Imperial College London

Dr S M Afzal Sohaib

Faculty of MedicineNational Heart & Lung Institute

Honorary Clinical Research Fellow
 
 
 
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s.sohaib

 
 
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NHLIBlock B Hammersmith HospitalHammersmith Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

62 results found

Gawalko M, Duncker D, Manninger M, van der Velden RMJ, Hermans ANL, Verhaert DVM, Pison L, Pisters R, Hemels M, Sultan A, Steven D, Gupta D, Heidbuchel H, Sohaib A, Wijtvliet P, Tieleman R, Gruwez H, Chun J, Schmidt B, Keaney JJ, Mueller P, Lodzinski P, Svennberg E, Hoekstra O, Jansen WPJ, Desteghe L, de Potter T, Tomlinson DR, Neubeck L, Crijns HJGM, Pluymaekers NAHA, Hendriks JM, Linz Det al., 2021, The European TeleCheck-AF project on remote app-based management of atrial fibrillation during the COVID-19 pandemic: centre and patient experiences, EUROPACE, Vol: 23, Pages: 1003-1015, ISSN: 1099-5129

Journal article

Sohaib A, Linde C, 2021, A new era for the young community of the ESC, EUROPEAN HEART JOURNAL, Vol: 42, Pages: 365-367, ISSN: 0195-668X

Journal article

Koenig S, Svetlosak M, Grabowski M, Duncker D, Nagy VK, Bogdan S, Vanduynhoven P, Sohaib SMA, Malaczynska-Raipold K, Lane DA, Lenarczyk R, Bollmann A, Hindricks G, Potpara TS, Kosiuk Jet al., 2021, Utilization and perception of same-day discharge in electrophysiological procedures and device implantations: an EHRA survey, EUROPACE, Vol: 23, Pages: 149-156, ISSN: 1099-5129

Journal article

Kim M-Y, Sandler B, Sikkel MB, Cantwell CD, Leong KM, Luther V, Malcolme-Lawes L, Koa-Wing M, Ng FS, Qureshi N, Sohaib A, Whinnett ZI, Fudge M, Lim E, Todd M, Wright I, Peters NS, Lim PB, Linton NWF, Kanagaratnam Pet al., 2020, The ectopy-triggering ganglionated plexuses in atrial fibrillation, Autonomic Neuroscience, Vol: 228, ISSN: 1566-0702

BackgroundEpicardial ganglionated plexus (GP) have an important role in the pathogenesis of atrial fibrillation (AF). The relationship between anatomical, histological and functional effects of GP is not well known. We previously described atrioventricular (AV) dissociating GP (AVD-GP) locations. In this study, we hypothesised that “ET-GP” are upstream triggers of atrial ectopy/AF and have different anatomical distribution to AVD-GP.ObjectivesWe mapped and characterised ET-GP to understand their neural mechanism in AF and anatomical distribution in the left atrium (LA).Methods26 patients with paroxysmal AF were recruited. All were paced in the LA with an ablation catheter. HFS (80 ms) was synchronised to each paced stimulus (after 20 ms delay) for delivery within the local atrial refractory period. HFS responses were tagged onto CARTO™ 3D LA geometry. All geometries were transformed onto one reference LA shell. A probability distribution atlas of ET-GP was created. This identified high/low ET-GP probability regions.Results2302 sites were tested with HFS, identifying 579 (25%) ET-GP. 464 ET-GP were characterised, where 74 (16%) triggered ≥30s AF/AT. Median 97 (IQR 55) sites were tested, identifying 19 (20%) ET-GP per patient. >30% of ET-GP were in the roof, mid-anterior wall, around all PV ostia except in the right inferior PV (RIPV) in the posterior wall.ConclusionET-GP can be identified by endocardial stimulation and their anatomical distribution, in contrast to AVD-GP, would be more likely to be affected by wide antral circumferential ablation. This may contribute to AF ablation outcomes.

Journal article

Hermans ANL, van der Velden RMJ, Gawalko M, Verhaert DVM, Desteghe L, Duncker D, Manninger M, Heidbuchel H, Pisters R, Hemels M, Pison L, Sohaib A, Sultan A, Steven D, Wijtvliet P, Tieleman R, Gupta D, Dobrev D, Svennberg E, Crijns HJGM, Pluymaekers NAHA, Hendriks JM, Linz Det al., 2020, On-demand mobile health infrastructures to allow comprehensive remote atrial fibrillation and risk factor management through teleconsultation, CLINICAL CARDIOLOGY, Vol: 43, Pages: 1232-1239, ISSN: 0160-9289

Journal article

Kim M-Y, Sandler B, Sikkel MB, Cantwell CD, Leong KM, Luther V, Malcolme-Lawes L, Koa-Wing M, Ng FS, Qureshi N, Sohaib A, Whinnett ZI, Fudge M, Lim E, Todd M, Wright I, Peters NS, Lim PB, Linton NWF, Kanagaratnam Pet al., 2020, The anatomical distribution of the ectopy-triggering ganglionated plexus in patients with atrial fibrillation, Circulation: Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology, Vol: 13, Pages: 1045-1047, ISSN: 1941-3084

