Imperial College London


Faculty of EngineeringDepartment of Aeronautics

Professor of Computational Fluid Mechanics



+44 (0)20 7594 5052s.sherwin Website




313BCity and Guilds BuildingSouth Kensington Campus





Publication Type

317 results found

Vymazal M, Moxey D, Cantwell CD, Sherwin SJ, Kirby RMet al., 2019, On weak Dirichlet boundary conditions for elliptic problems in the continuous Galerkin method, Journal of Computational Physics, Vol: 394, Pages: 732-744, ISSN: 0021-9991

© 2019 Elsevier Inc. We combine continuous and discontinuous Galerkin methods in the setting of a model diffusion problem. Starting from a hybrid discontinuous formulation, we replace element interiors by more general subsets of the computational domain – groups of elements that support a piecewise-polynomial continuous expansion. This step allows us to identify a new weak formulation of Dirichlet boundary condition in the continuous framework. We show that the boundary condition leads to a stable discretization with a single parameter insensitive to mesh size and polynomial order of the expansion. The robustness of the approach is demonstrated on several numerical examples.

Journal article

Zhu H, Wang R, Bao Y, Zhou D, Ping H, Han Z, Sherwin SJet al., 2019, Flow over a symmetrically curved circular cylinder with the free stream parallel to the plane of curvature at low Reynolds number, JOURNAL OF FLUIDS AND STRUCTURES, Vol: 87, Pages: 23-38, ISSN: 0889-9746

Journal article

Bao Y, Zhu HB, Huan P, Wang R, Zhou D, Han ZL, Palacios R, Graham M, Sherwin Set al., Numerical prediction of vortex-induced vibration of flexible riser with thick strip method, Journal of Fluids and Structures, ISSN: 0889-9746

We present numerical prediction results of vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of a long flexible tensioned riser subject to uniform currents. The VIV model of long length-to-diameter ratio is considered and ‘thick’ strip technique based on high-order spectral/hp element method is employed for computational simulation. The model parameter of the riser for the simulation is chosen according to the dimensional counterparts used in the experimental tests in Lehn (2003). The numerical results are displayed in terms of motion responses, hydrodynamic forces and wake patterns as well and compared and discussed with the available data in the literature.

Journal article

Marcon J, Kopriva DA, Sherwin SJ, Peiró Jet al., 2019, A high resolution pde approach to quadrilateral mesh generation, Publisher: arXiv

We describe a high order technique to generate quadrilateral decompositions and meshes for complex two dimensional domains using spectral elements in a field guided procedure. Inspired by cross field methods, we never actually compute crosses. Instead, we compute a high order accurate guiding field using a continuous Galerkin (CG) or discontinuous Galerkin (DG) spectral element method to solve a Laplace equation for each of the field variables using the open source code Nektar++. The spectral method provides spectral convergence and sub-element resolution of the fields. The DG approximation allows meshing of corners that are not multiples of pi/2 in a discretization consistent manner, when needed. The high order field can then be exploited to accurately find irregular points, and accurately integrated using a high order streamline integration method to avoid features like limit cycles. The result is a mesh with naturally curved quadrilateral elements that do not need to be curved a posteriori to eliminate invalid elements. The mesh generation procedure is implemented in the open source mesh generation program NekMesh.

Working paper

Moura RC, Peiró J, Sherwin SJ, 2019, Implicit LES approaches via discontinuous galerkin methods at very large reynolds, ERCOFTAC Series, Pages: 53-59

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019. We consider the suitability of implicit large-eddy simulation (iLES) approaches via discontinuous Galerkin (DG) schemes. These are model-free eddy-resolving approaches which solve the governing equations in unfiltered form and rely on numerical stabilization techniques to account for the missing scales. In DG, upwind dissipation from the Riemann solver provides the baseline mechanism for regularization. DG-based iLES approaches are currently under rapid dissemination due to their success in predicting complex transitional and turbulent flows at moderate Reynolds numbers (Uranga et al, Int J Numer Meth Eng 87(1–5):232–261, 2011, [1], Gassner and Beck, Theor Comput Fluid Dyn 27(3–4):221–237, 2013, [2], Beck et al, Int J Numer Methods Fluids 76(8):522–548, 2014, [3], Wiart et al Int J Numer Methods Fluids 78:335–354, 2015, [4]). However, at higher Reynolds number, accuracy and stability issues can arise due the highly under-resolved character of the computations and the suppression of stabilizing viscous effects.

