Imperial College London

MrsSusieSchofield

Faculty of MedicineNational Heart & Lung Institute

Medical Statistician
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 7594 7964s.schofield

 
 
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Location

 

G51Emmanuel Kaye BuildingRoyal Brompton Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

13 results found

Schofield SJ, Woods A, Szram J, Newman Taylor AJ, Cullinan Pet al., 2019, COPD and breathlessness in older workers predict economic inactivity; A prospective cohort study, American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Vol: 200, Pages: 1228-1233, ISSN: 1073-449X

RATIONALE: There is an aspiration to retain increasing numbers of older workers in employment and strategies to achieve this need to make provision for the increasing prevalence of chronic diseases with age. There is a consistent body of cross-sectional evidence that suggests that patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are more likely to have adverse employment outcomes. OBJECTIVES: We report the findings of the first longitudinal study of this issue. METHODS: We recruited full-time employed men and women in their 50's and followed them for a period of 18 months; we examined, after adjustment for potential confounders, the associations between breathlessness and airway obstruction at baseline and loss of employment in the intervening period. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Among participants responding to the follow up questionnaire (1656/1773 (93%)), the majority (78.5%) continued in full-time employment, but 10.6% were in part-time employment and 10.9% were no longer in paid employment. The adjusted risk of loss of employment was significantly increased for those with moderate or severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (RR 2.89, 95% ci 1.80-4.65) or breathlessness (3.07, 2.16-4.37) at baseline. There was no evident modification by sex or by manual/non-manual work. CONCLUSIONS: Airway obstruction and breathlessness are independently associated with premature loss from the workforce in older workers; these observations provide strong support to the available cross-sectional evidence and suggest that interventions to help those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who wish to remain in work need to be tested.

Journal article

Feary JR, Schofield SJ, Canizales J, Fitzgerald B, Potts J, Jones M, Cullinan Pet al., 2019, Laboratory animal allergy is preventable in modern research facilities, European Respiratory Journal, Vol: 53, ISSN: 0903-1936

BACKGROUND: Historical data suggest 15% of laboratory animal workers develop IgE sensitisation and 10% symptoms of laboratory animal allergy (LAA), including occupational asthma. Individually ventilated cages (IVC) are replacing conventional open cages; we sought to evaluate their impact on the development of LAA. METHODS: We surveyed 750 laboratory animal workers and measured airborne Mus m 1 (mouse allergen) levels in seven UK institutions. We compared the prevalence of sensitisation to mouse proteins (by specific IgE assay or skin prick test) and of work-related allergic symptoms in IVC-only and open cage units. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Full shift Mus m 1 levels were lower in IVC than open cage units (geometric mean 1.00 ng·m-3 (95% confidence interval: 0.73-1.36) versus8.35 ng·m-3 (6.97-9.95); p<0.001) but varied eight-fold across the IVC units (GM range: 0.33-4.12 ng·m-3). Primary analyses on data from 216 participants with <3 years' exposure to mice revealed a lower prevalence of sensitisation in those working in IVC compared with conventional cage units (2.4% (n=2) versus9.8% (n=13); p=0.052). Sensitisation in IVC units varied from 0% to 12.5%; the use of fitted respiratory protection was less common in IVC units where prevalence of sensitisation was higher. Work-related allergy symptoms were more frequently reported by mouse sensitised individuals (46.7% versus 10.9%, p<0.001); and only by those working in open cage units. CONCLUSION: In contemporary practice, LAA is now largely preventable with the use of IVC systems and the judicious use of appropriate respiratory protection.

Journal article

Pierotti L, Schofield SJ, Collett D, Fecht D, De Hoogh K, Hansell AL, Dark J, Cullinan Pet al., 2018, Traffic-related air pollution and solid organ transplant failure in Great Britain: A retrospective cohort study, Journal of Transport and Health, Vol: 10, Pages: 124-131, ISSN: 2214-1405

Background: Limited evidence suggests that exposure to traffic related air pollution is associated with graft failure among lung transplant recipients. We explored associations between pollution and transplant failure among lung and other solid organ transplant recipients in Great Britain through a retrospective cohort study. Methods: All patients who received a lung, heart, liver, or kidney transplant between 2000 and 2008 in Great Britain were included, as recorded in the National Health Service Blood and Transplant (NHSBT) register and followed to March 2015. Using residential addresses at time of transplant we calculated distance to nearest (major) road and modelled annual average exposures to airborne nitrogen oxides and particulate matter of diameter ≤10µm and ≤2.5µm for each transplant recipient. All-cause mortality or graft failure (kidney) during follow up was the main outcome; median follow-up was around 10 years for each organ type. We fitted Cox regression models with adjustment for age, sex, year of transplant and donor age/smoking status. Results: 780 lung, 1213 heart, 3650 liver and 11966 graft kidney transplant patients were analysed. We did not find any consistent associations between mortality or graft failure and any of the analysed air pollutants or road metrics. Although, exposure to particulate matter was associated with renal transplant failure in univariable analyses but not after adjustment for confounders. Conclusions: Our analysis does not confirm previously reported associations between traffic-related air pollution exposure and the risk of transplant failure.