Journal article

Hoes MF, te Riele ASJM, Gladka MM, Westenbrink BD, van Hout GPJ, van den Hoogenhof MMG, Ghigo A, Bollini S, Purcell NH, Sohaib SMA, Kardys I, Kuster DWDet al., 2020, Young@Heart: empowering the next generation of cardiovascular researchers, Netherlands Heart Journal, Vol: 28, Pages: 25-30, ISSN: 1568-5888

In recognition of the increasing health burden of cardiovascular disease, the Dutch CardioVascular Alliance (DCVA) was founded with the ambition to lower the cardiovascular disease burden by 25% in 2030. To achieve this, the DCVA is a platform for all stakeholders in the cardiovascular field to align policies, agendas and research. An important goal of the DCVA is to guide and encourage young researchers at an early stage of their careers in order to help them overcome challenges and reach their full potential. Young@Heart is part of the DCVA that supports the young cardiovascular research community. This article illustrates the challenges and opportunities encountered by young cardiovascular researchers in the Netherlands and highlights Young@Heart’s vision to benefit from these opportunities and optimise collaborations to contribute to lowering the cardiovascular disease burden together as soon as possible.Dutch contribution to the fieldDutch cardiovascular alliance (DCVA) is a platform that combines stakeholders in the cardiovascular field with the goal to lower cardiovascular disease burden by 25% in 2030.Young@Heart is part of the talent pillar of DCVA and represents young researchers in the Netherlands.Young@Heart aims to provide career perspectives in academic, corporate and non-governmental settings for talented basic and clinical scientists.By providing workshops, national and international networking and funding opportunities, Young@Heart hopes to ensure a bright future for cardiovascular research in the Netherlands.

Journal article

Arnold A, Howard J, Chiew K, Kerrigan W, de Vere F, Johns H, Churilov L, Ahmad Y, Keene D, Shun-Shin M, Cole G, Kanagaratnam P, Sohaib S, Varnava A, Francis D, Whinnett Zet al., 2019, Right ventricular pacing for hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy: meta-analysis and meta-regression of clinical trials, European Heart Journal - Quality of Care and Clinical Outcomes, Vol: 5, Pages: 321-333, ISSN: 2058-5225

AimsRight ventricular pacing for left ventricular outflow tract gradient reduction in hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy remains controversial. We undertook a meta-analysis for echocardiographic and functional outcomes.Methods and resultsThirty-four studies comprising 1135 patients met eligibility criteria. In the four blinded randomized controlled trials (RCTs), pacing reduced gradient by 35% [95% confidence interval (CI) 23.2–46.9, P < 0.0001], but there was only a trend towards improved New York Heart Association (NYHA) class [odds ratio (OR) 1.82, CI 0.96–3.44; P = 0.066]. The unblinded observational studies reported a 54.3% (CI 44.1–64.6, P < 0.0001) reduction in gradient, which was a 18.6% greater reduction than the RCTs (P = 0.0351 for difference between study designs). Observational studies reported an effect on unblinded NYHA class at an OR of 8.39 (CI 4.39–16.04, P < 0.0001), 450% larger than the OR in RCTs (P = 0.0042 for difference between study designs). Across all studies, the gradient progressively decreased at longer follow durations, by 5.2% per month (CI 2.5–7.9, P = 0.0001).ConclusionRight ventricular pacing reduces gradient in blinded RCTs. There is a non-significant trend to reduction in NYHA class. The bias in assessment of NYHA class in observational studies appears to be more than twice as large as any genuine treatment effect.

Journal article

Whinnett Z, Sohaib SMA, Mason M, Duncan E, Tanner M, Lefroy D, Al-Obaidi M, Ellery S, Leyva-Leon F, Betts T, Dayer M, Foley P, Swinburn J, Thomas M, Khiani R, Wong T, Yousef Z, Rogers D, Kalra P, Dhileepan V, March K, Howard J, Kyriacou A, Mayet J, Kanagaratnam P, Frenneaux M, Hughes A, Francis Det al., 2019, Multicenter randomized controlled crossover trial comparing hemodynamic optimization against echocardiographic optimization of AV and VV delay of Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy: The BRAVO Trial, JACC: Cardiovascular Imaging, Vol: 12, Pages: 1407-1416, ISSN: 1936-878X

