency departments frequently.Primary outcome measures: Outcomes measures were defined separately in each study, and were predominantly the number of ED attendances per year.Results: We included 21 studies representing 6,513,627 children. Between 0.3% to 75% of all paediatric ED users were frequent users. Most studies defined 4 or more visits per year as a “frequent ED” usage. Children who were frequent ED users were more likely to be less than 5 years old. In the US, patients with public insurance were more likely to be frequent attenders. Frequent ED users more likely to be frequent users of primary care and have long-term conditions; the most common diagnoses were infections and gastroenteritis.Conclusions: The review included a wide range of information across various health systems, however children who were frequent ED users have some universal characteristics in common. Policies to reduce frequent attendance might usefully focus on preschool children and supporting primary care in responding to primary-care oriented conditions.

Journal article

Creese H, Lai E, Mason K, Schlueter DK, Saglani S, Taylor-Robinson D, Saxena Set al., 2021, Disadvantage in early-life and persistent asthma in adolescents: a UK cohort study, THORAX, ISSN: 0040-6376

Journal article

Ram B, Chalkley A, van Sluijs E, Hargreaves D, Viner R, Saxena Set al., 2021, Implementation of The Daily Mile (TM) : survey of primary schools in Greater London, Publisher: OXFORD UNIV PRESS, ISSN: 1101-1262

Conference paper

Saxena S, Skirrow H, Bedford H, Wighton Ket al., 2021, Covid-19 vaccines for teenagers: conversations and consent, BMJ, Vol: 374, Pages: 1-2, ISSN: 1759-2151

Journal article

Paulson KR, Kamath AM, Alam T, Bienhoff K, Abady GG, Abbas J, Abbasi-Kangevari M, Abbastabar H, Abd-Allah F, Abd-Elsalam SM, Abdoli A, Abedi A, Abolhassani H, Abreu LG, Abu-Gharbieh E, Abu-Rmeileh NME, Abushouk AI, Adamu AL, Adebayo OM, Adegbosin AE, Adekanmbi V, Adetokunboh OO, Adeyinka DA, Adsuar JC, Afshari K, Aghaali M, Agudelo-Botero M, Ahinkorah BO, Ahmad T, Ahmadi K, Ahmed MB, Aji B, Akalu Y, Akinyemi OO, Aklilu A, Al-Aly Z, Alam K, Alanezi FM, Alanzi TM, Alcalde-Rabanal JE, Al-Eyadhy A, Ali T, Alicandro G, Alif SM, Alipour V, Alizade H, Aljunid SM, Almasi-Hashiani A, Almasri NA, Al-Mekhlafi HM, Alonso J, Al-Raddadi RM, Altirkawi KA, Alumran AK, Alvis-Guzman N, Alvis-Zakzuk NJ, Ameyaw EK, Amini S, Amini-Rarani M, Amit AML, Amugsi DA, Ancuceanu R, Anderlini D, Andrei CL, Ansari F, Ansari-Moghaddam A, Antonio CAT, Antriyandarti E, Anvari D, Anwer R, Aqeel M, Arabloo J, Arab-Zozani M, Aripov T, Ärnlöv J, Artanti KD, Arzani A, Asaad M, Asadi-Aliabadi M, Asadi-Pooya AA, Asghari Jafarabadi M, Athari SS, Athari SM, Atnafu DD, Atreya A, Atteraya MS, Ausloos M, Awan AT, Ayala Quintanilla BP, Ayano G, Ayanore MA, Aynalem YA, Azari S, Azarian G, Azene ZN, B DB, Babaee E, Badiye AD, Baig AA, Banach M, Banik PC, Barker-Collo SL, Barqawi HJ, Bassat Q, Basu S, Baune BT, Bayati M, Bedi N, Beghi E, Beghi M, Bell ML, Bendak S, Bennett DA, Bensenor IM, Berhe K, Berman AE, Bezabih YM, Bhagavathula AS, Bhandari D, Bhardwaj N, Bhardwaj P, Bhattacharyya K, Bhattarai S, Bhutta ZA, Bikbov B, Biondi A, Birihane BM, Biswas RK, Bohlouli S, Bragazzi NL, Breusov AV, Brunoni AR, Burkart K, Burugina Nagaraja S, Busse R, Butt ZA, Caetano dos Santos FL, Cahuana-Hurtado L, Camargos P, Cámera LA, Cárdenas R, Carreras G, Carrero JJ, Carvalho F, Castaldelli-Maia JM, Castañeda-Orjuela CA, Castelpietra G, Cerin E, Chang J-C, Chanie WF, Charan J, Chatterjee S, Chattu SK, Chattu VK, Chaturvedi S, Chen S, Cho DY, Choi J-YJ, Chu D-T, Ciobanu LG, Cirillo M, Conde J, Costa VM, Couto RAS, Dachew BA, Dahlaet al., 2021, Global, regional, and national progress towards Sustainable Development Goal 3.2 for neonatal and child health: all-cause and cause-specific mortality findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019, The Lancet, Vol: 398, Pages: 870-905, ISSN: 0140-6736