Book chapter

Yakhot A, Feldman Y, Moxey D, Sherwin S, Karniadakis GEet al., 2019, Turbulence in a Localized Puff in a Pipe, Flow, Turbulence and Combustion, ISSN: 1386-6184

© 2019, Springer Nature B.V. We have performed direct numerical simulations of a spatio-temporally intermittent flow in a pipe for Rem = 2250. From previous experiments and simulations of pipe flow, this value has been estimated as a threshold when the average speeds of upstream and downstream fronts of a puff are identical (Barkley et al., Nature 526, 550–553, 2015; Barkley et al., 2015). We investigated the structure of an individual puff by considering three-dimensional snapshots over a long time period. To assimilate the velocity data, we applied a conditional sampling based on the location of the maximum energy of the transverse (turbulent) motion. Specifically, at each time instance, we followed a turbulent puff by a three-dimensional moving window centered at that location. We collected a snapshot-ensemble (10000 time instances, snapshots) of the velocity fields acquired over T = 2000D/U time interval inside the moving window. The cross-plane velocity field inside the puff showed the dynamics of a developing turbulence. In particular, the analysis of the cross-plane radial motion yielded the illustration of the production of turbulent kinetic energy directly from the mean flow. A snapshot-ensemble averaging over 10000 snapshots revealed azimuthally arranged large-scale (coherent) structures indicating near-wall sweep and ejection activity. The localized puff is about 15-17 pipe diameters long and the flow regime upstream of its upstream edge and downstream of its leading edge is almost laminar. In the near-wall region, despite the low Reynolds number, the turbulence statistics, in particular, the distribution of turbulence intensities, Reynolds shear stress, skewness and flatness factors, become similar to a fully-developed turbulent pipe flow in the vicinity of the puff upstream edge. In the puff core, the velocity profile becomes flat and logarithmic. It is shown that this “fully-developed turbulent flash” is very narrow being about t

Journal article

Cassinelli A, Adami P, Sherwin S, Montomoli Fet al., 2018, High Fidelity Spectral/hp Element Methods for Turbomachinery, ASME IGTI 2018

Conference paper

Buscariolo FF, Sherwin SJ, Assi GRS, Meneghini JRet al., 2018, Spectral/hp iLES-SVV simulation methodology study on an Ahmed Body squared back, 2018 SAE Brasil Congress & Exhibition

© 2018 SAE International. All Rights Reserved. The Ahmed Body is one of the most widely studied bluff bodies used for automotive conceptual studies and Computational Fluid Dynamics - CFD software validation. With the advances of the computational processing capacity and improvement in cluster costs, high-fidelity turbulence models, such as Detached Eddies Simulation - DES and Large Eddies Simulation - LES, are becoming a reality for industrial cases, as studied by BUSCARIOLO et al. (2016) [4], evaluating DES models to automotive applications. This work presents a correlation study between a computational and physical model of an Ahmed Body with slant angle of 0 degree, also known as a squared back. Physical results are from a wind tunnel test, performed by STRACHAN et al. (2007) [11] considering moving ground and Reynolds number of 1.7M, based on the length of the body. CFD simulations were performed by the code Nektar++, which is an open source spectral/hp element high-order solver, which methodology combine both mesh refinement (h), with higher polynomial order (p) for lower error propagation and better convergence. It employs a high-fidelity turbulence model known as Spectral Vanish Viscosity - iLES-SVV model, which works as a filter for high frequencies. Same physical test conditions and tunnel test section were considered, with a total time of 4 convective lengths. The 4 cases studies consider high-order mesh of 6 th order, divided in two polynomial orders: 5 th and 6 th for two different mesh setups: one base mesh setup with around 95,000 elements corresponding to 6.3Million of DOFs and a second mesh considering a refinement (h) with around 310,000 elements, corresponding to 19.8 Million of DOFs. Meshes were generated by NekMesh, which works with Nektar++ for high-order mesh generation. In order to improve the computational costs, only half of the model is simulated, considering symmetric condition. Considering the converged drag coefficient values for c