ObjectivesBRAVO (British Randomized Controlled Trial of AV and VV Optimization) is a multicenter, randomized, crossover, noninferiority trial comparing echocardiographic optimization of atrioventricular (AV) and interventricular delay with a noninvasive blood pressure method.BackgroundCardiac resynchronization therapy including AV delay optimization confers clinical benefit, but the optimization requires time and expertise to perform.MethodsThis study randomized patients to echocardiographic optimization or hemodynamic optimization using multiple-replicate beat-by-beat noninvasive blood pressure at baseline; after 6 months, participants were crossed over to the other optimization arm of the trial. The primary outcome was exercise capacity, quantified as peak exercise oxygen uptake. Secondary outcome measures were echocardiographic left ventricular (LV) remodeling, quality-of-life scores, and N-terminal pro–B-type natriuretic peptide.ResultsA total of 401 patients were enrolled, the median age was 69 years, 78% of patients were men, and the New York Heart Association functional class was II in 84% and III in 16%. The primary endpoint, peak oxygen uptake, met the criterion for noninferiority (pnoninferiority = 0.0001), with no significant difference between the hemodynamically optimized arm and echocardiographically optimized arm of the trial (mean difference 0.1 ml/kg/min). Secondary endpoints for noninferiority were also met for symptoms (mean difference in Minnesota score 1; pnoninferiority = 0.002) and hormonal changes (mean change in N-terminal pro–B-type natriuretic peptide -10 pg/ml; pnoninferiority = 0.002). There was no significant difference in LV size (mean change in LV systolic dimension 1 mm; pnoninferiority < 0.001; LV diastolic dimension 0 mm; pnoninferiority <0.001). In 30% of patients the AV delay identified as optimal was more than 20 ms from the nominal setting of 120 ms.ConclusionsOptimization of cardiac resynchronization therapy

Journal article

Sau A, Howard J, Al-Aidarous S, Ferreira-Martins J, Al-Khayatt B, Lim PB, Kanagaratnam P, Whinnett Z, Peters N, Sikkel M, Francis D, Sohaib SMAet al., 2019, Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of atrial fibrillation ablation with pulmonary vein isolation versus without, JACC: Clinical Electrophysiology, Vol: 5, Pages: 968-976, ISSN: 2405-5018

ObjectivesThis meta-analysis examined the ability of pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) to prevent atrial fibrillation in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in which the patients not receiving PVI nevertheless underwent a procedure.BackgroundPVI is a commonly used procedure for the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF), and its efficacy has usually been judged against therapy with anti-arrhythmic drugs in open-label trials. There have been several RCTs of AF ablation in which both arms received an ablation, but the difference between the treatment arms was inclusion or omission of PVI. These trials of an ablation strategy with PVI versus an ablation strategy without PVI may provide a more rigorous method for evaluating the efficacy of PVI.MethodsMedline and Cochrane databases were searched for RCTs comparing ablation including PVI with ablation excluding PVI. The primary efficacy endpoint was freedom from atrial fibrillation (AF) and atrial tachycardia at 12 months. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed using the restricted maximum likelihood estimator.ResultsOverall, 6 studies (610 patients) met inclusion criteria. AF recurrence was significantly lower with an ablation including PVI than an ablation without PVI (RR: 0.54; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.33 to 0.89; p 1⁄4 0.0147; I2 1⁄4 79.7%). Neither the type of AF (p 1⁄4 0.48) nor the type of non-PVI ablation (p 1⁄4 0.21) was a significant moderator of the effect size. In 3 trials the non-PVI ablation procedure was performed in both arms, whereas PVI was performed in only 1 arm. In these studies, AF recurrence was significantly lower when PVI was included (RR: 0.32; 95% CI: 0.14 to 0.73; p 1⁄4 0.007, I2 78%ConclusionIn RCTs where both arms received an ablation, and therefore an expectation amongst patients and doctors of benefit, being randomized to PVI had a striking effect, reducing AF recurrence by a half.

Journal article

Sau A, Al-Aidarous S, Howard J, Shalhoub J, Sohaib A, Shun-Shin M, Novak PG, Leather R, Sterns LD, Lane C, Kanagaratnam P, Peters NS, Francis DP, Sikkel MBet al., 2019, Optimum lesion set and predictors of outcome in persistent atrial fibrillation ablation: a meta-regression analysis, Europace, Vol: 21, Pages: 1176-1184, ISSN: 1099-5129

AIMS: Ablation of persistent atrial fibrillation (PsAF) has been performed by many techniques with varying success rates. This may be due to ablation techniques, patient demographics, comorbidities, and trial design. We conducted a meta-regression of studies of PsAF ablation to elucidate the factors affecting atrial fibrillation (AF) recurrence. METHODS AND RESULTS : Databases were searched for prospective studies of PsAF ablation. A meta-regression was performed. Fifty-eight studies (6767 patients) were included. Complex fractionated atrial electrogram (CFAE) ablation reduced freedom from AF by 8.9% [95% confidence interval (CI) -15 to -2.3, P = 0.009). Left atrial appendage [LAA isolation (three study arms)] increased freedom from AF by 39.5% (95% CI 9.1-78.4, P = 0.008). Posterior wall isolation (PWI) (eight study arms) increased freedom from AF by 19.4% (95% CI 3.3-38.1, P = 0.017). Linear ablation or ganglionated plexi ablation resulted in no significant effect on freedom from AF. More extensive ablation increased intraprocedural AF termination; however, intraprocedural AF termination was not associated with improved outcomes. Increased left atrial diameter was associated with a reduction in freedom from AF by 4% (95% CI -6.8% to -1.1%, P = 0.007) for every 1 mm increase in diameter. CONCLUSION : Linear ablation, PWI, and CFAE ablation improves intraprocedural AF termination, but such termination does not predict better long-term outcomes. Study arms including PWI or LAA isolation in the lesion set were associated with improved outcomes in terms of freedom from AF; however, further randomized trials are required before these can be routinely recommended. Left atrial size is the most important marker of AF chronicity influencing outcomes.

