Imperial College London

Dr Sabita Uthaya

Faculty of MedicineSchool of Public Health

Professor of Practice (Neonatal Medicine)
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 3315 7975s.uthaya

 
 
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Location

 

Neonatal UnitChelsea and Westminster HospitalChelsea and Westminster Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

65 results found

Burgess-Shannon J, Chehrazi M, Lanoue J, Modi N, Uthaya SNet al., 2024, Outcomes following the adoption of standard parenteral nutrition in preterm infants: a whole-population non-concurrent control study., Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of a quality improvement project of the adoption of standard parenteral nutrition (SPN) in preterm infants. DESIGN: Retrospective, multicentre, whole-population, non-concurrent control study using data from the UK National Neonatal Research Database between 1 January 2014 and 31 December 2020. SETTING: Neonatal units in London UK organised by geographical network. PATIENTS: Preterm infants <31 weeks' gestation. INTERVENTIONS: Introduction of two SPN formulations previously tested in randomised controlled trials (NEON and SCAMP). SCAMP delivers a higher target macronutrient intake. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was survival to discharge from neonatal care without major morbidities. Secondary outcomes included the individual components of the primary outcome and a comparison of outcomes between the NEON and the SCAMP formulations. RESULTS: Of 6538 eligible infants, 4693 were admitted to neonatal care before and 1845 after the adoption of SPN. Morbidity-free survival decreased by an average of 8.6% (95% CI 5.8% to 11.4%, p<0.0001) following adoption. The effect varied by type of formulation; the cohort that adopted NEON showed no difference in morbidity-free survival, whereas the cohort that adopted SCAMP showed a statistically significant decrease in morbidity-free survival. Overall survival decreased by an average of 2.0% (95% CI 0.01% to 4.0%, p=0.048). CONCLUSIONS: Research is urgently needed to identify the optimal composition of parenteral nutrition for preterm babies. This study also adds to the growing body of evidence that suggests that early and high intakes of macronutrients in preterm babies may be harmful.

Journal article

Chehrazi M, Uthaya S, Modi N, 2024, Response to the Letter to the Editor by Dr. Keith Barrington., Early Hum Dev, Vol: 190

Journal article

van Blankenstein E, Sodiwala T, Lanoue J, Modi N, Uthaya S, Battersby Cet al., 2024, Two-year neurodevelopmental data for preterm infants born over an 11-year period in England and Wales, 2008–2018: a retrospective study using the National Neonatal Research Database, Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal and Neonatal Edition, Vol: 109, Pages: 143-150, ISSN: 1359-2998

Objective United Kingdom guidelines recommend all infants born <30 weeks’ gestation receive neurodevelopmental follow-up at 2 years corrected age. In this study, we describe completeness and results of 2-year neurodevelopmental records in the National Neonatal Research Database (NNRD).Design This retrospective cohort study uses data from the NNRD, which holds data on all neonatal admissions in England and Wales, including 2year follow-up status.Patients We included all preterm infants born <30 weeks’ gestation between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2018 in England and Wales, who survived to discharge from neonatal care.Main outcome measures Presence of a 2-year neurodevelopmental assessment record in the NNRD, use of standardised assessment tools, results of functional 2-year neurodevelopmental assessments (visual, auditory, neuromotor, communication, overall development).Results Of the 41 505 infants included, 24 125 (58%) had a 2-year neurodevelopmental assessment recorded. This improved over time, from 32% to 71% for births in 2008 and 2018, respectively.Of those with available data: 0.4% were blind; 1% had a hearing impairment not correctable with aids; 13% had <5 meaningful words, vocalisations or signs; 8% could not walk without assistance and 9% had severe (≥12 months) developmental delay.Conclusions The proportion of infants admitted to neonatal units in England and Wales with a 2-year neurodevelopmental record has improved over time. Rates of follow-up data from recent years are comparable to those of bespoke observational studies. With continual improvement in data completeness, the potential for use of NNRD as a source of longer-term outcome data can be realised.