Journal article

Schofield SJ, Doughty VL, van Stiphout N, Franklin RC, Johnson MR, Daubeney PE, Cullinan Pet al., 2016, Assisted conception and the risk of CHD: a case-control study, Cardiology in the Young, Vol: 27, Pages: 473-479, ISSN: 1467-1107

Epidemiological studies suggest a higher prevalence of congenital malformations in children conceived through assisted reproductive technologies. There are a few studies that address CHD specifically and most have examined data from registries. We examined the relationship between CHD and assisted conception using data collected in a specialist paediatric cardiac service in the United Kingdom. Between April, 2010 and July, 2011, the parents of children attending paediatric cardiology clinics at the Royal Brompton Hospital, London, were invited to complete a questionnaire that enquired about the nature of their child's conception, the route for their original referral, and a number of potential confounding exposures. "Cases" were defined as children diagnosed with one or more carefully defined CHDs and "controls" as those with normal hearts. Of 894 new attendees with complete data, half of them were cases (n=410, 45.9%). The overall prevalence of assisted conception was 5.4% (n=44). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated a non-significant increase in the crude odds for the use of assisted reproduction (odds ratio 1.21, 95% confidence interval 0.66-2.22) in this group. After adjustment for gestation, parity, year of birth, and maternal age, the odds ratio reduced (odds ratio 0.95, 95% confidence interval 0.48-1.88). Increased rates of assisted conception were observed in a number of CHD subgroups, although no significant differences were found. These findings do not suggest an overall association between CHD and assisted reproduction in this population.

Journal article

Marongiu A, Hasan O, Ali A, Bakhsh S, George B, Irfan N, Minelli C, Canova C, Schofield S, De Matteis S, Cullinan Pet al., 2016, Are welders more at risk of respiratory infections? Findings from a cross-sectional survey and analysis of medical records in shipyard workers: the WELSHIP project, Thorax, Vol: 71, Pages: 601-606, ISSN: 1468-3296

Background Exposure to welding fume increases the risk of pneumococcal infection; whether such susceptibility extends to other respiratory infections is unclear. We report findings from a survey and from medical consultation data for workers in a large shipyard in the Middle East.Methods Between January 2013 and December 2013, we collected cross-sectional information from 529 male workers variously exposed to welding fume. Adjusted ORs for respiratory symptoms (cough, phlegm, wheezing, shortness of breath and ‘chest illness’) were estimated using multivariable logistic regression. Subsequently, we examined consultation records from 2000 to 2011 for 15 954 workers who had 103 840 consultations for respiratory infections; the associations between respiratory infections and levels of welding exposure were estimated using a count regression model with a negative binomial distribution.Results 13% of surveyed workers reported respiratory symptoms with a higher prevalence in winter, particularly among welders. The adjusted OR in welders versus other manual labourers was 1.72 (95% CI 1.02 to 3.01) overall and 2.31 (1.05 to 5.10) in winter months; no effect was observed in summer. The risk of consultation for respiratory infections was higher in welders than in manual labourers, with an adjusted incidence rate ratio of 1.45 (1.59 to 1.83) overall, 1.47 (1.42 to 1.52) in winter and 1.33 (1.23 to 1.44) in summer (interaction, p<0.001).Conclusions The observation that respiratory symptoms and consultations for respiratory infection in welders are more common in winter may indicate an enhanced vulnerability to a broad range of infections. If confirmed, this would have important implications for the occupational healthcare of a very large, global workforce.

Journal article

Howarth H, Schofield S, Cannon J, Jones Met al., 2015, Prevalence of cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants in UK bakers, CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL ALLERGY, Vol: 45, Pages: 1613-1615, ISSN: 0954-7894

Journal article

Kon SSC, Jones SE, Schofield SJ, Banya W, Dickson MJ, Canavan JL, Nolan CM, Haselden BM, Polkey MI, Cullinan P, Man WD-Cet al., 2015, Gait speed and readmission following hospitalisation for acute exacerbations of COPD: a prospective study, Thorax, Vol: 70, Pages: 1131-1137, ISSN: 1468-3296