Journal article

Hall R, Jones DA, Muthumala A, Weerackody R, Sohaib A, Monkhouse Cet al., 2019, Transient rise in His-lead threshold due to acute myocardial infarction, PACE-PACING AND CLINICAL ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, Vol: 42, Pages: 754-757, ISSN: 0147-8389

Journal article

Kotecha D, Bax JJ, Carrera C, Casadei B, Merkely B, Anker SD, Vardas PE, Kearney PP, Roffi M, Ros M, Vahanian A, Weidinger F, Beeri R, Budaj A, Calabro P, Czerwinska-Jelonkiewicz K, D'Ascenzi F, De Potter T, Fox KF, Hartikainen J, McAdam B, Milicic D, Pasquet AA, Sionis A, Sohaib SMA, Tsioufis C, Verhorst PMJ, Kirchhof Pet al., 2019, Roadmap for cardiovascular education across the European Society of Cardiology: inspiring better knowledge and skills, now and for the future, EUROPEAN HEART JOURNAL, Vol: 40, Pages: 1728-1738, ISSN: 0195-668X

Journal article

Sau A, Howard J, Al-Aidarous S, Martins J, Al-Khayatt B, Lim PB, Kanagaratnam P, Whinnett Z, Peters N, Sikkel M, Francis D, Sohaib SMAet al., 2019, Efficacy of pulmonary vein isolation in preventing atrial fibrillation: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials with an invasive control procedure, Annual Conference of the British-Cardiovascular-Society (BCS) - Digital Health Revolution, Publisher: BMJ Publishing Group, Pages: A31-A31, ISSN: 1355-6037

Introduction Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) is a commonly used element in treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF) but has never been tested in an intentionally placebo (sham) controlled trial. Nevertheless there have been several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in which both arms receive an ablation procedure but the only difference between treatment arms is inclusion or omission of PVI. As long as both doctor and patient have reason to believe that the procedures in both arms are effective, such RCTs could be an effective proxy for placebo controlled trials.Methods Medline and Cochrane databases were searched for RCTs comparing catheter ablation including PVI with left atrial ablation excluding PVI. The primary efficacy endpoint was freedom from AF/atrial tachycardia at 6 months. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed using the restricted maximum likelihood (REML) estimator.Results Overall, seven studies (909 patients) met inclusion criteria. Across the 7 trials, mean age was 57.3, 70.2% of participants were male. In four trials (352 patients) the non-PVI ablation procedure was performed in both arms, while PVI was performed in only one arm. The non-PVI ablation procedures were complex fractionated atrial electrogram ablation (2 studies), ganglionated plexi ablation (1 study) and focal impulse and rotor modulation (1 study). In these, AF recurrence was significantly lower when PVI was included (RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.26-0.90, I2 64.4%)In an analysis of all 7 studies, AF recurrence was significantly lower in ablation with an ablation strategy including PVI compared to one without PVI (Figure 1, RR 0.67, 95% CI 0.53-0.85, p = 0.001, I2 0%). Neither type of AF (persistent vs. paroxysmal, p=0.43) nor type of non-PVI ablation (p=0.35) were significant moderators of the effect size. A sensitivity analysis omitting each study in turn showed similar results to the primary analysis. In particular exclusion of the retracted OASIS trial showed results similar to the primar

Conference paper

Begg GA, O'Neill J, Sohaib A, McLean A, Pepper CB, Graham LN, Hogarth AJ, Page SP, Gillott RG, Hill N, Walshaw J, Schilling RJ, Kanagaratnam P, Tayebjee MHet al., 2019, Multicentre randomised trial comparing contact force with electrical coupling index in atrial flutter ablation (VERISMART trial), PLOS ONE, Vol: 14, ISSN: 1932-6203

Journal article

Sharp A, Sohaib A, Shun-Shin M, Pabari P, Wilson K, Rajkumar C, Hughes A, Kanagaratnam P, Mayet J, Whinnett Z, Kyriacou A, Francis Det al., 2019, Improving haemodynamic optimization of cardiac resynchronization therapy for heart failure., Physiol Meas