Conference paper

Mengaldo G, Moura RC, Giralda B, Peiró J, Sherwin SJet al., 2018, Spatial eigensolution analysis of discontinuous Galerkin schemes with practical insights for under-resolved computations and implicit LES, Computers and Fluids, Vol: 169, Pages: 349-364, ISSN: 0045-7930

The study focusses on the dispersion and diffusion characteristics of discontinuous spectral element methods - specifically discontinuous Galerkin (DG) - via the spatial eigensolution analysis framework built around a one-dimensional linear problem, namely the linear advection equation. Dispersion and diffusion characteristics are of critical importance when dealing with under-resolved computations, as they affect both the numerical stability of the simulation and the solution accuracy. The spatial eigensolution analysis carried out in this paper complements previous analyses based on the temporal approach, which are more commonly found in the literature. While the latter assumes periodic boundary conditions, the spatial approach assumes inflow/outflow type boundary conditions and is therefore better suited for the investigation of open flows typical of aerodynamic problems, including transitional and fully turbulent flows and aeroacoustics. The influence of spurious/reflected eigenmodes is assessed with regard to the presence of upwind dissipation, naturally present in DG methods. This provides insights into the accuracy and robustness of these schemes for under-resolved computations, including under-resolved direct numerical simulation (uDNS) and implicit large-eddy simulation (iLES). The results estimated from the spatial eigensolution analysis are verified using the one-dimensional linear advection equation and successively by performing two-dimensional compressible Euler simulations that mimic (spatially developing) grid turbulence.

Journal article

Winters A, Moura RC, Mengaldo G, Gassner G, Walch S, Peiro J, Sherwin Set al., A comparative study on polynomial dealiasing and split form discontinuous Galerkin schemes for under-resolved turbulence computations, Journal of Computational Physics, ISSN: 0021-9991

Journal article

Calder M, Craig C, Culley D, de Cani R, Donnelly CA, Douglas R, Edmonds B, Gascoigne J, Gilbert N, Hargrove C, Hinds D, Lane DC, Mitchell D, Pavey G, Robertson D, Rosewell B, Sherwin S, Walport M, Wilson Aet al., 2018, Computational modelling for decision-making: where, why, what, who and how, Royal Society Open Science, Vol: 5, ISSN: 2054-5703

In order to deal with an increasingly complex world, we need ever more sophisticated computational models that can help us make decisions wisely and understand the potential consequences of choices. But creating a model requires far more than just raw data and technical skills: it requires a close collaboration between model commissioners, developers, users and reviewers. Good modelling requires its users and commissioners to understand more about the whole process, including the different kinds of purpose a model can have and the different technical bases. This paper offers a guide to the process of commissioning, developing and deploying models across a wide range of domains from public policy to science and engineering. It provides two checklists to help potential modellers, commissioners and users ensure they have considered the most significant factors that will determine success. We conclude there is a need to reinforce modelling as a discipline, so that misconstruction is less likely; to increase understanding of modelling in all domains, so that the misuse of models is reduced; and to bring commissioners closer to modelling, so that the results are more useful.

Journal article

Cohen J, Marcon J, Turner M, Cantwell C, Sherwin SJ, Peiro J, Moxey Det al., 2019, Simplifying high-order mesh generation for computational scientists, 10th International Workshop on Science Gateways, Publisher: CEUR Workshop Proceedings, ISSN: 1613-0073

Computational modelling is now tightly integrated into many fields of research in science and industry. Computational fluid dynamics software, for example, gives engineers the ability to model fluid flow around complex geometries defined in Computer-Aided Design (CAD) packages, without the expense of constructing large wind tunnel experiments. However, such modelling requires translation from an initial CAD geometry to a mesh of many small elements that modelling software uses to represent the approximate solution in the numerical method. Generating sufficiently high-quality meshes for simulation is a time-consuming, iterative and error-prone process that is often complicated by the need to interact with multiple command-line tools to generate and visualise the mesh data. In this paper we describe our approach to overcoming this complexity through the addition of a meshing console to Nekkloud, a science gateway for simplifying access to the functionality of the Nektar++ spectral/hp element framework. The meshing console makes use of the NekMesh tool in Nektar++ to help reduce the complexity of the mesh generation process. It offers a web-based interface for specifying parameters, undertaking meshing and visualising results. The meshing console enables Nekkloud to offer support for a full, end-to-end simulation pipeline from initial CAD geometry to simulation results.