BackgroundSustainable Development Goal 3.2 has targeted elimination of preventable child mortality, reduction of neonatal death to less than 12 per 1000 livebirths, and reduction of death of children younger than 5 years to less than 25 per 1000 livebirths, for each country by 2030. To understand current rates, recent trends, and potential trajectories of child mortality for the next decade, we present the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019 findings for all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality in children younger than 5 years of age, with multiple scenarios for child mortality in 2030 that include the consideration of potential effects of COVID-19, and a novel framework for quantifying optimal child survival.MethodsWe completed all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality analyses from 204 countries and territories for detailed age groups separately, with aggregated mortality probabilities per 1000 livebirths computed for neonatal mortality rate (NMR) and under-5 mortality rate (U5MR). Scenarios for 2030 represent different potential trajectories, notably including potential effects of the COVID-19 pandemic and the potential impact of improvements preferentially targeting neonatal survival. Optimal child survival metrics were developed by age, sex, and cause of death across all GBD location-years. The first metric is a global optimum and is based on the lowest observed mortality, and the second is a survival potential frontier that is based on stochastic frontier analysis of observed mortality and Healthcare Access and Quality Index.FindingsGlobal U5MR decreased from 71·2 deaths per 1000 livebirths (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 68·3–74·0) in 2000 to 37·1 (33·2–41·7) in 2019 while global NMR correspondingly declined more slowly from 28·0 deaths per 1000 live births (26·8–29·5) in 2000 to 17·9 (16·3–19·8) in 2019.

Journal article

Blackwell J, Saxena S, Petersen I, Hotopf M, Creese H, Bottle A, Alexakis C, Pollok RCet al., 2021, Depression in individuals who subsequently develop inflammatory bowel disease: a population-based nested case-control study, GUT, Vol: 70, Pages: 1642-1648, ISSN: 0017-5749

Journal article

Venkatraman T, Honeyford K, Ram B, van Sluijs EMF, Costelloe CE, Saxena Set al., 2021, IDENTIFYING LOCAL AUTHORITY NEED FOR, AND UPTAKE OF, SCHOOL-BASED PHYSICAL ACTIVITY INTERVENTIONS IN ENGLAND - A CLUSTER ANALYSIS USING ROUTINE DATA, Publisher: BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, Pages: A24-A25, ISSN: 0143-005X