Objective&#13; Optimization of cardiac resynchronization therapy using non-invasive haemodynamic parameters, produces reliable optima when performed at high atrial paced heart rates. Here we investigate whether this is a result of increased heart rate or atrial pacing itself.&#13; &#13; Approach&#13; 43 patients with cardiac resynchronization therapy underwent haemodynamic optimization of AV delay using non-invasive beat-to-beat systolic blood pressure in three states: rest (atrial-sensing, 66±11bpm), slow atrial pacing (73±12bpm), and fast atrial pacing (94±10bpm). A 20-patient subset underwent a fourth optimization, during exercise (80±11bpm). &#13; &#13; Main results&#13; Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, quantifying information content mean ±SE) was 0.20±0.02 for resting sensed optimization, 0.45± 0.03 for slow atrial pacing (p&lt;0.0001 versus rest-sensed), and 0.52±0.03 for fast atrial pacing (p=0.12 versus slow-paced). 78% of the increase in ICC, from sinus rhythm to fast atrial pacing, is achieved by simply atrially pacing just above sinus rate.&#13; &#13; Atrial pacing increased signal (blood pressure difference between best and worst AV delay) from 6.5±0.6 mmHg at rest to 13.3±1.1 mmHg during slow atrial pacing (p&lt;0.0001) and 17.2±1.3 mmHg during fast atrial pacing (p=0.003 versus slow atrial pacing). &#13; &#13; Atrial pacing reduced noise (average SD of systolic blood pressure measurements) from 4.9±0.4mmHg at rest to 4.1±0.3mmHg during slow atrial pacing (p=0.28). At faster atrial pacing the noise was 4.6±0.3mmHg (p=0.69 versus slow-paced, p=0.90 versus rest-sensed). &#13; &#13; In the exercise subgroup ICC was 0.14±0.02 (p=0.97 versus rest-sensed).&#13; &#13; Significance&#13; Atrial pacing, rather than the increase in heart rate, contributes to ~80% of the observed in

Journal article

Elliott M, Momin S, Fiddes B, Farooqi F, Sohaib SMAet al., 2019, Pacemaker and Defibrillator Implantation and Programming in Patients with Deep Brain Stimulation, ARRHYTHMIA & ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY REVIEW, Vol: 8, Pages: 138-142, ISSN: 2050-3369

Journal article

Rossello X, Stanbury M, Beeri R, Kirchhof P, Casadei B, Kotecha D, Stanbury M, Hall J, Sohaib A, Rossello Lozano X, Tok O, D'Ascenzi F, Kosiuk J, Kunadian V, Jankowska E, Demiraj A, Rakisheva A, Mascherbauer J, Gabulova R, Pasquet A, Sokolovic S, Calver A, Kinova E, Milicic D, Moutiris J, Taborsky M, Nasr G, Eha J, Hartikainen J, Isnard R, Frey N, Agladz R, Kitsiou A, Csanadi Z, Hrafnkelsdottir T, McAdam B, Beeri R, Calabro P, Elezi S, Kerimkulova A, Erglis A, Kavoluniene A, Cassar D, Lisii D, Oukerraj L, Rotevatn S, Budaj A, Gavina C, Zavatta M, Dekleva M, Hatala R, Gomez De Diego J, Freyschuss A, Carballo D, Bsata W, Mourali S, Altun A, Casadei B, Merkeley B, Pinto F, Weidinger F, Kirchhof P, Baldus S, Burri H, Fox K, Grapsa J, Goncalves L, Ramon Gonzalez J, Kearney P, Kjaergaard J, Kletsiou E, Kontsevaya A, Kotecha D, Landmesser U, Mulder B, Price S, Ribeiras R, Sadaba R, Sionis A, Sirnes PA, Tanner F, Van Der Bilt I, Varenne O, Verhorst P, von Haehling Set al., 2019, Digital learning and the future cardiologist, EUROPEAN HEART JOURNAL, Vol: 40, Pages: 499-501, ISSN: 0195-668X

Journal article

Sinclair HC, Joshi A, Allen C, Joseph J, Sohaib SMA, Calver A, Smith Ret al., 2019, Women in Cardiology, EUROPEAN HEART JOURNAL, Vol: 40, Pages: 227-231, ISSN: 0195-668X

Journal article

Arnold A, Shun-Shin M, Keene D, Howard J, Sohaib S, wright I, Cole G, Qureshi N, lefroy D, Koa-Wing M, Linton N, Lim P, Peters N, Davies D, muthumala A, Tanner M, ellenbogen K, Kanagaratnam P, Francis D, Whinnett Z, Arnold A, Shun-Shin M, Keene D, Howard J, Sohaib S, wright I, Cole G, Qureshi N, lefroy D, Koa-Wing M, Linton N, Lim P, Peters N, davies W, muthumala A, Tanner M, ellenbogen K, Kanagaratnam P, Francis D, Whinnett Zet al., 2018, His resynchronization versus biventricular pacing in patients with heart failure and left bundle branch block, Journal of the American College of Cardiology, Vol: 72, Pages: 3112-3122, ISSN: 0735-1097

