Imperial College London

ProfessorSimonTaylor-Robinson

Faculty of EngineeringDepartment of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Visiting Professor
 
 
 
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s.taylor-robinson

 
 
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Electrical EngineeringSouth Kensington Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

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648 results found

Oleribe OO, Taylor-Robinson AW, Nwanyanwu OC, Morgan MY, Taylor-Robinson Set al., 2024, Four Years Since COVID-19 Day Zero: A Time to Evaluate Past and Future Pandemic Control Policies and Practices in Sub-Saharan Africa?, Risk Management and Healthcare Policy, ISSN: 1179-1594

Journal article

Denny A, Curtin B, Taylor-Robinson S, Chirambo GB, Cilliers L, Wu T-SJ, O'Meara C, Booth R, O'Donoghue Jet al., 2024, Evaluating the Appropriateness of Podcasts to Improve the Knowledge and Awareness of Selected Health Topics Among Undergraduate General Nursing Students: Protocol for an International Feasibility Study., JMIR Res Protoc, Vol: 13, ISSN: 1929-0748

BACKGROUND: Podcasts have proven to be a successful alternative source of educational material for students. Given the ability to listen to podcasts 24/7 and while on the go, this technology has the potential to provide informative and educational material to a large number of people at any given time. Podcasts are usually freely available on commonly used mobile devices, such as smartphones, laptops, and tablets. OBJECTIVE: This paper describes the impact of health-related podcasts as an intervention tool to support the knowledge and awareness of nursing students on a given topic. METHODS: Pre- and postpodcast questionnaires will gather data regarding the participants' knowledge and awareness of two topics-gestational diabetes and mental health. This intervention will be tested on general nursing undergraduate students. The total number of students (N=2395) from the participating universities are broken down as follows: (1) University College Cork (n=850) and the University of Galway (n=450) in Ireland, (2) Mzuzu University in Malawi (n=719), and (3) University of Fort Hare in South Africa (n=376). RESULTS: The study received ethical approval from the University College Cork Ethics Committee (2022-027A1). The approval obtained from University College Cork sufficed as ethics coverage for the University of Galway in Ireland. Ethics approval was also received from the Mzuzu University Research Ethics Committee (ID MZUNIREC/DOR/23/28) and the Inter-Faculty Research Ethics Committee of the University of Fort Hare (ID CIL002-21). Data collection is currently underway and will continue until the end of February 2024. The quantitative and qualitative data are expected to be analyzed in March 2024. CONCLUSIONS: Results from this study will allow for an investigation into the impact of podcasts in different settings: a high-income country (Ireland), an upper-middle-income country (South Africa), and a low-to-middle-income country (Malawi). The data gathered from this feasibi

Journal article

Worasith C, Sithithaworn J, Wongphutorn P, Homwong C, Khongsukwiwat K, Techasen A, Kopolrat KY, Loilome W, Namwat N, Thinkamrop B, Tawarungruang C, Titapun A, Laha T, Andrews RH, Taylor-Robinson SD, Sithithaworn Pet al., 2023, Accuracy of a new rapid diagnostic test for urinary antigen detection and assessment of drug treatment in opisthorchiasis, Infectious Diseases of Poverty, Vol: 12, ISSN: 2049-9957

BACKGROUND: Screening for opisthorchiasis, a parasitic worm infection affecting many millions of people in Southeast Asia, has traditionally relied on faecal egg examination such as the formalin-ethyl acetate concentration technique (FECT) and Kato-Katz method. Although the urinary enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been used more recently, we developed a urinary antigen-based rapid diagnostic test (RDT) to simplify diagnosis and as a point-of-care testing (POCT) and field applications for surveillance and control of opisthorchiasis. METHODS: A urinary Opisthorchis viverrini (OV)-RDT was developed using immunochromatographic methodology with a specific monoclonal antibody against OV. The diagnostic performance of the urinary OV-RDT was compared to that of quantitative faecal FECT and urinary antigen ELISA (n = 493). Cross-reactivities of urinary OV-RDT with other helminthiases coexisted with O. viverrini were determined (n = 96). A field trial in the application of urinary OV-RDT was compared with urinary antigen ELISA at baseline screening and assessment of drug treatment outcomes in opisthorchiasis (n = 1629). The McNemar chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis and Cohen's kappa coefficient (κ-value) tests were used for statistical analyses. RESULTS: Urinary OV-RDT had sensitivity of 94.2% and specificity of 93.2%, compared to faecal FECT. Urinary OV-RDT had high diagnostic agreement (Kappa = 0.842-0.874, P < 0.001) and quantitative correlation with urinary antigen ELISA (Kruskal-Wallis tests = 316.2, P < 0.0001) and faecal FECT (Kruskal-Wallis tests = 362.3, P < 0.0001). The positive rates by OV-RDT, ELISA and FECT were 48.9%, 52.5% and 49.3%, respectively. Cross-reactions of urinary OV-RDT with other helminthiases were few (2%). Field trials of urinary OV-RDT yielded comparable prevalence of O. viverrini between urinary OV-RD