Journal article

Harnden F, Lanoue J, Modi N, Uthaya S, Battersby Cet al., 2023, A data-driven approach to understanding neonatal palliative care needs in England and Wales: a population based study 2015-2020, Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal and Neonatal Edition, Vol: 108, Pages: 540-544, ISSN: 1359-2998

ObjectiveTo quantify admissions to neonatal units in England and Wales with potential need for palliative care. Design, setting, and patientsDiagnoses and clinical attributes indicating a high likelihood of requiring palliative care were mapped to categories within the British Association of Perinatal Medicine’s (BAPM) framework on palliative care. We extracted data from the National Neonatal Research Database on all babies born and admitted to neonatal units in England and Wales 2015-2020.OutcomesThe number and proportion of babies meeting BAPM categories, their discharge outcomes, and the characteristics of babies who died during neonatal care but did not fulfil any BAPM category.Results12,123/574,954 (2.1%) babies met one or more BAPM category: 6,239/12,123 (51%) conformed to BAPM category 4 (postnatal conditions with high risk of severe impairment), 3,796 (31%) to category 2 (antenatal/postnatal diagnosis with high risk of significant morbidity or death), 1,399 (12%) to category 3 (born at margin of viability), and 288 (2%) to category 1 (antenatal/postnatal diagnosis not compatible with long-term survival); 401 babies (3%) met criteria for multiple categories. 6,814/12,123 (56%) were discharged home, 2,385 (20%) were discharged to other settings and 2,914 (24%) died before neonatal discharge. 3,000/5,914 (51%) babies who died during neonatal care did not conform to any BAPM category. Of these, 2,630/3,000 (88%) were born preterm.ConclusionsAt least 2% of babies admitted to neonatal units had palliative care needs according to existing BAPM categories; most survived to discharge. Of deaths, 51% were not captured by the BAPM categories; most were extremely preterm.

Journal article

Prior E, Uthaya S, Gale C, 2023, Measuring body composition in children: research and practice, Archives of Disease in Childhood, Vol: 108, Pages: 285-289, ISSN: 0003-9888

Journal article

Embleton ND, Sproat T, Uthaya S, Young GR, Garg S, Vasu V, Masi AC, Beck L, Modi N, Stewart CJ, Berrington JEet al., 2023, Effect of an Exclusive Human Milk Diet on the Gut Microbiome in Preterm Infants A Randomized Clinical Trial, JAMA NETWORK OPEN, Vol: 6, ISSN: 2574-3805

Journal article

Shen R, Embleton N, Forman J, Gale C, Greisen G, Sangild PT, Uthaya S, Berrington Jet al., 2022, Early antibiotic use and incidence of necrotising enterocolitis in very preterm infants: a protocol for a UK based observational study using routinely recorded data, BMJ Open, Vol: 12, ISSN: 2044-6055

Introduction Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) remains a major contributor to preterm mortality and morbidity. Prolonged duration of antibiotic therapy after delivery is associated with later NEC development but recent evidence suggests that absence of antibiotic treatment after delivery may also increase NEC risk. We will explore this controversy using a large pre-existing dataset of preterm infants in the UK.Methods and analysis: This is a retrospective cohort study using data from UK National Neonatal Research Database (NNRD) for infants born 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2020. Eligible infants will be <32 weeks gestation, alive on day 3. Primary outcome is development of severe NEC, compared in infants receiving early antibiotics (days 1–2 after birth) and those not. Subgroup analysis on duration of early antibiotic exposure will also occur. Secondary outcomes are: late onset sepsis, total antibiotic use, predischarge mortality, retinopathy of prematurity, intraventricular haemorrhage, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, focal intestinal perforation and any abdominal surgery. To address competing risks, incidence of death before day 7, 14 and 28 will be analysed. We will perform logistic regression and propensity score matched analyses. Statistical analyses will be guided by NEC risk factors, exposures and outcome presented in a causal diagram. These covariates include but are not limited to gestational age, birth weight, small for gestational age, sex, ethnicity, delivery mode, delivery without labour, Apgar score, early feeding and probiotic use. Sensitivity analyses of alternate NEC definitions, specific antibiotics and time of initiation will occur.Ethics and dissemination: We will use deidentified data from NNRD, which holds permissions for the original data, from which parents can opt out and seek study-specific research ethics approval. The results will help to determine optimal use of early antibiotics for very preterm infants.Implications: This data will