Conference paper

Alpresa P, Sherwin S, Weinberg P, van Reeuwijk Met al., 2018, Orbitally shaken shallow fluid layers. II. An improved wall shear stress model, PHYSICS OF FLUIDS, Vol: 30, ISSN: 1070-6631

A new model for the analytical prediction of wall shear stress distributions at the base of orbitally shaken shallow fluid layers is developed. This model is a generalisation of the classical extended Stokes solution and will be referred to as the potential theory-Stokes model. The model is validated using a large set of numerical simulations covering a wide range of flow regimes representative of those used in laboratory experiments. It is demonstrated that the model is in much better agreement with the simulation data than the classical Stokes solution, improving the prediction in 63% of the studied cases. The central assumption of the model—which is to link the wall shear stress with the surface velocity—is shown to hold remarkably well over all regimes covered.

Journal article

Alpresa P, Sherwin S, Weinberg P, van Reeuwijk Met al., 2018, Orbitally shaken shallow fluid layers. I. Regime classification, PHYSICS OF FLUIDS, Vol: 30, ISSN: 1070-6631

Orbital shakers are simple devices that provide mixing, aeration, and shear stress at multiple scales and high throughput. For this reason, they are extensively used in a wide range of applications from protein production to bacterial biofilms and endothelial cell experiments. This study focuses on the behaviour of orbitally shaken shallow fluid layers in cylindrical containers. In order to investigate the behaviour over a wide range of different conditions, a significant number of numerical simulations are carried out under different configuration parameters. We demonstrate that potential theory—despite the relatively low Reynolds number of the system—describes the free-surface amplitude well and the velocity field reasonably well, except when the forcing frequency is close to a natural frequency and resonance occurs. By classifying the simulations into non-breaking, breaking, and breaking with part of the bottom uncovered, it is shown that the onset of wave breaking is well described by Δh/(2R) = 0.7Γ, where Δh is the free-surface amplitude, R is the container radius, and Γ is the container aspect ratio; Δh can be well approximated using the potential theory. This result is in agreement with standard wave breaking theories although the significant inertial forcing causes wave breaking at lower amplitudes.

Journal article

De Grazia D, Moxey D, Sherwin SJ, Kravtsova MA, Ruban AIet al., 2018, Direct numerical simulation of a compressible boundary-layer flow past an isolated three-dimensional hump in a high-speed subsonic regime, Physical Review Fluids, Vol: 3, ISSN: 2469-990X

In this paper we study the boundary-layer separation produced in a high-speed subsonic boundary layer by a small wall roughness. Specifically, we present a direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a two-dimensional boundary-layer flow over a flat plate encountering a three-dimensional Gaussian-shaped hump. This work was motivated by the lack of DNS data of boundary-layer flows past roughness elements in a similar regime which is typical of civil aviation. The Mach and Reynolds numbers are chosen to be relevant for aeronautical applications when considering small imperfections at the leading edge of wings. We analyze different heights of the hump: The smaller heights result in a weakly nonlinear regime, while the larger result in a fully nonlinear regime with an increasing laminar separation bubble arising downstream of the roughness element and the formation of a pair of streamwise counterrotating vortices which appear to support themselves.

Journal article

Xu H, Cantwell C, Monteserin C, Eskilsson C, Engsig-Karup AP, Sherwin SJet al., 2018, Spectral/hp element methods: Recent developments, applications, and perspectives, Journal of Hydrodynamics, Vol: 30, Pages: 1-22, ISSN: 1001-6058

The spectral/hp element method combines the geometric flexibility of the classical h-type finite element technique with the desirable numerical properties of spectral methods, employing high-degree piecewise polynomial basis functions on coarse finite element-type meshes. The spatial approximation is based upon orthogonal polynomials, such as Legendre or Chebychev polynomials, modified to accommodate a C0 - continuous expansion. Computationally and theoretically, by increasing the polynomial order p, high-precision solutions and fast convergence can be obtained and, in particular, under certain regularity assumptions an exponential reduction in approximation error between numerical and exact solutions can be achieved. This method has now been applied in many simulation studies of both fundamental and practical engineering flows. This paper briefly describes the formulation of the spectral/hp element method and provides an overview of its application to computational fluid dynamics. In particular, it focuses on the use of the spectral/hp element method in transitional flows and ocean engineering. Finally, some of the major challenges to be overcome in order to use the spectral/hp element method in more complex science and engineering applications are discussed.