Journal article

Taylor-Robinson SD, 2023, Unexpected complications of steroid reduction following COVID-19-related myocarditis, QJM: an international journal of medicine, ISSN: 1460-2393

Journal article

Atzori SM, Pasha Y, Maurice JB, Taylor-Robinson SD, Campbell L, Lim AKPet al., 2023, Prospective evaluation of liver shearwave elastography measurements with 3 different technologies and same day liver biopsy in patients with chronic liver disease, Digestive and Liver Disease, ISSN: 1590-8658

BACKGROUND: Most ultrasound-based methods for assessing liver fibrosis still need further validation with liver biopsy used as gold standard to assess their accuracy. AIMS: To assess accuracy of three shear wave elastography (SWE) methods: 1) Philips Elast Point Quantification (ElastPQTM), 2) Siemens Virtual TouchTM Quantification (VTQ) acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI), and 3) transient elastography (TE) measured by Echosens FibroscanTM. METHODS: 160 patients underwent liver stiffness measurements (LSM) with three SWE methods immediately prior to liver biopsy. RESULTS: The number of LSM required for reliable studies could be reduced to 6 for ElastPQ and to 7 for VTQ from standard recommendations of 10. Significant fibrosis and interquartile range/median (IQR/M)> 30 were independent predictors for lower reliability for detection of liver fibrosis. Ordinal logistic regression corrected for age showed that there was a significant interaction between steatosis (p = 0.008) and lobular inflammation (p = 0.04) and VTQ (ARFI) and between lobular inflammation and TE (p = 0.006). CONCLUSIONS: We showed variations in SWE measurements using different ARFI technologies. TE and ElastPQ achieved good diagnostic performance, whereas VTQ showed lower diagnostic accuracy. The number of measurements required for reliable studies can be reduced to 6 for ElastPQ and to 7 for VTQ, which have important clinical implications.

Journal article

Shen EY-L, U MRA, Cox IJ, Taylor-Robinson SDet al., 2023, The role of mass spectrometry in hepatocellular carcinoma biomarker discovery, Metabolites, Vol: 13, ISSN: 2218-1989

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the main liver malignancy and has a high mortality rate. The discovery of novel biomarkers for early diagnosis, prognosis, and stratification purposes has the potential to alleviate its disease burden. Mass spectrometry (MS) is one of the principal technologies used in metabolomics, with different experimental methods and machine types for different phases of the biomarker discovery process. Here, we review why MS applications are useful for liver cancer, explain the MS technique, and briefly summarise recent findings from metabolomic MS studies on HCC. We also discuss the current challenges and the direction for future research.

Journal article

Ohihoin AG, Ohihoin EN, Ujomu I, Bakare A, Olarenwaju O, Okafor A, Ojetunde MM, Ayoola JB, Oluwagbemiga A, Ajibaye O, Taylor-Robinson Set al., 2023, Contemporary anti-retroviral drugs (ARVDs) disrupt follicular development in female Wistar rats, Journal of Experimental Pharmacology, Vol: 15, Pages: 267-278, ISSN: 1179-1454

Introduction: There are genuine concerns that long-term use of anti-retroviral drugs may be associated with reproductive complications in females. This study aimed to ascertain the effect of highly active anti-retroviral drugs on the ovarian reserve and reproductive potential of female Wistar rats and by extension to HIV-positive human females.Methods: A total of 25 female Wistar rats, weighing between 140g and 162g, were randomly allotted into non-intervention and intervention groups, receiving the anti-retroviral drugs, Efavirenz (EFV), Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate (TDF), Lamivudine (3TC), and a fixed-dose combination (FDC). The dosage was administered orally at 8 am daily for 4 weeks. Serum concentrations of anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH), and estradiol were measured using standard biochemical techniques (ELISA). Follicular counts were made on fixed ovarian tissue from the sacrificed rats.Results: The mean AMH level for the control group and the EFV, TDF, 3TC, and FDC groups were 11.20, 6.75, 7.30, 8.27, and 6.60 pmol/L, respectively. The EFV and FDC groups had the lowest AMH, compared to the other groups, but there was no statistically significant difference in AMH across the groups. The mean count of antral follicles was significantly lower in the group that received EFV when compared to the other groups. The corpus luteal count was significantly higher in the control group than in the intervention groups.Conclusion: The study demonstrated a disruption in the reproductive hormones of female Wistar rats receiving anti-retroviral regimens containing EFV. Clinical studies are required to determine if these changes are seen in women receiving EFV-based treatment, as this may compromise reproductive function and predispose them to early menopause.