Conference paper

Galles NC, Liu PY, Updike RL, Fullman N, Nguyen J, Rolfe S, Sbarra AN, Schipp MF, Marks A, Abady GG, Abbas KM, Abbasi SW, Abbastabar H, Abd-Allah F, Abdoli A, Abolhassani H, Abosetugn AE, Adabi M, Adamu AA, Adetokunboh OO, Adnani QES, Advani SM, Afzal S, Aghamir SMK, Ahinkorah BO, Ahmad S, Ahmad T, Ahmadi S, Ahmed H, Ahmed MB, Rashid TA, Salih YA, Akalu Y, Aklilu A, Akunna CJ, Al Hamad H, Alahdab F, Albano L, Alemayehu Y, Alene KA, Al-Eyadhy A, Alhassan RK, Ali L, Aljunid SM, Almustanyir S, Altirkawi KA, Alvis-Guzman N, Amu H, Andrei CL, Andrei T, Ansar A, Ansari-Moghaddam A, Antonazzo IC, Antony B, Arabloo J, Arab-Zozani M, Artanti KD, Arulappan J, Awan AT, Awoke MA, Ayza MA, Azarian G, Azzam AY, Darshan BB, Babar Z-U-D, Balakrishnan S, Banach M, Bante SA, Barnighausen TW, Barqawi HJ, Barrow A, Bassat Q, Bayarmagnai N, Ramirez DFB, Bekuma TT, Belay HG, Belgaumi UI, Bhagavathula AS, Bhandari D, Bhardwaj N, Bhardwaj P, Bhaskar S, Bhattacharyya K, Bibi S, Bijani A, Biondi A, Boloor A, Braithwaite D, Buonsenso D, Butt ZA, Camargos P, Carreras G, Carvalho F, Castaneda-Orjuela CA, Chakinala RC, Charan J, Chatterjee S, Chattu SK, Chattu VK, Chowdhury FR, Christopher DJ, Chu D-T, Chung S-C, Cortesi PA, Costa VM, Couto RAS, Dadras O, Dagnew AB, Dagnew B, Dai X, Dandona L, Dandona R, De Neve J-W, Molla MD, Derseh BT, Desai R, Desta AA, Dhamnetiya D, Dhimal ML, Dhimal M, Dianatinasab M, Diaz D, Djalalinia S, Dorostkar F, Edem B, Edinur HA, Eftekharzadeh S, El Sayed I, Zaki MES, Elhadi M, El-Jaafary S, Elsharkawy A, Enany S, Erkhembayar R, Esezobor CI, Eskandarieh S, Ezeonwumelu IJ, Ezzikouri S, Fares J, Faris PS, Feleke BE, Ferede TY, Fernandes E, Fernandes JC, Ferrara P, Filip I, Fischer F, Francis MR, Fukumoto T, Gad MM, Gaidhane S, Gallus S, Garg T, Geberemariyam BS, Gebre T, Gebregiorgis BG, Gebremedhin KB, Gebremichael B, Gessner BD, Ghadiri K, Ghafourifard M, Ghashghaee A, Gilani SA, Glushkova EV, Golechha M, Gonfa KB, Gopalani SV, Goudarzi H, Gubari MIM, Guo Y, Gupta Vet al., 2021, Measuring routine childhood vaccination coverage in 204 countries and territories, 1980-2019: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2020, Release 1, The Lancet, Vol: 398, Pages: 503-521, ISSN: 0140-6736

BackgroundMeasuring routine childhood vaccination is crucial to inform global vaccine policies and programme implementation, and to track progress towards targets set by the Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP) and Immunization Agenda 2030. Robust estimates of routine vaccine coverage are needed to identify past successes and persistent vulnerabilities. Drawing from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2020, Release 1, we did a systematic analysis of global, regional, and national vaccine coverage trends using a statistical framework, by vaccine and over time.MethodsFor this analysis we collated 55 326 country-specific, cohort-specific, year-specific, vaccine-specific, and dose-specific observations of routine childhood vaccination coverage between 1980 and 2019. Using spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression, we produced location-specific and year-specific estimates of 11 routine childhood vaccine coverage indicators for 204 countries and territories from 1980 to 2019, adjusting for biases in country-reported data and reflecting reported stockouts and supply disruptions. We analysed global and regional trends in coverage and numbers of zero-dose children (defined as those who never received a diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis [DTP] vaccine dose), progress towards GVAP targets, and the relationship between vaccine coverage and sociodemographic development.FindingsBy 2019, global coverage of third-dose DTP (DTP3; 81·6% [95% uncertainty interval 80·4–82·7]) more than doubled from levels estimated in 1980 (39·9% [37·5–42·1]), as did global coverage of the first-dose measles-containing vaccine (MCV1; from 38·5% [35·4–41·3] in 1980 to 83·6% [82·3–84·8] in 2019). Third-dose polio vaccine (Pol3) coverage also increased, from 42·6% (41·4–44·1) in 1980 to 79·8% (78·4–81·1) in 2019