Journal article

Yao S, Uthaya S, Gale C, Modi N, Battersby Cet al., 2022, Postnatal corticosteroid use for prevention or treatment of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in England and Wales 2012-2019: a retrospective population cohort study, BMJ Open, Vol: 12, ISSN: 2044-6055

Objective: Describe the population of babies who do and do not receive postnatal corticosteroids for prevention or treatment of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD).Design: Retrospective cohort study using data held in the National Neonatal Research Database.Setting: National Health Service neonatal units in England and Wales.Patients: Babies born less than 32 weeks gestation and admitted to neonatal units from 1 January 2012 to 31 December 2019.Main outcomes: Proportion of babies given postnatal corticosteroid; type of corticosteroid; age at initiation and duration, trends over time.Secondary outcomes: Survival to discharge, treatment for retinopathy of prematurity, BPD, brain injury, severe necrotising enterocolitis, gastrointestinal perforation.Results: 8% (4713/62019) of babies born <32 weeks and 26% (3525/13527) born <27 weeks received postnatal corticosteroids for BPD. Dexamethasone was predominantly used 5.3% (3309/62019), followed by late hydrocortisone 1.5%, inhaled budesonide 1.5%. prednisolone 0.8%, early hydrocortisone 0.3% and methylprednisolone 0.05%. Dexamethasone use increased over time (2012: 4.5 vs 2019: 5.8%, p=0.04). Median postnatal age of initiation of corticosteroid course was around 3 weeks for late hydrocortisone, 4 weeks for dexamethasone, 6 weeks for inhaled budesonide, 12 weeks for prednisolone and 16 weeks for methylprednisolone. Babies who received postnatal corticosteroids were born more prematurely, had a higher incidence of comorbidities and a longer length of stay.Conclusions: In England and Wales, around 1 in 12 babies born less than 32 weeks and 1 in 4 born less than 27 weeks receive postnatal corticosteroids to prevent or treat BPD. Given the lack of convincing evidence of efficacy, challenges of recruiting to and length of time taken to conduct randomised controlled trial, our data highlight the need to monitor long-term outcomes in children who received neonatal postnatal corticosteroids.

Journal article

Webbe J, Battersby C, Longford N, Ougham K, Uthaya S, Modi N, Gale Cet al., 2022, Use of parenteral nutrition in the first postnatal week in England and Wales: An observational study using real-world data, BMJ Paediatrics Open, Vol: 6, ISSN: 2399-9772

BackgroundParenteral nutrition (PN) is used to provide supplemental support to neonates while enteral feeding is being established. PN is a high-cost intervention with beneficial and harmful effects. Internationally there is substantial variation in how PN is used, and there are limited contemporary data describing use across the UK. ObjectiveTo describe PN use in the first postnatal week in infants born and admitted to neonatal care in England, Scotland and Wales.MethodData describing neonates admitted to National Health Service (NHS) neonatal units between 1st January 2012 and 31st December 2017, extracted from routinely recorded data held the National Neonatal Research Database (NNRD); the denominator was live births, from Office for National Statistics.ResultsOver the study period 62,145 neonates were given PN in the first postnatal week (1.4% of all live births); use was higher in more preterm neonates (76% of livebirths at <28 weeks, 0.2% of term livebirths) and in neonates with lower birth weight. 15% (9181/62145) of neonates given PN in the first postnatal week were born at term. There was geographic variation in PN administration: the proportion of live births given PN within neonatal regional networks ranged from 1.0% (95% confidence intervals: 1.0, 1.0) to 2.8% (95% confidence interval: 2.7, 2.9). Conclusions and relevanceSignificant variation exists in neonatal PN use; it is unlikely this reflects optimal use of an expensive intervention. Research is needed to identify which babies will benefit most and which are at risk of harm from early PN. RegistrationClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03767634

Journal article

Moss R, Lammons W, Johnson S, Ribas R, Uthaya S, Battersby C, Cornelius V, Babalis D, Modi Net al., 2022, More than words: Parent, Patient and Public Involvement perspectives on language used by clinical researchers in neonatal care, Early Human Development, Vol: 171, Pages: 1-3, ISSN: 0378-3782

In this qualitative study exploring parent views of information about research studies, we found they accepted uncertainty as justification, and that three key aspects of language - words, tone, and pace - influence parents' decision about their baby's inclusion. We recommend parents are routinely involved in developing information materials.