Journal article

Atzori S, Pasha Y, Maurice J, Taylor-Robinson S, Campbell L, Lim Aet al., 2023, The accuracy of ultrasound controlled attenuation parameter in diagnosing hepatic fat content, Hepatic Medicine: Evidence and Research, Vol: 15, Pages: 51-61, ISSN: 1179-1535

Purpose: The Controlled Attenuation Parameter (CAP score) is based on ultrasonic properties of retropropagated radiofrequency signals acquired by FibroscanTM (Echosens, Paris, France). Since ultrasound propagation is influenced by the presence of fat, CAP score was developed to quantify steatosis. The aim of this study was to delineate the accuracy of CAP in diagnosing hepatic steatosis, compared to the gold standard of liver biopsy.Patients and methods: 150 patients underwent same-day liver biopsy, and measurement of hepatic steatosis with Fibroscan. Only examinations with 10 satisfactory measurements, and an inter-quartile range of less than 30% of the median liver stiffness values were included for data analysis. Histological staging was then correlated with median values and Spearman correlation calculated. P values of <0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: For diagnosis of hepatic steatosis (HS), CAP could predict the steatosis S2 with AUROC 0.815 (95 % CI 0.741 – 0.889), sensitivity (0.81) and specificity (0.73) when the optimal cut-off value was set at 288 dB/m. CAP detected histological grade S3 with AUROC 0.735 (95 % CI 0.618–0.851), sensitivity (0.71) and specificity (0.74) a cut-off value of 330 dB/m. The AUROC for steatosis grade S1 was 0.741 (95 % CI 0.650–0.824), with a cut-off value of 263 dB/m with sensitivity 0.75 and specificity 0.70. Univariate analysis showed a correlation between CAP and diabetes (p 0.048). Conclusion: The performance of CAP to diagnose steatosis severity decreases as steatosis progresses. CAP is associated with diabetes, but not other clinical factors and parameters of the metabolic syndrome.

Journal article

Taylor-Robinson SD, 2023, Mixed benefits from virtual outpatient appointments - a patient perspective, QJM: an international journal of medicine, Vol: 116, Pages: 468-469, ISSN: 1460-2393

Journal article

Taylor-Robinson SD, 2023, Do medical algorithms always benefit the patient?-a patient perspective, QJM: an international journal of medicine, Vol: 116, Pages: 474-475, ISSN: 1460-2393

Journal article

Namayanja C, Eregu EEI, Ongodia P, Okalebo CB, Okiror W, Okello F, Okibure A, Paasi G, Kakungulu H, Grace A, Muhindo R, Banks D, Martin C, Taylor-Robinson S, Olupot-Olupot Pet al., 2023, Unusual clinical spectra of childhood severe malaria during malaria epidemic in eastern Uganda: a prospective study, Malaria Journal, Vol: 22, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 1475-2875

BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), malaria remains a public health problem despite recent reports of declining incidence. Severe malaria is a multiorgan disease with wide-ranging clinical spectra and outcomes that have been reported to vary by age, geographical location, transmission intensity over time. There are reports of recent malaria epidemics or resurgences, but few data, if any, focus on the clinical spectrum of severe malaria during epidemics. This describes the clinical spectrum and outcomes of childhood severe malaria during the disease epidemic in Eastern Uganda. METHODS: This prospective cohort study from October 1, 2021, to September 7, 2022, was nested within the 'Malaria Epidemiological, Pathophysiological and Intervention studies in Highly Endemic Eastern Uganda' (TMA2016SF-1514-MEPIE Study) at Mbale Regional Referral Hospital, Uganda. Children aged 60 days to 12 years who at admission tested positive for malaria and fulfilled the clinical WHO criteria for surveillance of severe malaria were enrolled on the study. Follow-up was performed until day 28. Data were collected using a customized proforma on social demographic characteristics, clinical presentation, treatment, and outcomes. Laboratory analyses included complete blood counts, malaria RDT (SD BIOLINE Malaria Ag P.f/Pan, Ref. 05FK60-40-1) and blood slide, lactate, glucose, blood gases and electrolytes. In addition, urinalysis using dipsticks (Multistix® 10 SG, SIEMENS, Ref.2300) at the bedside was done. Data were analysed using STATA V15.0. The study had prior ethical approval. RESULTS: A total of 300 participants were recruited. The median age was 4.6 years, mean of 57.2 months and IQR of 44.5 months. Many children, 164/300 (54.7%) were under 5 years, and 171/300 (57.0%) were males. The common clinical features were prostration 236/300 (78.7%), jaundice in 205/300 (68.3%), severe malarial anaemia in 158/300 (52.7%), black water fever 158/300 (52.7%) an