Journal article

Norton C, Syred J, Kerry S, Artom M, Sweeney L, Hart A, Czuber-Dochan W, Taylor SJC, Mihaylova B, Roukas C, Aziz Q, Miller L, Pollok R, Saxena S, Stagg I, Terry H, Zenasni Z, Dibley L, Moss-Morris Ret al., 2021, Supported online self-management versus care as usual for symptoms of fatigue, pain and urgency/incontinence in adults with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD-BOOST): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial, TRIALS, Vol: 22

Journal article

Saxena S, Skirrow H, Wighton K, 2021, Should the UK vaccinate children and adolescents against covid-19?, BMJ: British Medical Journal, Vol: 374, ISSN: 0959-535X

Journal article

Coughlan CH, Ruzangi J, Neale FK, Nezafat Maldonado B, Blair M, Bottle A, Saxena S, Hargreaves Det al., 2021, Social and ethnic group differences in healthcare use by children aged 0-14 years: a population-based cohort study in England from 2007 to 2017., Archives of Disease in Childhood, Vol: 107, Pages: 32-39, ISSN: 0003-9888

OBJECTIVE: To describe social and ethnic group differences in children's use of healthcare services in England, from 2007 to 2017. DESIGN: Population-based retrospective cohort study. SETTING/PATIENTS: We performed individual-level linkage of electronic health records from general practices and hospitals in England by creating an open cohort linking data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink and Hospital Episode Statistics. 1 484 455 children aged 0-14 years were assigned to five composite ethnic groups and five ordered groups based on postcode mapped to index of multiple deprivation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Age-standardised annual general practitioner (GP) consultation, outpatient attendance, emergency department (ED) visit and emergency and elective hospital admission rates per 1000 child-years. RESULTS: In 2016/2017, children from the most deprived group had fewer GP consultations (1765 vs 1854 per 1000 child-years) and outpatient attendances than children in the least deprived group (705 vs 741 per 1000 child-years). At the end of the study period, children from the most deprived group had more ED visits (447 vs 314 per 1000 child-years) and emergency admissions (100 vs 76 per 1000 child-years) than children from the least deprived group.In 2016/2017, children from black and Asian ethnic groups had more GP consultations than children from white ethnic groups (1961 and 2397 vs 1824 per 1000 child-years, respectively). However, outpatient attendances were lower in children from black ethnic groups than in children from white ethnic groups (732 vs 809 per 1000 child-years). By 2016/2017, there were no differences in outpatient, ED and in-patient activity between children from white and Asian ethnic groups. CONCLUSIONS: Between 2007 and 2017, children living in more deprived areas of England made greater use of emergency services and received less scheduled care than children from affluent neighbourhoods. Children from Asian and black ethnic grou

Journal article

Ram B, Chalkley A, van Sluijs E, Phillips R, Venkatraman T, Hargreaves D, Viner R, Saxena Set al., 2021, Impact of The daily Mile on children's physical and mental health and educational attainment in primary schools; iMprOVE cohort study protocol, BMJ Open, Vol: 11, ISSN: 2044-6055