Journal article

Uthaya S, Jeffries S, Andrewsjewska I, Vasu V, Embleton ND, Modi Net al., 2022, Randomised controlled trial of human derived breast milk fortifier versus bovine milk fortifier on body composition in very preterm babies, EARLY HUMAN DEVELOPMENT, Vol: 171, ISSN: 0378-3782

Journal article

Webbe J, Uthaya S, Modi N, 2022, Nutrition for the micro preemie: Beyond milk, SEMINARS IN FETAL & NEONATAL MEDICINE, Vol: 27, ISSN: 1744-165X

Journal article

Greenbury SF, Angelini DE, Ougham K, Battersby C, Gale C, Uthaya S, Modi Net al., 2022, Post-natal growth of very preterm neonates, The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health, Vol: 6, Pages: E11-E11, ISSN: 2352-4642

Journal article

Uthaya S, Longford N, Battersby C, Ougham K, Lanoue J, Modi Net al., 2022, Early versus later initiation of parenteral nutrition for very preterm infants: a propensity score matched observational study, Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal and Neonatal Edition, Vol: 107, ISSN: 1359-2998

Background: A current standard of care based on expert opinion is to commence parenteral nutrition (PN) within hours of birth in very preterm infants. Trials in critically ill adults and children, including term infants have found short and long-term harms from early initiation of PN. Methods: We included all infants born below 31 weeks gestation between January 2008 and December 2019 and admitted to National Health Service neonatal units in England and Wales. The source of data was the National Neonatal Research Database. The exposure was PN initiated within the first two days after birth (early) versus after the second postnatal day (late). We used propensity matched analysis to balance the two groups on background variables. The primary outcome was survival to discharge without major morbidity. Findings: Of 65,033 infants included, 16,294 infants formed the matched cohort, 8147 in each group. There was no evidence of a difference in survival to discharge without major morbidity (absolute rate difference (ARD) between early versus late 0·50%; 95% Confidence Interval (CI), -1·45, 0·45; p=0·29). Survival to discharge was higher in the early group (ARD -3·25%; 95% CI, -3·82 to -2·68; p<0·001) but they also had higher rates of late-onset sepsis (ARD -0·84%; 95% CI, -1·20 to -0·48; p<0·001), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (ARD -1·24%; 95% CI, -2·17 to -0·30; p=0·01), treatment for retinopathy of prematurity (ARD (-0·5%; 95% CI, -0·84 to -0.17; p<0·001), surgical procedures (ARD -0·8%; 95% CI, -1·40 to -0·20; p=0·01) and greater drop in weight z-score between birth and discharge (absolute difference 0·019; 95% CI, 0·003 to 0·039; p=0·02). Among infants that died the median age (days) at death was shorter in the late group (ARD 6; 95% CI, 6; p<0.001). Interpretation: These o

Journal article

Webbe J, Longford N, Battersby C, Ougham K, Uthaya S, Modi N, Gale Cet al., 2022, Outcomes in relation to early parenteral nutrition use in preterm neonates born between 30 and 33 weeks gestation: a propensity score matched observational study, Archives of Disease in Childhood: Fetal and Neonatal Edition, Vol: 107, Pages: 131-136, ISSN: 1359-2998