Journal article

Mengaldo G, De Grazia D, Moura RC, Sherwin Set al., 2018, Spatial eigensolution analysis of energy-stable flux reconstruction schemes and influence of the numerical flux on accuracy and robustness, Journal of Computational Physics, Vol: 358, Pages: 1-20, ISSN: 0021-9991

This study focusses on the dispersion and diffusion characteristics of high-order energy-stable flux recon-struction (ESFR) schemes via the spatial eigensolution analysis framework proposed in [1]. The analysis isperformed for five ESFR schemes, where the parameter ‘c’ dictating the properties of the specific schemerecovered is chosen such that it spans the entire class of ESFR methods, also referred to as VCJH schemes,proposed in [2]. In particular, we used five values of ‘c’, two that correspond to its lower and upper boundsand the others that identify three schemes that are linked to common high-order methods, namely theESFR recovering two versions of discontinuous Galerkin methods and one recovering the spectral differencescheme. The performance of each scheme is assessed when using different numerical intercell fluxes (e.g.different levels of upwinding), ranging from “under-” to “over-upwinding”. In contrast to the more commontemporal analysis, the spatial eigensolution analysis framework adopted here allows one to grasp crucialinsights into the diffusion and dispersion properties of FR schemes for problems involving non-periodicboundary conditions, typically found in open-flow problems, including turbulence, unsteady aerodynamicsand aeroacoustics.

Journal article

Bao Y, Palacios R, Graham M, Sherwin Set al., 2018, A strip modelling of flow past a freely vibrating cable, ERCOFTAC Series, Vol: 24, Pages: 221-227, ISSN: 1382-4309

© 2018, Springer International Publishing AG. Vortex-induced vibration of long flexible structures with cylindrical cross-section are widely encountered in various engineering fields.

Journal article

Marcon J, Turner M, Moxey D, Sherwin SJ, Peiro Jet al., 2017, A variational approach to high-order r-adaptation, 26th International Meshing Roundtable

A variational framework, initially developed for high-order mesh optimisation, is being extended for r-adaptation. The method is based on the minimisation of a functional of the mesh deformation. To achieve adaptation, elements of the initial mesh are manipulated using metric tensors to obtain target elements. The nonlinear optimisation in turns adapts the final high-order mesh to best fit the description of the target elements by minimising the element distortion. Encouraging preliminary results prove that the method behaves well and can be used in the future for more extensive work which shall include the use of error indicators from CFD simulations.

Conference paper

Serson D, Meneghini JR, Sherwin SJ, 2017, Direct numerical simulations of the flow around wings with spanwise waviness, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol: 826, Pages: 714-731, ISSN: 0022-1120

The use of spanwise waviness in wings has been proposed in the literature as a possible mechanism for obtaining improved aerodynamic characteristics, motivated by the tubercles that cover the leading edge of the pectoral flippers of the humpback whale. We investigate the effect of this type of waviness on the incompressible flow around infinite wings with a NACA0012 profile, using direct numerical simulations employing the spectral/hp method. Simulations were performed for Reynolds numbers of and , considering different angles of attack in both the pre-stall and post-stall regimes. The results show that the waviness can either increase or decrease the lift coefficient, depending on the particular and flow regime. We observe that the flow around the wavy wing exhibits a tendency to remain attached behind the waviness peak, with separation restricted to the troughs, which is consistent with results from the literature. Then, we identify three important physical mechanisms in this flow. The first mechanism is the weakening of the suction peak on the sections corresponding to the waviness peaks. This characteristic had been observed in a previous investigation for a very low Reynolds number of , and we show that this is still important even at . As a second mechanism, the waviness has a significant effect on the stability of the separated shear layers, with transition occurring earlier for the wavy wing. In the pre-stall regime, for , the flow around the baseline wing is completely laminar, and the earlier transition leads to a large increase in the lift coefficient, while for , the earlier transition leads to a shortening of the separation bubble which does not lead to an increased lift coefficient. The last mechanism corresponds to a sub-harmonic behaviour, with the flow being notably different between subsequent wavelengths. This allows the wing to maintain higher lift coefficients in some portions of the span.