Introduction: School-based active mile initiatives such as The Daily Mile (TDM) are widely promoted to address shortfalls in meeting physical activity recommendations. The iMprOVE Study aims to examine the impact of TDM on children’s physical and mental health and educational attainment throughout primary school.Methods and analysis: iMprOVE is a longitudinal quasi-experimental cohort study. We will send a survey to all state-funded primary schools in Greater London to identify participation in TDM. The survey responses will be used for non-random allocation to either the intervention group (Daily Mile schools) or to the control group (non-Daily Mile schools). We aim to recruit 3533 year 1 children (aged 5–6 years) from 77 primary schools and follow them up annually until the end of their primary school years. Data collection taking place at baseline (children in school year 1) and each primary school year thereafter includes device-based measures of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and questionnaires to measure mental health (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) and educational attainment (ratings from ‘below expected’ to ‘above expected levels’). The primary outcome is the mean change in MVPA minutes from baseline to year 6 during the school day among the intervention group compared with controls. We will use multilevel linear regression models adjusting for sociodemographic data and participation in TDM. The study is powered to detect a 10% (5.5 min) difference between the intervention and control group which would be considered clinically significant.Ethics and dissemination: Ethics has been approved from Imperial College Research Ethics Committee, reference 20IC6127. Key findings will be disseminated to the public through research networks, social, print and media broadcasts, community engagement opportunities and schools. We will work with policy-makers for direct application and impact of our findings.

Journal article

Blackwell J, Alexakis C, Saxena S, Creese H, Bottle R, Petersen I, Matthew H, Pollok Ret al., 2021, The association between antidepressant medication use and steroid dependency in patients with ulcerative colitis: a population-based study, BMJ Open Gastroenterology, Vol: 8, ISSN: 2054-4774

Background: Animal studies indicate a potential protective role of antidepressant medication (ADM) in models of colitis but the effect of their use in humans with ulcerative colitis (UC) remains unclear. Objective: To study the relationship between ADM use and corticosteroid dependency in UC. Design: Using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink we identified patients diagnosed with UC between 2005-2016. We grouped patients according to serotonin selective reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) and tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) exposure in the 3 years following diagnosis: 'continuous users', 'intermittent users' and 'non users'. We used logistic regression to estimate the adjusted risk of corticosteroid dependency between ADM exposure groups. Results: We identified 6373 patients with UC. 5,230 (82%) use no ADMs, 627 (10%) were intermittent SSRI users and 282 (4%) were continuous SSRI users, 246 (4%) were intermittent TCA users and 63 (1%) were continuous TCA users. Corticosteroid dependency was more frequent in continuous SSRI and TCA users compared with non-users (19% vs. 24% vs. 14%, respectively, χ2 p=0.002). Intermittent SSRI and TCA users had similar risks of developing corticosteroid dependency to non-users (SSRI: OR 1.19, 95%CI 0.95-1.50, TCA: OR 1.14, CI 0.78-1.66). Continuous users of both SSRIs and TCAs had significantly higher risks of corticosteroid dependency compared to non-users (SSRI: OR 1.62, CI 1.15-2.27, TCA: OR 2.02, CI 1.07-3.81). Conclusions: Continuous ADM exposure has no protective effect in routine clinical practice in UC and identifies a population of patients requiring more intensive medical therapy. ADM use is a flag for potentially worse clinical outcomes in UC.

Journal article

Venkatraman T, Honeyford C, Ram B, Esther MFVS, Costelloe C, Saxena Set al., 2021, Identifying local authority need for, and uptake of, school-based physical activity promotion in England – a cluster analysis, Journal of Public Health, ISSN: 1741-3842