ObjectiveTo evaluate whether in preterm neonates parenteral nutrition use in the first sevenpostnatal days, compared with no parenteral nutrition use, is associated withdifferences in survival and other important morbidities. Randomised trials in criticallyill older children show that harms, such as nosocomial infection, outweigh benefits ofearly parenteral nutrition administration; there is a paucity of similar data inneonates.DesignRetrospective cohort study using propensity matching including 35 maternal, infantand organisational factors to minimise bias and confounding.SettingNational, population-level clinical data obtained for all National Health Serviceneonatal units in England and Wales.PatientsPreterm neonates born between 30+0 and 32+6 weeks+days.InterventionsThe exposure was parenteral nutrition administered in the first seven days ofpostnatal life; the comparator was no parenteral nutrition.Main outcome measuresThe primary outcome was survival to discharge from neonatal care. Secondaryoutcomes comprised the neonatal core outcome set.Results16,292 neonates were compared in propensity score matched analyses. Comparedwith matched neonates not given parenteral nutrition in the first postnatal week, neonates who received parenteral nutrition had higher survival at discharge(absolute rate increase 0.91%; 95% CI 0.53% to 1.30%), but higher rates ofnecrotising enterocolitis (absolute rate increase 4.6%), bronchopulmonary dysplasia(absolute rate increase 3.9%), late-onset sepsis (absolute rate increase 1.5%) andneed for surgical procedures (absolute rate increase 0.92%).ConclusionsIn neonates born between 30+0 and 32+6 weeks gestation, those given parenteralnutrition in the first postnatal week had a higher rate of survival but higher rates ofimportant neonatal morbidities. Clinician equipoise in this area should be resolvedby prospective, randomised trials.

Journal article

Uthaya S, 2021, Better preterm parenteral nutrition practice, EARLY HUMAN DEVELOPMENT, Vol: 162, ISSN: 0378-3782

Journal article

Greenbury SF, Longford N, Ougham K, Angelini ED, Battersby C, Uthaya S, Modi Net al., 2021, Changes in neonatal admissions, care processes and outcomes in England and Wales during the COVID-19 pandemic: a whole population cohort study, BMJ Open, Vol: 11, ISSN: 2044-6055

Objectives: The COVID-19 pandemic instigated multiple societal and healthcare interventions with potential to affect perinatal practice. We evaluated population-level changes in preterm and full-term admissions to neonatal units, care processes and outcomes.Design: Observational cohort study using the UK National Neonatal Research Database.Setting: England and Wales.Participants: Admissions to National Health Service neonatal units from 2012 to 2020.Main outcome measures: Admissions by gestational age, ethnicity and Index of Multiple Deprivation, and key care processes and outcomes.Methods: We calculated differences in numbers and rates between April and June 2020 (spring), the first 3 months of national lockdown (COVID-19 period), and December 2019–February 2020 (winter), prior to introduction of mitigation measures, and compared them with the corresponding differences in the previous 7 years. We considered the COVID-19 period highly unusual if the spring–winter difference was smaller or larger than all previous corresponding differences, and calculated the level of confidence in this conclusion.Results: Marked fluctuations occurred in all measures over the 8 years with several highly unusual changes during the COVID-19 period. Total admissions fell, having risen over all previous years (COVID-19 difference: −1492; previous 7-year difference range: +100, +1617; p<0.001); full-term black admissions rose (+66; −64, +35; p<0.001) whereas Asian (−137; −14, +101; p<0.001) and white (−319; −235, +643: p<0.001) admissions fell. Transfers to higher and lower designation neonatal units increased (+129; −4, +88; p<0.001) and decreased (−47; −25, +12; p<0.001), respectively. Total preterm admissions decreased (−350; −26, +479; p<0.001). The fall in extremely preterm admissions was most marked in the two lowest socioeconomic quintiles.Conclusions: Our findings indicate substantia

Journal article

Greenbury SF, Angelini ED, Ougham K, Battersby C, Gale C, Uthaya S, Modi Net al., 2021, Birthweight and patterns of postnatal weight gain in very and extremely preterm babies in England and Wales, 2008-19: a cohort study, The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health, Vol: 5, Pages: 719-728, ISSN: 2352-4642