Background His bundle pacing is a new method for delivering cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT).Objectives The authors performed a head-to-head, high-precision, acute crossover comparison between His bundle pacing and conventional biventricular CRT, measuring effects on ventricular activation and acute hemodynamic function.Methods Patients with heart failure and left bundle branch block referred for conventional biventricular CRT were recruited. Using noninvasive epicardial electrocardiographic imaging, the authors identified patients in whom His bundle pacing shortened left ventricular activation time. In these patients, the authors compared the hemodynamic effects of His bundle pacing against biventricular pacing using a high-multiple repeated alternation protocol to minimize the effect of noise, as well as comparing effects on ventricular activation.Results In 18 of 23 patients, left ventricular activation time was significantly shortened by His bundle pacing. Seventeen patients had a complete electromechanical dataset. In them, His bundle pacing was more effective at delivering ventricular resynchronization than biventricular pacing: greater reduction in QRS duration (−18.6 ms; 95% confidence interval [CI]: −31.6 to −5.7 ms; p = 0.007), left ventricular activation time (−26 ms; 95% CI: −41 to −21 ms; p = 0.002), and left ventricular dyssynchrony index (−11.2 ms; 95% CI: −16.8 to −5.6 ms; p < 0.001). His bundle pacing also produced a greater acute hemodynamic response (4.6 mm Hg; 95% CI: 0.2 to 9.1 mm Hg; p = 0.04). The incremental activation time reduction with His bundle pacing over biventricular pacing correlated with the incremental hemodynamic improvement with His bundle pacing over biventricular pacing (R = 0.70; p = 0.04).Conclusions His resynchronization delivers better ventricular resynchronization, and greater improvement in hemodynamic parameters, than biventricular pacing.

Journal article

Ferreira-Martins J, Howard J, Al-Khayatt BM, Shalhoub J, Sohaib A, Shun-Shin M, Novak P, Leather R, Sterns L, Lane C, Lim P, Kanagaratnam P, Peters N, Francis D, Sikkel Met al., 2018, Outcomes of paroxysmal AF ablation studies are affected more by study design and patient mix than ablation technique, Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology, Vol: 29, Pages: 1471-1479, ISSN: 1045-3873

Objective: We tested whether ablation methodology and study design can explain the varying outcomes in terms of AF-free survival at 1 year.Background:There have been numerous paroxysmal AF ablation trials, which are heterogeneous in their use of different ablation techniques and study design. A useful approach to understanding how these factors influence outcome is to dismantle the trials into individual arms and reconstitute them as a large meta-regression.Methods: Data was collected from 66 studies (6941 patients). With freedom from AF as the dependent variable, we performed meta-regression using the individual study arm as the unit.Results: Success rates did not change regardless of the technique used to produce pulmonary vein isolation. Neither were adjunctive lesion sets associated with any improvement in outcome.Studies that included more males and fewer hypertensive patients were found more likely to report better outcomes. ECG method selected to assess outcome also plays an important role. Outcomes were worse in studies that used regular telemonitoring (by 23%, p<0.001) or in patients who had implantable loop recorders (by 21%, p=0.006), rather than less thorough periodic Holter monitoring.Conclusions: Outcomes of AF ablation studies involving pulmonary vein isolation are not affected by the technologies used to produce PVI. Neither do adjunctive lesion sets change the outcome. Achieving high success rates in these studies appears to be dependent more on patient mix and on the thoroughness of AF detection protocols. This should be carefully considered when quoting success rates of AF ablation procedures which are derived from such studies.

Journal article

Keene D, Arnold A, Shun-Shin MJ, Howard JP, Sohaib SA, Moore P, Tanner M, Quereshi N, Muthumala A, Chandresekeran B, Foley P, Leyva F, Adhya S, Falaschetti E, Tsang H, Vijayaraman P, Cleland JGF, Stegemann B, Francis DP, Whinnett ZIet al., 2018, Rationale and design of the randomized multicentre His Optimized Pacing Evaluated for Heart Failure (HOPE-HF) trial, ESC Heart Failure, Vol: 5, Pages: 965-976, ISSN: 2055-5822

AIMS: In patients with heart failure and a pathologically prolonged PR interval, left ventricular (LV) filling can be improved by shortening atrioventricular delay using His-bundle pacing. His-bundle pacing delivers physiological ventricular activation and has been shown to improve acute haemodynamic function in this group of patients. In the HOPE-HF (His Optimized Pacing Evaluated for Heart Failure) trial, we are investigating whether these acute haemodynamic improvements translate into improvements in exercise capacity and heart failure symptoms. METHODS AND RESULTS: This multicentre, double-blind, randomized, crossover study aims to randomize 160 patients with PR prolongation (≥200 ms), LV impairment (EF ≤ 40%), and either narrow QRS (≤140 ms) or right bundle branch block. All patients receive a cardiac device with leads positioned in the right atrium and the His bundle. Eligible patients also receive a defibrillator lead. Those not eligible for implantable cardioverter defibrillator have a backup pacing lead positioned in an LV branch of the coronary sinus. Patients are allocated in random order to 6 months of (i) haemodynamically optimized dual chamber His-bundle pacing and (ii) backup pacing only, using the non-His ventricular lead. The primary endpoint is change in exercise capacity assessed by peak oxygen uptake. Secondary endpoints include change in ejection fraction, quality of life scores, B-type natriuretic peptide, daily patient activity levels, and safety and feasibility assessments of His-bundle pacing. CONCLUSIONS: Hope-HF aims to determine whether correcting PR prolongation in patients with heart failure and narrow QRS or right bundle branch block using haemodynamically optimized dual chamber His-bundle pacing improves exercise capacity and symptoms. We aim to complete recruitment by the end of 2018 and report in 2020.