Background:School-based physical activity interventions such as The Daily Mile (TDM) are widely promoted in children’s physical activity guidance. However, targeting such interventions to areas of greatest need is challenging since determinants vary across geographical areas. Our study aimed to identify local authorities in England with the greatest need to increase children’s physical activity and assess whether TDM reaches school populations in areas with the highest need.Methods:This was a cross-sectional study using routinely collected data from Public Health England. Datasets on health, census and the built environment were linked. We conducted a hierarchical cluster analysis to group local authorities by ‘need’ and estimated the association between ‘need’ and registration to TDM.Results:We identified three clusters of high, medium and low need for physical activity interventions in 123 local authorities. Schools in high-need areas were more likely to be registered with TDM (incidence rate ratio 1.25, 95% confidence interval: 1.12–1.39) compared with low-need areas.Conclusions:Determinants of children’s physical activity cluster geographically across local authorities in England. TDM appears to be an equitable intervention reaching schools in local authorities with the highest needs. Health policy should account for clustering of health determinants to match interventions with populations most in need.

Journal article

Jayasooriya N, Saxena S, Blackwell J, Petersen I, Bottle A, Creese H, Pollok Ret al., 2021, Impact of consultation frequency and time to diagnosis on subsequent Inflammatory Bowel Disease outcomes, Publisher: OXFORD UNIV PRESS, Pages: S242-S243, ISSN: 1873-9946

Conference paper

Blackwell J, Saxena S, Jayasooriya N, Bottle A, Petersen I, Hotopf M, Alexakis C, Pollok RCet al., 2021, Prevalence and duration of gastrointestinal symptoms before diagnosis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease and predictors of timely specialist review: a population-based study, Journal of Crohn's and Colitis, Vol: 15, Pages: 203-211, ISSN: 1873-9946

Background and AimsLack of timely referral and significant waits for specialist review amongst individuals with unresolved gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms can result in delayed diagnosis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD).AimsTo determine the frequency and duration of GI symptoms and predictors of timely specialist review before the diagnosis of both Crohn’s Disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC).MethodsCase-control study of IBD matched 1:4 for age and sex to controls without IBD using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink from 1998-2016.ResultsWe identified 19,555 cases of IBD, and 78,114 controls. 1 in 4 cases of IBD reported gastrointestinal symptoms to their primary care physician more than 6 months before receiving a diagnosis. There is a significant excess prevalence of GI symptoms in each of the 10 years before IBD diagnosis. GI symptoms were reported by 9.6% and 10.4% at 5 years before CD and UC diagnosis respectively compared to 5.8% of controls. Amongst patients later diagnosed with IBD, <50% received specialist review within 18 months from presenting with chronic GI symptoms. Patients with a previous diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome or depression were less likely to receive timely specialist review (IBS: HR=0.77, 95%CI 0.60-0.99, depression: HR=0.77, 95%CI 0.60-0.98).ConclusionsThere is an excess of GI symptoms 5 years before diagnosis of IBD compared to the background population which are likely attributable to undiagnosed disease. Previous diagnoses of IBS and depression are associated with delays in specialist review. Enhanced pathways are needed to accelerate specialist referral and timely IBD diagnosis.

Journal article

Greenfield G, Blair M, Aylin P, Saxena S, Majeed F, Bottle Ret al., 2021, Characteristics of frequent paediatric users of emergency departments in England: an observational study using routine national data, Emergency Medicine Journal, Vol: 38, Pages: 146-150, ISSN: 1472-0205

BACKGROUND:Frequent attendances of the same users in emergency departments (ED) can intensify workload pressures and are common among children, yet little is known about the characteristics of paediatric frequent users in EDs. AIM:To describe the volume of frequent paediatric attendance in England and the demographics of frequent paediatric ED users in English hospitals. METHOD:We analysed the Hospital Episode Statistics dataset for April 2014-March 2017. The study included 2 308 816 children under 16 years old who attended an ED at least once. Children who attended four times or more in 2015/2016 were classified as frequent users. The preceding and subsequent years were used to capture attendances bordering with the current year. We used a mixed effects logistic regression with a random intercept to predict the odds of being a frequent user in children from different sociodemographic groups. RESULTS:One in 11 children (9.1%) who attended an ED attended four times or more in a year. Infants had a greater likelihood of being a frequent attender (OR 3.24, 95% CI 3.19 to 3.30 vs 5 to 9 years old). Children from more deprived areas had a greater likelihood of being a frequent attender (OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.54 to 1.59 vs least deprived). Boys had a slightly greater likelihood than girls (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.06). Children of Asian and mixed ethnic groups were more likely to be frequent users than those from white ethnic groups, while children from black and 'other' had a lower likelihood (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.05; OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.06; OR 0.88, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.90; OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.87 to 0.92, respectively). CONCLUSION:One in 11 children was a frequent attender. Interventions for reducing paediatric frequent attendance need to target infants and families living in deprived areas.