BACKGROUND: Intrauterine and postnatal weight are widely regarded as biomarkers of fetal and neonatal wellbeing, but optimal weight gain following preterm birth is unknown. We aimed to describe changes over time in birthweight and postnatal weight gain in very and extremely preterm babies, in relation to major morbidity and healthy survival. METHODS: In this cohort study, we used whole-population data from the UK National Neonatal Research Database for infants below 32 weeks gestation admitted to neonatal units in England and Wales between Jan 1, 2008, and Dec 31, 2019. We used non-linear Gaussian process to estimate monthly trends, and Bayesian multilevel regression to estimate unadjusted and adjusted coefficients. We evaluated birthweight; weight change from birth to 14 days; weight at 36 weeks postmenstrual age; associated Z scores; and longitudinal weights for babies surviving to 36 weeks postmenstrual age with and without major morbidities. We adjusted birthweight for antenatal, perinatal, and demographic variables. We additionally adjusted change in weight at 14 days and weight at 36 weeks postmenstrual age, and their Z scores, for postnatal variables. FINDINGS: The cohort comprised 90 817 infants. Over the 12-year period, mean differences adjusted for antenatal, perinatal, demographic, and postnatal variables were 0 g (95% compatibility interval -7 to 7) for birthweight (-0·01 [-0·05 to 0·03] for change in associated Z score); 39 g (26 to 51) for change in weight from birth to 14 days (0·14 [0·08 to 0·19] for change in associated Z score); and 105 g (81 to 128) for weight at 36 weeks postmenstrual age (0·27 [0·21 to 0·33] for change in associated Z score). Greater weight at 36 weeks postmenstrual age was robust to additional adjustment for enteral nutritional intake. In babies surviving without major morbidity, weight velocity in all gestational age groups stabilised at around 34 weeks post

Journal article

Greenbury SF, Angelini ED, Ougham K, Battersby C, Uthaya S, Modi Net al., 2021, Birthweight and Patterns of Postnatal Weight Gain in Very and Extremely Preterm Babies: A 12 Year, Whole Population Study, The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health, ISSN: 2352-4642

Journal article

Gale C, statnikov E, Jawad S, Uthaya S, Modi Net al., 2021, Correction to: Brain injury occurring during or soon after birth: a report for the national maternity ambition commissioned by the Department of Health, Correction to: Brain injury occurring during or soon after birth: a report for the national maternity ambition commissioned by the Department of Health, London, UK, Publisher: The Neonatal Data Analysis Unit, Imperial College London, 1

Report

Gale C, Jeyakumaran D, Ougham K, Jawad S, Uthaya S, Modi Net al., 2021, Correction to: Brain injury occurring during or soon afterbirth: annual incidence and rates of brain injuries to monitorprogress against the national maternity ambition. 2016 and 2017 data, Correction to: Brain injury occurring during or soon afterbirth: annual incidence and rates of brain injuries to monitorprogress against the national maternity ambition. 2016 and 2017 data, London, UK, Publisher: The Neonatal Data Analysis Unit, Imperial College London, 2

Correction to the following report: https://doi.org/10.25561/87336

Report

Gale C, Ougham K, Jawad S, Uthaya S, Modi Net al., 2021, Brain injury occurring during or soon after birth: annual incidence and rates of brain injuries to monitor progress against the national maternity ambition 2018 and 2019 national data, Brain injury occurring during or soon after birth: annual incidence and rates of brain injuries to monitor progress against the national maternity ambition 2018 and 2019 national data, London, UK, Publisher: The Neonatal Data Analysis Unit, Imperial College London, 3

Report

Greenbury SF, Longford NT, Ougham K, Angelini ED, Battersby C, Uthaya S, Modi Net al., 2021, Changes in Neonatal Admissions, Care Processes and Outcomes in England and Wales During the COVID-19 Pandemic, SSRN Electronic Journal