Journal article

Ghim M, Alpresa P, Yang S, Braakman ST, Gray SG, Sherwin SJ, van Reeuwijk M, Weinberg PDet al., 2017, Visualization of three pathways for macromolecule transport across cultured endothelium and their modification by flow., AJP - Heart and Circulatory Physiology, Vol: 313, Pages: H959-H973, ISSN: 1522-1539

Transport of macromolecules across vascular endothelium and its modification by fluid mechanical forces are important for normal tissue function and in the development of atherosclerosis. However, the routes by which macromolecules cross endothelium, the hemodynamic stresses that maintain endothelial physiology or trigger arterial disease, and the dependence of transendothelial transport on hemodynamic stresses are controversial. Here we visualised pathways for macromolecule transport and determined the effect on these pathways of different types of flow. Endothelial monolayers were cultured under static conditions or on an orbital shaker producing different flow profiles in different parts of the wells. Fluorescent tracers that bound to the substrate after crossing the endothelium were used to identify transport pathways. Maps of tracer distribution were compared with numerical simulations of flow to determine effects of different shear stress metrics on permeability. Albumin-sized tracers dominantly crossed the cultured endothelium via junctions between neighbouring cells, high-density-lipoprotein-sized tracers crossed at tricelluar junctions whilst low-density-lipoprotein-sized tracers crossed through cells. Cells aligned close to the angle that minimised shear stresses across their long axis. The rate of paracellular transport under flow correlated with the magnitude of these minimised transverse stresses, whereas transport across cells was uniformly reduced by all types of flow. These results contradict the long-standing two-pore theory of solute transport across microvessel walls and the consensus view that endothelial cells align with the mean shear vector. They suggest that endothelial cells minimise transverse shear, supporting its postulated pro-atherogenic role. Preliminary data show that similar tracer techniques are practicable in vivo.

Journal article

Mao X, Zaki TA, Sherwin SJ, Blackburn HMet al., 2017, Transition induced by linear and nonlinear perturbation growth in flow past a compressor blade, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol: 820, Pages: 604-632, ISSN: 0022-1120

Flow past a NACA 65 blade at chord-based Reynolds number 138 500 is studied using stability analysis, generalized (spatially weighted) transient growth analysis and direct numerical simulations (DNS). The mechanisms of transition on various sections of the blade observed in previous work by Zaki et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 665, 2010, pp. 57-98) are examined, with a focus on the pressure side around the leading edge. In this region, the linearly most energetic perturbation has spanwise wavenumber 40π (five boundary-layer thicknesses) and is tilted against the mean shear to take advantage of the Orr mechanism. In a DNS, the nonlinear development of this optimal perturbation induces Λ structures, which are further stretched to hairpin vortices before breaking down to turbulence. At higher spanwise wavenumber, e.g. 120π, a free-stream optimal perturbation is obtained upstream of the leading edge, in the form of streamwise vortices. During its nonlinear evolution, this optimal perturbation tilts the mean shear and generates spanwise periodic high- and low-speed streaks. Then through a nonlinear lift-up mechanism, the low-speed streaks are lifted above the high-speed ones. This layout of streaks generates a mean shear with two inflectional points and activates secondary instabilities, namely inner and outer instabilities previously reported in the literature.