Journal article

Venkatraman T, Honeyford K, Costelloe C, Ram B, van Sluijs EMF, Viner R, Saxena Set al., 2021, Sociodemographic profiles, educational attainment and physical activity associated with The Daily Mile™ registration in primary schools in England – a national cross-sectional linkage study, Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, Vol: 75, Pages: 137-144, ISSN: 0143-005X

ObjectiveTo examine primary school and local authority characteristics associated with registrationfor The Daily Mile (TDM), an active mile initiative aimed at increasing physical activity inchildren.DesignA cross-sectional linkage study using routinely collected data.SettingAll state funded primary schools in England from 2012-2018(n=15,815).Results3,502 of all 15,815(22.1%) state funded primary schools in England were registered to doTDM, ranging from 16% in the East Midlands region to 31% in Inner London.Primary schools registered for TDM had larger mean pupil numbers compared with schoolsthat had not registered (300 vs 269 respectively). There was a higher proportion of TDMregistered schools in urban areas compared with non-urban areas. There was local authorityvariation in the likelihood of school registration (ICC: 0.094).After adjusting for school and local authority characteristics, schools located in a majorurban conurbation (OR 1.46 (95%CI:1.24-1.71) urban vs. rural) and schools with a higherproportion of disadvantaged pupils had higher odds of being registered to the TDM (OR 1.16(95%CI:1.02-1.33)). Area based physical activity and schools’ educational attainment wasnot significantly associated with registration to TDM.ConclusionOne in five primary schools in England has registered for The Daily Mile since 2012. TDMappears to be a wide-reaching school based physical activity intervention that is reachingmore disadvantaged primary school populations in urban areas where obesity prevalence ishighest. TDM registered schools include those with both high and low educationalattainment and are in areas with high and low physical activity

Journal article

Hargreaves D, Hanna J, Grinspan ZM, Dunkley C, Saxena S, Cross Het al., 2021, Our health-care system is failing young people with epilepsy, LANCET NEUROLOGY, Vol: 20, Pages: 26-27, ISSN: 1474-4422

Journal article

Blackwell J, Saxena S, Jayasooriya N, Alexakis C, Hotopf M, Pollok Ret al., 2021, PERMANENT STOMA FORMATION IN CROHN'S DISEASE IS ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED RATES OF ANTIDEPRESSANT USE, Publisher: BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, Pages: A85-A85, ISSN: 0017-5749

Conference paper

Saxena S, Pankaj AK, Panwar S, Rani A, Chopra J, Rani Aet al., 2021, Histological changes at the commissure of the lip on approaching from its cutaneous to the mucosa region in males., Natl J Maxillofac Surg, Vol: 12, Pages: 88-92, ISSN: 0975-5950