Journal article

Mulcahy V, Liaskou E, Martin J-E, Kotagiri P, Badrock J, Jones RL, Rushbrook SM, Ryder SD, Thorburn D, Taylor-Robinson SD, Clark G, Cordell HJ, Sandford RN, Jones DE, Hirschfield GM, Mells GFet al., 2023, Regulation of immune responses in primary biliary cholangitis: a transcriptomic analysis of peripheral immune cells, Hepatology Communications, Vol: 7, ISSN: 2471-254X

BACKGROUND AIMS: In patients with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), the serum liver biochemistry measured during treatment with ursodeoxycholic acid-the UDCA response-accurately predicts long-term outcome. Molecular characterization of patients stratified by UDCA response can improve biological understanding of the high-risk disease, thereby helping to identify alternative approaches to disease-modifying therapy. In this study, we sought to characterize the immunobiology of the UDCA response using transcriptional profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cell subsets. METHODS: We performed bulk RNA-sequencing of monocytes and TH1, TH17, TREG, and B cells isolated from the peripheral blood of 15 PBC patients with adequate UDCA response ("responders"), 16 PBC patients with inadequate UDCA response ("nonresponders"), and 15 matched controls. We used the Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis to identify networks of co-expressed genes ("modules") associated with response status and the most highly connected genes ("hub genes") within them. Finally, we performed a Multi-Omics Factor Analysis of the Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis modules to identify the principal axes of biological variation ("latent factors") across all peripheral blood mononuclear cell subsets. RESULTS: Using the Weighted Gene Co-expression Network Analysis, we identified modules associated with response and/or disease status (q<0.05) in each peripheral blood mononuclear cell subset. Hub genes and functional annotations suggested that monocytes are proinflammatory in nonresponders, but antiinflammatory in responders; TH1 and TH17 cells are activated in all PBC cases but better regulated in responders; and TREG cells are activated-but also kept in check-in responders. Using the Multi-Omics Factor Analysis, we found that antiinflammatory activity in monocytes, regulation of TH1 cells, and activation of TREG cells are interrelated an

Journal article

Alsaleh M, Sithithaworn P, Khuntikeo N, Loilome W, Yongvanit P, Hughes T, O'Connor T, Andrews R, Wadsworth C, Williams R, Koomson L, Cox IJ, Holmes E, Taylor-Robinson SDet al., 2023, Urinary metabolic profiling of liver fluke-induced cholangiocarcinoma—a follow-up study, Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology, Vol: 13, Pages: 203-217, ISSN: 0973-6883

Background/Aims:Global liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) profiling in a Thai population has previously identified a urinary metabolic signature in Opisthorchis viverrini-induced cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), primarily characterised by disturbance in acylcarnitine, bile acid, steroid, and purine metabolism. However, the detection of thousands of analytes by LC-MS in a biological sample in a single experiment potentially introduces false discovery errors. To verify these observed metabolic perturbations, a second validation dataset from the same population was profiled in a similar fashion.Methods:Reverse-phase ultra-performance liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry was utilised to acquire the global spectral profile of 98 spot urine samples (from 46 healthy volunteers and 52 CCA patients) recruited from Khon Kaen, northeast Thailand (the highest incidence of CCA globally).Results:Metabolites were differentially expressed in the urinary profiles from CCA patients. High urinary elimination of bile acids was affected by the presence of obstructive jaundice. The urine metabolome associated with non-jaundiced CCA patients showed a distinctive pattern, similar but not identical to published studies. A panel of 10 metabolites achieved a diagnostic accuracy of 93.4% and area under the curve value of 98.8% (CI = 96.3%–100%) for the presence of CCA.Conclusions:Global characterisation of the CCA urinary metabolome identified several metabolites of biological interest in this validation study. Analyses of the diagnostic utility of the discriminant metabolites showed excellent diagnostic potential. Further larger scale studies are required to confirm these findings internationally, particularly in comparison to sporadic CCA, not associated with liver fluke infestation.

Journal article

Alfadda AA, Almaghamsi AM, Sherbeeni SM, Alqutub AN, Aldosary AS, Isnani AC, Al-Daghri N, Taylor-Robinson SD, Gul Ret al., 2023, Alterations in circulating lipidomic profile in patients with type 2 diabetes with or without non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences, Vol: 10, Pages: 1-14, ISSN: 2296-889X

Objective: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) often coexist and drive detrimental effects in a synergistic manner. This study was designed to understand the changes in circulating lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in patients with T2DM with or without NAFLD.Methods: Four hundred thirty-four T2DM patients aged 18–60 years were included in this study. Fatty liver was assessed by FibroScan. The comprehensive metabolic lipid profiling of serum samples was assessed by using high-throughput proton NMR metabolomics.Results: Our data revealed a significant association between steatosis and serum total lipids in VLDL and LDL lipoprotein subclasses, while total lipids in HDL subclasses were negatively associated. A significant positive association was found between steatosis and concentration of lipids, phospholipids, cholesterol, and triglycerides in VLDL and LDL subclasses, while HDL subclasses were negatively associated. Furthermore, a significant, association was observed between fibrosis and concentrations of lipids, phospholipids, cholesterol, and triglycerides in very small VLDL, large, and very large HDL subclasses. Subgroup analysis revealed a decrease in the concentrations of lipids, phospholipids, cholesterol, and other lipid biomolecules in patients using antilipemic medications.Conclusion: The metabolomics results provide evidence that patients with T2DM with higher steatosis grades have altered lipid metabolomics compared to patients without steatosis. Increased lipid, phospholipids, cholesterol, and triglycerides concentration of VLDL and LDL subclasses are associated with steatosis in patients with T2DM.