Journal article

Xu H, Mughal SM, Gowree E, Atkin CJ, Sherwin Set al., 2017, Destabilisation and modification of Tollmien-Schlichting disturbances by athree dimensional surface indentation, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol: 819, Pages: 592-620, ISSN: 1469-7645

We consider the influence of a smooth three-dimensional (3-D) indentation on the instability of an incompressible boundary layer by linear and nonlinear analyses. The numerical work was complemented by an experimental study to investigate indentations of approximately 11δ99 and 22δ99 width at depths of 45 %, 52 % and 60 % of δ99 , where δ99 indicates 99% boundary layer thickness. For these indentations a separation bubble confined within the indentation arises. Upstream of the indentation, spanwise-uniform Tollmien–Schlichting (TS) waves are assumed to exist, with the objective to investigate how the 3-D surface indentation modifies the 2-D TS disturbance. Numerical corroboration against experimental data reveals good quantitative agreement. Comparing the structure of the 3-D separation bubble to that created by a purely 2-D indentation, there are a number of topological changes particularly in the case of the widest indentation; more rapid amplification and modification of the upstream TS waves along the symmetry plane of the indentation is observed. For the shortest indentations, beyond a certain depth there are then no distinct topological changes of the separation bubbles and hence on flow instability. The destabilising mechanism is found to be due to the confined separation bubble and is attributed to the inflectional instability of the separated shear layer. Finally for the widest width indentation investigated ( 22δ99 ), results of the linear analysis are compared with direct numerical simulations. A comparison with the traditional criteria of using N -factors to assess instability of properly 3-D disturbances reveals that a general indication of flow destabilisation and development of strongly nonlinear behaviour is indicated as N=6 values are attained. However N -factors, based on linear models, can only be used to provide indications and severity of the destabilisation, since the process of disturbance breakdown to turbu

Journal article

Burovskiy P, Grigoras P, Sherwin S, Luk Wet al., 2017, Efficient Assembly for High-Order Unstructured FEM Meshes (FPL 2015), ACM TRANSACTIONS ON RECONFIGURABLE TECHNOLOGY AND SYSTEMS, Vol: 10, ISSN: 1936-7406

Journal article

Xu H, Lombard J, Sherwin S, 2017, Influence of localised smooth steps on the instability of a boundary layer, Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol: 817, Pages: 138-170, ISSN: 1469-7645

We consider a smooth, spanwise-uniform forward facing step de ned by the Gauss error function of height 4-30% and four times the width of the local boundary layer thickness δ_99. The boundary layer flow over a smooth forward-facing stepped plate is studied with particular emphasis on stabilisation and destabilisation of the two-dimensional Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) waves and subsequently on three-dimensional disturbances at transition. The interaction between TS waves at a range of frequencies and a base flow over a single or two forward facing smooth steps is conducted by linear analysis. The results indicate thatfor a TS wave with a frequency F 2 [140; 160] (F=! =U21 106 where ! and U1 denote the perturbation angle frequency and freestream velocity magnitude, respectively), the amplitude of the TS wave is attenuated in the unstable regime of the neutral stability curve corresponding to a at plate boundary layer. Furthermore, it is observed thattwo smooth forward facing steps lead to a more acute reduction of the amplitude of the TS wave. When the height of a step is increased to more than 20% of the local boundary layer thickness for a xed width parameter, the TS wave is amplified and thereby a destabilisation e ect is introduced. Therefore, stabilisation or destabilisation effect of a smooth step is typically dependent on its shape parameters. To validate the results of the linear stability analysis, where a TS wave is damped by the forward facingsmooth steps direct numerical simulation (DNS) is performed. The results of the DNS correlate favorably with the linear analysis and show that for the investigated frequency of the TS wave, the K-type transition process is altered whereas the onset of the H-type transition is delayed. The results of the DNS suggest that for the perturbation with the non-dimensional frequency parameter F = 150 and in the absence of other externalperturbations, two forward facing smooth steps of height 5% and 12% of the boundary lay

Journal article

Cantwell C, Sherwin S, 2017, Nektar++

Nektar++ is a tensor product based finite element package designed to allow one to construct efficient classical low polynomial order h-type solvers (where h is the size of the finite element) as well as higher p-order piecewise polynomial order solvers.