Journal article

Yeo KT, Oei JL, De Luca D, Schmölzer GM, Guaran R, Palasanthiran P, Kumar K, Buonocore G, Cheong J, Owen LS, Kusuda S, James J, Lim G, Sharma A, Uthaya S, Gale C, Whittaker E, Battersby C, Modi N, Norman M, Naver L, Giannoni E, Diambomba Y, Shah PS, Gagliardi L, Harrison M, Pillay S, Alburaey A, Yuan Y, Zhang Het al., 2020, Review of guidelines and recommendations from 17 countries highlights the challenges that clinicians face caring for neonates born to mothers with COVID-19., Acta Paediatrica: Nurturing the Child, Vol: 109, Pages: 2192-2207, ISSN: 1651-2227

AIM: This review examined how applicable national and regional clinical practice guidelines and recommendations for managing neonates born to mothers with COVID-19 mothers were to the evolving pandemic. METHODS: A systematic search and review identified 20 guidelines and recommendations that had been published by 25 May 2020. We analysed documents from 17 countries: Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, India, Italy, Japan, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the UK and the USA. RESULTS: The documents were based on expert consensus with limited evidence and were of variable, low methodological rigour. Most did not provide recommendations for delivery methods or managing symptomatic infants. None provided recommendations for post-discharge assimilation of potentially-infected infants into the community. The majority encouraged keeping mothers and infants together, subject to infection control measures, but one-third recommended separation. Although breastfeeding or using breastmilk were widely encouraged, two countries specifically prohibited this. CONCLUSION: The guidelines and recommendations for managing infants affected by COVID-19 were of low, variable quality and may be unsustainable. It is important that transmission risks are not increased when new information is incorporated into clinical recommendations. Practice guidelines should emphasise the extent of uncertainty and clearly define gaps in the evidence.

Journal article

Achten NB, Klingenberg C, Benitz WE, Stocker M, Schlapbach LJ, Giannoni E, Bokelaar R, Driessen GJA, Brodin P, Uthaya S, van Rossum AMC, Plotz FBet al., 2019, Association of Use of the Neonatal Early-Onset Sepsis Calculator With Reduction in Antibiotic Therapy and Safety A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis, JAMA PEDIATRICS, Vol: 173, Pages: 1032-1040, ISSN: 2168-6203

Journal article

Webbe J, Longford N, Uthaya S, Modi N, Gale Cet al., 2019, Outcomes following early parenteral nutrition use in preterm neonates: Protocol for an observational study, BMJ Open, Vol: 9, Pages: 1-5, ISSN: 2044-6055

Introduction Preterm babies are among the highest users of parenteral nutrition (PN) of any patient group, but there is wide variation in commencement, duration, and composition of PN and uncertainty around which groups will benefit from early introduction. Recent studies in critically unwell adults and children suggest that harms, specifically increased rates of nosocomial infection, outweigh the benefits of early administration of PN. In this study, we will describe early PN use in neonatal units in England, Wales and Scotland. We will also evaluate if this is associated with differences in important neonatal outcomes in neonates born between 30+0 and 32+6 weeks+days gestation.Methods and analysis We will use routinely collected data from all neonatal units in England, Wales and Scotland, available in the National Neonatal Research Database (NNRD). We will describe clinical practice in relation to any use of PN during the first 7 postnatal days among neonates admitted to neonatal care between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2017. We will compare outcomes in neonates born between 30+0 and 32+6 weeks+days gestation who did or did not receive PN in the first week after birth using a propensity score-matched approach. The primary outcome will be survival to discharge home. Secondary outcomes will include components of the neonatal core outcome set: outcomes identified as important by former patients, parents, clinicians and researchers.Ethics and dissemination We have obtained UK National Research Ethics Committee approval for this study (Ref: 18/NI/0214). The results of this study will be presented at academic conferences; the UK charity Bliss will aid dissemination to former patients and parents.