Journal article

Syms R, Taylor-Robinson S, Trovato G, 2023, Circular medicine – being mindful of resources and waste recycling in healthcare systems, Risk Management and Healthcare Policy, Vol: 16, Pages: 267-270, ISSN: 1179-1594

In the light of the COP27 Climate Change Conference, the concept of the circular economy has come to the fore with promotion of reuse and recycling of appliances and materials from electronics to clothes. This concept has not been widely taken up by healthcare systems. In this perspective article, we discuss the idea of the circular economy and how, by extension, the concept of “circular medicine” with optimised hospital and medical clinic waste recycling might be promoted in the context of better stewardship of resources in healthcare management.

Journal article

Taylor-Robinson SD, Morgan MY, 2023, COVID-19 and the liver: a complex and evolving picture, Hepatic Medicine: Evidence and Research, Vol: 15, Pages: 209-220, ISSN: 1179-1535

Although the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) primarily attacks the respiratory system, other organs, such as the liver, are also affected. In this overview, the effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on the liver in both healthy people and in those with pre-existing liver disease are documented; the relationship between coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) vaccination and liver injury is examined; the mechanism of SARS-CoV-2-associated liver injury is explored; and the long-term consequences of COVID-19 are delineated, both in people with and without pre-existing liver disease.

Journal article

Martinez Gili L, Pechlivanis A, McDonald J, Begum S, Badrock J, Dyson JK, Jones R, Hirschfield G, Ryder SD, Sandford R, Rushbrook S, Thorburn D, Taylor-Robinson SD, Crossey M, Marchesi J, Mells G, Holmes E, Jones Det al., 2023, Bacterial and metabolic phenotypes associated with inadequate response to ursodeoxycholic acid treatment in primary biliary cholangitis, Gut Microbes, Vol: 15, Pages: 1-19, ISSN: 1949-0976

Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) as first-line treatment. Poor response to UDCA is associated with a higher risk of progressing to cirrhosis, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. UDCA modulates the composition of primary and bacterial-derived bile acids (BAs). We characterized the phenotypic response to UDCA based on BA and bacterial profiles of PBC patients treated with UDCA. Patients from the UK-PBC cohort (n = 419) treated with UDCA for a minimum of 12-months were assessed using the Barcelona dynamic response criteria. BAs from serum, urine, and feces were analyzed using Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and fecal bacterial composition measured using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. We identified 191 non-responders, 212 responders, and a subgroup of responders with persistently elevated liver biomarkers (n = 16). Responders had higher fecal secondary and tertiary BAs than non-responders and lower urinary bile acid abundances, with the exception of 12-dehydrocholic acid, which was higher in responders. The sub-group of responders with poor liver function showed lower alpha-diversity evenness, lower abundance of fecal secondary and tertiary BAs than the other groups and lower levels of phyla with BA-deconjugation capacity (Actinobacteriota/Actinomycetota, Desulfobacterota, Verrucomicrobiota) compared to responders. UDCA dynamic response was associated with an increased capacity to generate oxo-/epimerized secondary BAs. 12-dehydrocholic acid is a potential biomarker of treatment response. Lower alpha-diversity and lower abundance of bacteria with BA deconjugation capacity might be associated with an incomplete response to treatment in some patients.

Journal article

Miletic H, Taylor-Robinson S, 2022, LOVING YOUR LIVER: the complete guide to liver detox, Publisher: Europa Edizioni, ISBN: 9791220127356

Loving Your Liver. The Complete Guide to Liver Detox is a comprehensive guide to liver “maintenance”. Written in a simple and intuitive way, it helps understand what the liver is, what it does, how it works, how it is affected by our lifestyle, the most common diseases that can affect it and most importantly, how to take care of it. Of course, the key to a good liver detox lies in nutrition and for this very reason the learning journey with Hrvoje Miletic and Simon Taylor-Robinson ends with a section entirely dedicated to a number of delicious recipes that are good for the liver without sacrificing taste.Hrvoje Miletic is a noted food expert in Croatia and across Europe. He holds international diplomas in culinary affairs and in management. Hrvoje’s experience in the United Kingdom and across Europe has moulded his culinary experience and flair. He is currently a food researcher and entrepreneur, using his skills to help people lead a healthy lifestyle. His considerable expertise is reflected in the book.Simon Taylor-Robinson is a medical doctor. He trained as a gastroenterologist and hepatologist. He has conducted medical research on liver disease with projects around the world. During his career, he has combined being a clinical doctor with liver expertise with being a medical researcher and a teacher at the undergraduate and postgraduate level. He also holds several honorary Professorial appointments at institutions in sub-Saharan Africa and in Asia.