Journal article

Arnold AD, Shun-Shin MJ, Sohaib A, Chiew K, Howard JP, Keene D, Leong K, Ahmad Y, Cole G, Lefroy D, Kanagaratnam P, Varnava A, Francis DP, Whinnett ZIet al., 2018, Automated, high-precision echocardiographic and haemodynamic assessment of the effect of atrioventricular interval during right ventricular pacing in obstructed hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, European-Society-of-Cardiology Congress, Publisher: OXFORD UNIV PRESS, Pages: 729-729, ISSN: 0195-668X

Conference paper

Shun-Shin M, Arnold A, Keene D, Howard J, Sohaib A, Lim PB, Tanner M, Lefroy D, Peters N, Kanagaratnam P, Davies DW, Francis D, Whinnett Zet al., 2018, The magnitude of LV activation time reduction with His bundle pacing over biventricular pacing in LBBB predicts the incremental improvement in acute cardiac function, European-Society-of-Cardiology Congress, Publisher: OXFORD UNIV PRESS, Pages: 385-385, ISSN: 0195-668X

Conference paper

Kyriacou A, Rajkumar CA, Pabari P, Sohaib SMA, Willson K, Peters N, Lim P, Kanagaratnam P, Hughes A, Mayet J, Whinnett Z, Francis Det al., 2018, Distinct impacts of heart rate and right atrial-pacing on left atrial mechanical activation and optimal AV delay in CRT, Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology, Vol: 41, Pages: 959-966, ISSN: 0147-8389

AbstractBackgroundControversy exists regarding how atrial activation mode and heart rate affect optimal AV delay in cardiac resynchronisation therapy. We studied these questions using high‐reproducibility haemodynamic and echocardiographic measurements.Methods20 patients were hemodynamically optimized using non‐invasive beat‐to‐beat blood pressure at rest (62±11 bpm), during exercise (80±6 bpm) and at 3 atrially‐paced rates: 5, 25 and 45 bpm above rest, denoted Apaced,r+5, Apaced,r+25 and Apaced,r+45 respectively. Left atrial myocardial motion and transmitral flow were timed echocardiographically.ResultsDuring atrial‐sensing, raising heart rate shortened optimal AV delay by 25±6 ms (p < 0.001). During atrial pacing, raising heart rate from Apaced,r+5 to Apaced,r+25 shortened it by 16±6 ms; Apaced,r+45 shortened it 17±6 ms further (p < 0.001).In comparison to atrial‐sensed activation, atrial pacing lengthened optimal AV delay by 76±6 ms (p < 0.0001) at rest, and at ∼20 bpm faster, by 85±7 ms (p < 0.0001), 9±4 ms more (p = 0.017). Mechanically, atrial pacing delayed left atrial contraction by 63±5 ms at rest and by 73±5 ms (i.e. by 10±5 ms more, p < 0.05) at ∼20 bpm faster.Raising atrial rate by exercise advanced left atrial contraction by 7±2 ms (p = 0.001). Raising it by atrial pacing did not (p = 0.2).ConclusionsHemodynamic optimal AV delay shortens with elevation of heart rate. It lengthens on switching from atrial‐sensed to atrial‐paced at the same rate, and echocardiography shows this sensed‐paced difference in optima results from a sensed‐paced difference in atrial electromechanical delay.The reason for the widening of the sensed‐paced difference in AV optimum may be physiological stimuli (e.g. adrenergic drive) advancing left atrial contraction during exercise but not with fast atrial pacing.

Journal article

Arnold A, Ali N, Keene D, Shun-Shin M, Whinnett Z, Sohaib SMAet al., 2018, Authors' Reply: His Bundle Pacing: A New Frontier in the Treatment of Heart Failure, ARRHYTHMIA & ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY REVIEW, Vol: 7, Pages: 218-219, ISSN: 2050-3369

Journal article

Ali N, Keene D, Arnold A, Shun-Shin M, Whinnett ZI, Sohaib SMAet al., 2018, His bundle pacing: a new frontier in the treatment of heart failure, Arrhythmia & electrophysiology review, Vol: 7, Pages: 103-110, ISSN: 2050-3369

Biventricular pacing has revolutionised the treatment of heart failure in patients with sinus rhythm and left bundle branch block; however, left ventricular-lead placement is not always technically possible. Furthermore, biventricular pacing does not fully normalise ventricular activation and, therefore, the ventricular resynchronisation is imperfect. Right ventricular pacing for bradycardia may cause or worsen heart failure in some patients by causing dyssynchronous ventricular activation. His bundle pacing activates the ventricles via the native His-Purkinje system, resulting in true physiological pacing, and, therefore, is a promising alternate site for pacing in bradycardia and traditional CRT indications in cases where it can overcome left bundle branch block. Furthermore, it may open up new indications for pacing therapy in heart failure, such as targeting patients with PR prolongation, but a narrow QRS duration. In this article we explore the physiology, technology and potential roles of His bundle pacing in the prevention and treatment of heart failure.