Journal article

Jones M, Jeal H, Schofield S, Harris JM, Shamji MH, Francis JN, Durham SR, Cullinan Pet al., 2014, Rat-specific IgG and IgG(4) antibodies associated with inhibition of IgE-allergen complex binding in laboratory animal workers, Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Vol: 71, Pages: 619-623, ISSN: 1470-7926

Objectives The relationship between exposure torodent allergens and laboratory animal allergy iscomplex; at highest allergen exposures there is anattenuation of sensitisation and symptoms which areassociated with increased levels of rat-specificimmunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgG4 antibodies. We set outto examine whether the increased levels of rat-specificIgG and IgG4 antibodies that we have previouslyobserved at high allergen exposure in our cohort oflaboratory animal workers play a functional role throughblockage of the binding of IgE–allergen complex bindingto CD23 receptors on B cells.Methods Cross-sectional survey of laboratory animalworkers (n=776) in six UK pharmaceutical companieswere surveyed. IgE–allergen complex binding to B cellswas measured in 703 (97.9%) eligible employees; theirexposure was categorised by either job group or numberof rats handled daily.Results We observed a significant decrease inIgE–allergen complex binding to B cells with increasingquartiles of both rat-specific IgG and IgG4 antibodies(p<0.001). IgE–allergen complex binding to B cells waslower in workers with high allergen exposure, andsignificantly so (p=0.033) in the subgroup with highestexposures but no work-related chest symptoms.Conclusions These findings demonstrate a functionalrole for rat-specific IgG/G4 antibodies in laboratoryanimal workers, similar to that observed in patientstreated with high dose immunotherapy who becomeclinically tolerant, suggesting a potential explanation forthe attenuation of risk at highest allergen exposures.

Journal article

Marongiu A, Hasan O, Ali A, Bakhsh S, George B, Irfan N, Canova C, Schofield S, Szram J, Minelli C, Cullinan Pet al., 2014, 0407 An old trade with an unanswered question: does arc-welding fume exposure increase the risks of obstructive pulmonary diseases? First findings from the WELSHIP cross-sectional study., Occup Environ Med, Vol: 71 Suppl 1

OBJECTIVES: Increasingly, global manufacturing is shifting to emerging economies and with it the use of arc-welding for applications in different industries. The chronic respiratory adverse effects resulting from exposure to gases and ultrafine metal particles in welding fume are incompletely understood. We aimed to measure the prevalence of arc-welding related pulmonary obstructive outcomes by analysing data collected in a shipyard in the Middle East. METHOD: Between January and December 2013, through cross-sectional survey, we collected spirometry data and behavioural, occupational and respiratory symptoms information from a random sample of male shipyard workers; 397 were exposed to welding fume and 127 were non-exposed. The sample was selected from a total population of about 8000 employees, by frequency matching for ethnicity and age relatively to full-time welders ('highly' exposed). RESULTS: Of the 580 workers invited, 26 subsequently left their job; of the remainder, 95%(524) agreed to participate. The participants, from the Indian subcontinent (90%) or Philippines (10%), had a median age of 38 years. Ever smoking was reported by 37%, with full-time welders reporting the lowest proportion of current smoking, 18%(24/131). Overall, 13% reported respiratory symptoms with a higher prevalence in the winter months. Post-bronchodilator spirometry data were available for 91% of workers. Mean values for FEV1 and FVC were 2.87L and 3.48L, with no statistically significant differences across exposure groups (p-values: 0.71 and 0.48). CONCLUSIONS: These preliminary results need to be explored further in relation to smoking, past and current occupational exposure. This population, it is hoped, will form the basis for a longitudinal study.

Journal article

Jones M, Schofield S, Jeal H, Cullinan Pet al., 2014, Respiratory protective equipment reduces occurrence of sensitization to laboratory animals, OCCUPATIONAL MEDICINE-OXFORD, Vol: 64, Pages: 104-108, ISSN: 0962-7480

Journal article

Szram J, Schofield SJ, Cosgrove MP, Cullinan Pet al., 2013, Welding, longitudinal lung function decline and chronic respiratory symptoms: a systematic review of cohort studies, EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY JOURNAL, Vol: 42, Pages: 1186-1193, ISSN: 0903-1936

Journal article

Upchurch S, Harris JM, Cullinan P, 2010, Temporal changes in UK birth order and the prevalence of atopy, ALLERGY, Vol: 65, Pages: 1039-1041, ISSN: 0105-4538

Journal article

Brant A, Upchurch S, van Tongeren M, Zekveld C, Helm J, Barnes F, Taylor AJN, Cullinan Pet al., 2009, Detergent protease exposure and respiratory disease: case-referent analysis of a retrospective cohort, OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE, Vol: 66, Pages: 754-758, ISSN: 1351-0711

Journal article

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