Book

Alfadda AA, Sherbeeni SM, Alqutub AN, Aldosary AS, Aldaghri NM, Taylor-Robinson SD, Alqahtani SA, Gul R, Almaghamsi AMet al., 2022, Transient elastography for the prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with type 2 diabetes: Evidence from the CORDIAL cohort study., Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology, Vol: 28, Pages: 426-433, ISSN: 1319-3767

Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is highly prevalent in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of NAFLD among Saudi patients with T2DM using transient elastography. Methods: A total of 490 patients with T2DM who attended diabetes and primary care clinics were recruited. Controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) and liver stiffness measurements (LSM) were obtained via FibroScan to assess steatosis and fibrosis. Results: Of the examined 490 patients with T2DM, 396 (80.8%) had hepatic steatosis (CAP ≥248 dB/m): 326 (66.5%) had severe steatosis (CAP ≥280 dB/m), while 41 (8.4%) and 29 (5.9%) had mild (CAP ≥248 to <268 dB/m) and moderate steatosis (CAP ≥268 to <280 dB/m), respectively. Of the 396 patients with steatosis, only 35 (8.8%) had LSM ≥7.9 kPa, suggesting the presence of fibrosis, while 361 (91%) had LSM <7.9 kPa, indicating the absence of fibrosis. Increased body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, systolic blood pressure (SBP), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were positively associated with both steatosis and fibrosis. After adjusting for age and gender, data from logistic regression analysis demonstrated BMI, waist circumference, SBP, ALT, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) as significant independent factors for steatosis, while SBP was the only significant predictor associated with fibrosis. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate an increase in prevalence of NAFLD in Saudi patients with T2DM, based on transient elastography and CAP score. The risk of NAFLD appears to be higher in T2DM patients with abdominal obesity, elevated SBP, and increased ALT levels, which supports the screening of these conditions in patients with T2DM.

Journal article

Tan YY, Woulfe F, Chirambo GB, Henn P, Cilliers L, Fadahunsi P, Taylor-Robinson S, O'Donoghue Jet al., 2022, Framework to assess the quality of mHealth apps: a mixed-method international case study protocol, BMJ Open, Vol: 12, ISSN: 2044-6055

Introduction: Healthcare professionals (HCPs) often recommend their patients to use a specific mHealth app as part of health promotion, disease prevention and patient self-management. There has been a significant growth in the number of HCPs downloading and using mobile health (mHealth) apps. Most mHealth apps that are available in app stores employ a ‘star rating’ system. This is based on user feedback on an app, but is highly subjective. Thus, the identification of quality mHealth apps which are deemed fit for purpose can be a difficult task for HCPs. Currently, there is no unified, validated standard guidelines for assessment of mHealth apps for patient safety, which can be used by HCPs. The Modified Enlight Suite (MES) is a quality assessment framework designed to provide a means for HCPs to evaluate mHealth apps before they are recommended to patients. MES was adapted from the original Enlight Suite for international use through a Delphi method, followed by preliminary validation process among a population predominantly consisting of medical students. This study aims to evaluate the applicability and validity of the MES, by HCPs, in low, middle and high income country settings.Methods and analysis: MES will be evaluated through a mixed-method study, consisting of qualitative (focus group) and quantitative (survey instruments) research, in three target countries: MalaĆ”i (low income), South Africa (middle income) and Ireland (high income). The focus groups will be conducted through Microsoft Teams (Microsoft, Redmond, Washington, USA) and surveys will be conducted online using Qualtrics (Qualtrics International, Seattle, Washington, USA). Participants will be recruited through the help of national representatives in Malawi (Mzuzu University), South Africa (University of Fort Hare) and Ireland (University College Cork) by email invitation. Data analysis for the focus group will be by the means of thematic analysis. Data analysis for the survey will use

Journal article

Pereira C, Perera AH, Rudarakanchana N, Harris BHL, Di Giovannantonio M, Taylor-Robinson SD, Dani M, Fertleman Met al., 2022, Cytokine changes in cerebrospinal fluid following vascular surgery on the thoracic aorta., Scientific Reports, Vol: 12, Pages: 1-8, ISSN: 2045-2322