Journal article

Li Y, Liu X, Modi N, Uthaya Set al., 2019, Impact of breast milk intake on body composition at term in very preterm babies: secondary analysis of the Nutritional Evaluation and Optimisation in Neonates randomised controlled trial, ARCHIVES OF DISEASE IN CHILDHOOD-FETAL AND NEONATAL EDITION, Vol: 104, Pages: F306-F312, ISSN: 1359-2998

Journal article

Vanhinsbergh L, Uthaya S, Bain BJ, 2018, Methylene blue-induced Heinz body hemolytic anemia in a premature neonate, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF HEMATOLOGY, Vol: 93, Pages: 716-717, ISSN: 0361-8609

Journal article

Binder C, Longford N, Gale CRK, Modi N, Uthaya Set al., 2018, Body composition following necrotising enterocolitis in preterm infants, Neonatology, Vol: 113, Pages: 242-248, ISSN: 1661-7800

Background: The optimal nutritional regimen for preterm infants, including those that develop necrotising enterocolitis (NEC), is unknown. Objective: The objective here was to evaluate body composition at term in infants following NEC, in comparison with healthy infants. The primary outcome measure was non-adipose tissue mass (non-ATM). Methods: We compared body composition assessed by magnetic resonance imaging at term in infants born <31 weeks of gestational age that participated in NEON, a trial comparing incremental versus immediate delivery of parenteral amino acids on non-ATM, and SMOF versus intralipid on intrahepatocellular lipid content. There were no differences in the primary outcomes. We compared infants that received surgery for NEC (NEC-surgical), infants with medically managed NEC (NEC-medical), and infants without NEC (reference). Results: A total of 133 infants were included (8 NEC-surgical; 15 NEC-medical; 110 reference). In comparison with the reference group, infants in the NEC-surgical and NEC-medical groups were significantly lighter [adjusted mean difference (95% CI) NEC-surgical: –630 g (–1,010, –210), p = 0.003; NEC-medical: –440 g (–760, –110), p = 0.009] and the total adipose tissue volume (ATV) was significantly lower [NEC-surgical: –360 cm3 (–516, –204), p < 0.001; NEC-medical: –127 cm3 (–251, –4); p = 0.043]. There were no significant differences in non-ATM [adjusted mean difference (95% CI) NEC-surgical: –46 g (–281, 189), p = 0.70; NEC-medical: –122 g (–308, 63), p = 0.20]. Conclusion: The lower weight at term in preterm infants following surgically and medically managed NEC, in comparison to preterm infants that did not develop the disease, was secondary to a reduction in ATV. This suggests that the nutritional regimen received was adequate to preserve non-ATM but not to support the normal third-trimester deposition of adipose tissue

Journal article

Gale C, Statnikov Y, Jawad S, Uthaya SN, Modi N, Brain Injuries expert working groupet al., 2017, Neonatal brain injuries in England: population-based incidence derived from routinely recorded clinical data held in the National Neonatal Research Database, Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition, Vol: 103, Pages: F301-F306, ISSN: 1359-2998

In 2015, the Department of Health in England announced an ambition to reduce 'brain injuries occurring during or soon after birth'. We describe the development of a pragmatic case definition and present annual incidence rates.Retrospective cohort study using data held in the National Neonatal Research Database (NNRD) extracted from neonatal electronic patient records from all National Health Service (NHS) neonatal units in England, Wales and Scotland. In 2010-2011, population coverage in the NNRD was incomplete, hence rate estimates are presented as a range; from 2012, population coverage is complete, and rates (95% CIs) are presented. Rates are per 1000 live births.NHS neonatal units in England.Infants admitted for neonatal care; denominator: live births in England.'Brain injuries occurring at or soon after birth' defined as infants with seizures, hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy, stroke, intracranial haemorrhage, central nervous system infection and kernicterus and preterm infants with cystic periventricular leucomalacia.In 2010, the lower estimate of the rate of 'Brain injuries occurring at or soon after birth' in England was 4.53 and the upper estimate was 5.19; in 2015, the rate was 5.14 (4.97, 5.32). For preterm infants, the population incidence in 2015 was 25.88 (24.51, 27.33) and 3.47 (3.33, 3.62) for term infants. Hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy was the largest contributor to term brain injury, and intraventricular/periventricular haemorrhage was the largest contributor to preterm brain injury.Annual incidence rates for brain injuries can be estimated from data held in the NNRD; rates for individual conditions are consistent with published rates. Routinely recorded clinical data can be used for national surveillance, offering efficiencies over traditional approaches.

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