Chooi KY, Comerford A, Sherwin SJ, Weinberg PDet al., 2017, Noradrenaline has opposing effects on the hydraulic conductance of arterial intima and media., Journal of Biomechanics, Vol: 54, Pages: 4-10, ISSN: 1873-2380

The uptake of circulating macromolecules by the arterial intima is thought to be a key step in atherogenesis. Such transport is dominantly advective, so elucidating the mechanisms of water transport is important. The relation between vasoactive agents and water transport in the arterial wall is incompletely understood. Here we applied our recently-developed combination of computational and experimental methods to investigate the effects of noradrenaline (NA) on hydraulic conductance of the wall (Lp), medial extracellular matrix volume fraction (ϕ(ECM)) and medial permeability (K1(1)) in the rat abdominal aorta. Experimentally, we found that physiological NA concentrations were sufficient to induce SMC contraction and produced significant decreases in Lp and increases in ϕ(ECM). Simulation results based on 3D confocal images of the extracellular volume showed a corresponding increase in K1(1), attributed to the opening of the ECM. Conversion of permeabilities to layer-specific resistances revealed that although the total wall resistance increased, medial resistance decreased, suggesting an increase in intimal resistance upon application of NA.

Journal article

Serson D, Meneghini JR, Sherwin SJ, 2017, Direct numerical simulations of the flow around wings with spanwise waviness at a very low Reynolds number, Computers & Fluids, Vol: 146, Pages: 117-124, ISSN: 0045-7930

Inspired by the pectoral flippers of the humpback whale, the use of spanwise waviness in the leading edge has been considered in the literature as a possible way of improving the aerodynamic performance of wings. In this paper, we present an investigation based on direct numerical simulations of the flow around infinite wavy wings with a NACA0012 profile, at a Reynolds number Re=1000Re=1000. The simulations were carried out using the Spectral/hp Element Method, with a coordinate system transformation employed to treat the waviness of the wing. Several combinations of wavelength and amplitude were considered, showing that for this value of Re the waviness leads to a reduction in the lift-to-drag ratio (L/D), associated with a suppression of the fluctuating lift coefficient. These changes are associated with a regime where the flow remains attached behind the peaks of the leading edge while there are distinct regions of flow separation behind the troughs, and a physical mechanism explaining this behaviour is proposed.

Journal article

Moura RC, Mengaldo G, Peiró J, Sherwin SJet al., 2017, An LES Setting for DG-Based Implicit LES with Insights on Dissipation and Robustness, Pages: 161-173, ISSN: 1439-7358

© 2017, Springer International Publishing AG. We suggest a new interpretation of implicit large eddy simulation (iLES) approaches based on discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods by analogy with the LES-PLB framework (Pope, Fluid mechanics and the environment: dynamical approaches. Springer, Berlin, 2001), where PLB stands for ‘projection onto local basis functions’. Within this framework, the DG discretization of the unfiltered compressible Navier-Stokes equations can be recognized as a Galerkin solution of a PLB-based (and hence filtered) version of the equations with extra terms originating from DG’s implicit subgrid-scale modelling. It is shown that for under-resolved simulations of isotropic turbulence at very high Reynolds numbers, energy dissipation is primarily determined by the property-jump term of the Riemann flux employed. Additionally, in order to assess how this dissipation is distributed in Fourier space, we compare energy spectra obtained from inviscid simulations of the Taylor-Green vortex with different Riemann solvers and polynomial orders. An explanation is proposed for the spectral ‘energy bump’ observed when the Lax-Friedrichs flux is employed.

Conference paper

Moxey D, Cantwell CD, Mengaldo G, Serson D, Ekelschot D, Peiró J, Sherwin SJ, Kirby RMet al., 2017, Towards p-adaptive spectral/hp element methods for modelling industrial flows, ICOSAHOM-2016 - International Conference on Spectral and High-order Methods, Publisher: Springer International Publishing AG, Pages: 63-79, ISSN: 1439-7358

There is an increasing requirement from both academia and industry for high-fidelity flow simulations that are able to accurately capture complicated and transient flow dynamics in complex geometries. Coupled with the growing availability of high-performance, highly parallel computing resources, there is therefore a demand for scalable numerical methods and corresponding software frameworks which can deliver the next-generation of complex and detailed fluid simulations to scientists and engineers in an efficient way. In this article we discuss recent and upcoming advances in the use of the spectral/hp element method for addressing these modelling challenges. To use these methods efficiently for such applications, is critical that computational resolution is placed in the regions of the flow where it is needed most, which is often not known a priori. We propose the use of spatially and temporally varying polynomial order, coupled with appropriate error estimators, as key requirements in permitting these methods to achieve computationally efficient high-fidelity solutions to complex flow problems in the fluid dynamics community.

Conference paper

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