There is growing evidence that surgery can drive an inflammatory response in the brain. However, the mechanisms behind this response are incompletely understood. Here, we investigate the hypotheses that 1. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytokines increase after vascular surgery and 2. That these changes in CSF cytokines are interrelated. Patients undergoing either open or endovascular elective surgery of the thoracic aorta were invited to participate in this study. Cerebrospinal fluid samples were taken before surgery and on the first post-operative day. These were analysed for the presence of ten cytokines by immunoassay to examine for post-operative changes in cytokine levels. After surgery, there were significant increases in six out of the ten measured CSF cytokines (IL-1β, 2, 6, 8, 10 and 13). This included changes in both putative pro-inflammatory (IL-1β, 6 and 8) and putative anti-inflammatory (IL-2, 10 and 13) cytokines. The greatest increases occurred in IL-6 and IL-8, which showed a 63-fold and a 31-fold increase respectively. There was strong intercorrelation between CSF cytokines after the operation. Following surgery on the thoracic aorta, there was a marked increase in CSF cytokines, consistent with a potential role in neuroinflammation. The ten measured cytokines showed intercorrelation after the operation, indicating that a balance between multiple pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines may be present.

Journal article

U MRA, Shen EY-L, Cartlidge C, Alkhatib A, Thursz MR, Waked I, Gomaa AI, Holmes E, Sharma R, Taylor-Robinson SDet al., 2022, Optimised systematic review tool: Application to candidate biomarkers for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma, Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, Vol: 31, Pages: 1261-1274, ISSN: 1055-9965

This review aims to develop an appropriate review tool for systematically collating metabolites that are dysregulated in disease and applies the method to identify novel diagnostic biomarkers for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Studies that analysed metabolites in blood or urine samples where HCC was compared with comparison groups (healthy, pre-cirrhotic liver disease, cirrhosis) were eligible. Tumour tissue was included to help differentiate primary and secondary biomarkers. Searches were conducted on Medline and EMBASE. A bespoke 'risk-of-bias' tool for metabolomic studies was developed adjusting for analytical quality. Discriminant metabolites for each sample type were ranked using a weighted score accounting for the direction and extent of change and the risk of bias of the reporting publication. A total of 84 eligible studies were included in the review (54 blood, 9 urine and 15 tissue), with six studying multiple sample types. High-ranking metabolites, based on their weighted score, comprised energy metabolites, bile acids, acylcarnitines and lysophosphocholines. This new review tool addresses an unmet need for incorporating quality of study design and analysis to overcome the gaps in standardisation of reporting of metabolomic data. Validation studies, standardised study designs and publications meeting minimal reporting standards are crucial for advancing the field beyond exploratory studies.

Journal article

Bridge S, Pagano S, Sheridan D, Lodge J, Cramp M, Taylor-Robinson S, Neely D, Vuilleumier N, Bassendine Met al., 2022, Autoantibodies to apolipoprotein A-1 in chronic hepatitis C infection: a role in hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis?, Publisher: ELSEVIER, Pages: S493-S494, ISSN: 0168-8278

Conference paper

Haeussinger D, Dhiman RK, Felipo V, Gorg B, Jalan R, Kircheis G, Merli M, Montagnese S, Romero-Gomez M, Schnitzler A, Taylor-Robinson SD, Vilstrup Het al., 2022, Hepatic encephalopathy, Nature Reviews Disease Primers, Vol: 8, ISSN: 2056-676X

Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a prognostically relevant neuropsychiatric syndrome that occurs in the course of acute or chronic liver disease. Besides ascites and variceal bleeding, it is the most serious complication of decompensated liver cirrhosis. Ammonia and inflammation are major triggers for the appearance of HE, which in patients with liver cirrhosis involves pathophysiologically low-grade cerebral oedema with oxidative/nitrosative stress, inflammation and disturbances of oscillatory networks in the brain. Severity classification and diagnostic approaches regarding mild forms of HE are still a matter of debate. Current medical treatment predominantly involves lactulose and rifaximin following rigorous treatment of so-called known HE precipitating factors. New treatments based on an improved pathophysiological understanding are emerging.

Journal article

Pereira C, Dani M, Taylor-Robinson S, Fertleman Met al., 2022, Putative involvement of cytokine modulation in the development of peri-operative neurocognitive disorders, International Journal of General Medicine, Vol: 15, Pages: 5349-5360, ISSN: 1178-7074

Following surgery, local cytokine-driven inflammation occurs, as part of the normal healing process. Cytokines in thecentral nervous system such as IL-6 and IL-8 may also be elevated. These cytokine changes likely contribute to neuroinflammation,but the complex mechanisms through which this occurs are incompletely understood. It may be that perioperative changes in pro- andanti-inflammatory cytokines have a role in the development of perioperative neurocognitive disorders (PND), such as post-operativedelirium (POD). This review considers the current evidence regarding perioperative cytokine changes in the blood and cerebrospinalfluid (CSF), as well as considering the potential for cytokine-altering therapies to prevent and treat PND.