Journal article

Zolgharni M, Negoita M, Dhutia NM, Mielewczik M, Manoharan K, Sohaib SMA, Finegold JA, Sacchi S, Cole GD, Francis DPet al., 2017, Automatic detection of end-diastolic and end-systolic frames in 2D echocardiography, ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY-A JOURNAL OF CARDIOVASCULAR ULTRASOUND AND ALLIED TECHNIQUES, Vol: 34, Pages: 956-967, ISSN: 0742-2822

Background:Correctly selecting the end-diastolic and end-systolic frames on a 2D echocardiogram is important and challenging, for both human experts and automated algorithms. Manual selection is time-consuming and subject to uncertainty, and may affect the results obtained, especially for advanced measurements such as myocardial strain.Methods and Results:We developed and evaluated algorithms which can automatically extract global and regional cardiac velocity, and identify end-diastolic and end-systolic frames. We acquired apical four-chamber 2D echocardiographic video recordings, each at least 10 heartbeats long, acquired twice at frame rates of 52 and 79 frames/s from 19 patients, yielding 38 recordings. Five experienced echocardiographers independently marked end-systolic and end-diastolic frames for the first 10 heartbeats of each recording. The automated algorithm also did this. Using the average of time points identified by five human operators as the reference gold standard, the individual operators had a root mean square difference from that gold standard of 46.5 ms. The algorithm had a root mean square difference from the human gold standard of 40.5 ms (P<.0001). Put another way, the algorithm-identified time point was an outlier in 122/564 heartbeats (21.6%), whereas the average human operator was an outlier in 254/564 heartbeats (45%).Conclusion:An automated algorithm can identify the end-systolic and end-diastolic frames with performance indistinguishable from that of human experts. This saves staff time, which could therefore be invested in assessing more beats, and reduces uncertainty about the reliability of the choice of frame.

Journal article

Luther V, Sikkel M, Bennett N, Guerrero F, Leong K, Qureshi N, Ng FS, Hayat SA, Sohaib SMA, Malcolme-Lawes L, Lim E, Wright I, Koa-Wing M, Lefroy DC, Linton NWF, Whinnett Z, Kanagaratnam P, Davies W, Peters NS, Lim PBet al., 2017, Visualizing Localized Reentry With Ultra-High Density Mapping in Iatrogenic Atrial Tachycardia Beware Pseudo-Reentry, CIRCULATION-ARRHYTHMIA AND ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, Vol: 10, ISSN: 1941-3149

Background—The activation pattern of localized reentry (LR) in atrial tachycardia remains incompletely understood. We used the ultra–high density Rhythmia mapping system to study activation patterns in LR.Methods and Results—LR was suggested by small rotatory activations (carousels) containing the full spectrum of the color-coded map. Twenty-three left-sided atrial tachycardias were mapped in 15 patients (age: 64±11 years). 16 253±9192 points were displayed per map, collected over 26±14 minutes. A total of 50 carousels were identified (median 2; quartiles 1–3 per map), although this represented LR in only n=7 out of 50 (14%): here, rotation occurred around a small area of scar (<0.03 mV; 12±6 mm diameter). In LR, electrograms along the carousel encompassed the full tachycardia cycle length, and surrounding activation moved away from the carousel in all directions. Ablating fractionated electrograms (117±18 ms; 44±13% of tachycardia cycle length) within the carousel interrupted the tachycardia in every LR case. All remaining carousels were pseudo-reentrant (n=43/50 [86%]) occurring in areas of wavefront collision (n=21; median 0.5; quartiles 0–2 per map) or as artifact because of annotation of noise or interpolation in areas of incomplete mapping (n=22; median 1, quartiles 0–2 per map). Pseudo-reentrant carousels were incorrectly ablated in 5 cases having been misinterpreted as LR.Conclusions—The activation pattern of LR is of small stable rotational activations (carousels), and this drove 30% (7/23) of our postablation atrial tachycardias. However, this appearance is most often pseudo-reentrant and must be differentiated by interpretation of electrograms in the candidate circuit and activation in the wider surrounding region.

Journal article

Sohaib A, Kalra P, 2016, The British Junior Cardiologists' Association, EUROPEAN HEART JOURNAL, Vol: 37, ISSN: 0195-668X

Journal article

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