INTRODUCTION: The morphology of the epithelium of the oral lips comprised keratinized external epithelium (anteriorly) and nonkeratinized or sometimes parakeratinized mucous membrane epithelium (posteriorly). Knowledge of morphometry of the lip lining helps in deciding the best site for choosing graft for its better uptake during several dermal grafting procedures following trauma or tumor excision following craniofacial cancers or cosmetic procedures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten human male cadavers were procured at the Department of Anatomy King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh. The rectangle-shaped skin specimen through the right commissure of the lip which included the skin, mucocutaneous junction, and mucosa was stained with hematoxylin and eosin stain. A total of 30 slides were prepared. Thus, the readings were obtained for three regions, respectively, with the help of CAT-CAM E-series HD cameras which were installed in a light microscope. RESULTS: Thickness of skin (epidermis + dermis) of the lip ranged from 756 μm to 1068 μm among males. Epidermal thickness increases on moving from the cutaneous region to the mucosa region of the lip. The lowest contribution of the stratum corneum in thickness of the epidermis was observed in the vermillion region, while the highest contribution was observed in the skin region. It was found to be absent in the mucosa region of the lip. Rete pegs at the dermoepidermal junction was found to be maximum in the vermillion region and minimum in the skin region. Its depth increased as we move from the skin to the mucosa region of the lip. Depth of the dermis was found to be maximum in the skin region, while minimum in the vermillion region. It ranged between 291 μm and 693 μm. CONCLUSION: Care should be taken while using dermal fillers in lip augmentation surgeries, especially in the vermillion region due to its close proximity to musculature in the core of the lip.

Journal article

Ziauddeen N, Woods-Townsend K, Saxena S, Gilbert R, Alwan NAet al., 2020, Schools and COVID-19: reopening Pandora's box?, Public Health in Practice, Vol: 1, ISSN: 2666-5352

Schools in countries across the world are reopening as lockdown to slow progression of COVID-19 is eased. The UK government ordered school closures in England from March 20, 2020, later than the rest of Europe. A temporary and limited return for some year groups was trialled from June 2020. Teachers, school governors, the public and doctors have openly challenged the decision. The UK government has struggled to provide enough detailed information to convince the public, teachers and health practitioners, that effective systems for protection, including test, trace and isolate, are in place to prevent and manage outbreaks in schools. Risks of infection on reopening to children, staff and families must be weighed against the harms of closure to children's education and social development. The potential consequences, if the re-opening of schools is managed badly, is subsequent waves of COVID-19 infection leading to more deaths, further school closures and prolonged restrictions, losing any ground gained thus far. This article weighs the evidence for risks and benefits of reopening schools during the pandemic.

Journal article

Creese H-M, Taylor-Robinson D, Saglani S, Saxena Set al., 2020, Primary care of children and young people with asthma during the Covid-19 era, British Journal of General Practice, Vol: 70, Pages: 528-529, ISSN: 0960-1643

Around 1.1 million children and young people (CYP)currently receive treatment for asthma in the United Kingdom (UK)(1). The UK performs poorly compared with other European countries in children's outcomes of asthma management and has had amongst the highest number of reported asthma deaths in Europesince 1998 (2). We evaluate evidenceofthe impact of Covid-19 on CYP with asthma and consider what actionsgeneral practitioners can take to protect these children from serious harm.

Journal article

Sharland E, Long P, Sharland M, Bielicki J, Saxena S, Wong ICK, Barker Cet al., 2020, Early origins of oral penicillin dosing for children, Archives of Disease in Childhood, Vol: 105, Pages: 1118-1119, ISSN: 1468-2044

Journal article

Smith HC, Saxena S, Petersen I, 2020, Antibiotic prescribing in the first eight weeks after childbirth, Publisher: WILEY, Pages: 544-545, ISSN: 1053-8569

Conference paper

Smith HC, Saxena S, Petersen I, 2020, What medications are prescribed to women during their postnatal check?, Publisher: WILEY, Pages: 545-545, ISSN: 1053-8569

Conference paper

This data is extracted from the Web of Science and reproduced under a licence from Thomson Reuters. You may not copy or re-distribute this data in whole or in part without the written consent of the Science business of Thomson Reuters.

Request URL: http://wlsprd.imperial.ac.uk:80/respub/WEB-INF/jsp/search-html.jsp Request URI: /respub/WEB-INF/jsp/search-html.jsp Query String: respub-action=search.html&id=00414279&limit=30&person=true