Journal article

Sheridan D, Shawa I, Thomas EL, Felmlee DJ, Bridge SH, Neely D, Cobbold J, Holmes E, Bassendine MF, Taylor-Robinson Set al., 2022, Infection with the hepatitis C virus causes viral genotype-specific differences in cholesterol metabolism and hepatic steatosis, Scientific Reports, Vol: 12, ISSN: 2045-2322

Background: Lipids play essential roles in the hepatitis C virus (HCV) life cycle and patients with chronic HCV infection display disordered lipid metabolism which resolves following successful anti-viral therapy. It has been proposed that HCV genotype 3 (HCV-G3) infection is an independent risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma and evidence suggests lipogenic proteins are involved in hepatocarcinogenesis.Aims: We aimed to characterise variation in host lipid metabolism between participants chronically infected with HCV genotype 1 (HCV-G1) and HCV-G3 to identify likely genotype-specific differences in lipid metabolism.Methods: We combined several lipidomic approaches: analysis was performed between participants infected with HCV-G1 and HCV-G3, both in the fasting and non-fasting states, and after sustained virological response (SVR) to treatment. Sera were obtained from 112 fasting patients (25% with cirrhosis). Serum lipids were measured using standard enzymatic methods. Lathosterol and desmosterol were measured by gas-chromatography mass spectrometry (MS). For further metabolic insight on lipid metabolism, ultra-performance liquid chromatography MS was performed on all samples. A subgroup of 13 participants had whole body fat distribution determined using in vivo magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy. A second cohort of (non-fasting) sera were obtained from HCV Research UK for comparative analyses: 150 treatment naïve patients and 100 non-viraemic patients post-SVR.Results: HCV-G3 patients had significantly decreased serum apoB, non-HDL cholesterol concentrations, and more hepatic steatosis than those with HCV-G1. HCV-G3 patients also had significantly decreased serum levels of lathosterol, without significant reductions in desmosterol. Lipidomic analysis showed lipid species associated with reverse cholesterol transport pathway in HCV-G3.Conclusions: We demonstrated that compared to HCV-G1, HCV-G3 infection is characterised by low LDL cholesterol lev

Journal article

Taylor-Robinson SD, Morgan MY, Olupot-Olupot P, Taylor-Robinson AWet al., 2022, Societal reopening after the COVID-19 pandemic, Public Health, Vol: 205, Pages: e5-e5, ISSN: 0033-3506

Journal article

Taylor-Robinson SD, Morgan MY, Spearman CW, Suliman AAA, Corrah T, Oleribe OO, Taylor-Robinson AWet al., 2022, Why SARS-CoV-2 vaccination still matters in Africa, QJM: an international journal of medicine, Vol: 115, Pages: 191-192, ISSN: 1460-2393

Journal article

Dave U, Taylor-Robinson S, 2022, Maintaining resilience in today’s medical environment: personal perspectives on self-care, International Journal of General Medicine, Vol: 2022, Pages: 2475-2478, ISSN: 1178-7074

Background: The practice of medicine is becoming increasingly more stressful, owing to technological development, increased expectations, infrastructure deficiencies, lack of resources and healthcare systems that are struggling to cope in the face of the COVID-19 pandemic around the world.Objective: In this article, we explore ways to reduce stress and improve resilience in the work place in order to enhance wellbeing in the medical profession, but also, ultimately to protect patient safety.Synopsis: We discuss attention to regular mealtimes, protected sleep and daily exercise, together with consideration of mindfulness, gratefulness, self-compassion, self-care and being part of supportive networks as ways to reduce stress.Conclusions: While such techniques are not guaranteed to mitigate stress, psychology studies have shown that awareness of and attention to these components of a healthy lifestyle have the potential to reduce the adverse effects of increasing professional demands.

Journal article

Edwards C, Suliman AAA, Taylor-Robinson S, Corrah Tet al., 2022, Rebalancing the research equation in Africa: principles and process, BMJ Open, Vol: 12, ISSN: 2044-6055

Background: Many examples of research excellence in Africa have been driven by partnerships led by the global North and have involved localised infrastructure improvements to support the best of international research practice.Objective: In this article, we explore a possible mechanism by which local research networks, appropriately governed, could begin to support national African research programmes by allying research delivery to clinical service.Summary: This article explores the concept that sustainable research effort needs a well-trained and mentored workforce, working to common standards, but which is practically supported by a much developed information technology (IT) infrastructure throughout the continent.Conclusions: The balance of investment and ownership of such a research programme needs to be shared between local and international funding, with the emphasis on developing global South–South collaborations and research strategies which address the environmental impact of medical research activity and mitigate the impact of climate change on African populations. Healthcare must be embedded in the post-COVID-19 approach to research development.

Journal article

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