125 results found
Bateman G, Guo-Parke H, Rodgers AM, et al., 2023, Airway Epithelium Senescence as a Driving Mechanism in COPD Pathogenesis, BIOMEDICINES, Vol: 11
Essex R, Ahmed S, Elliott H, et al., 2023, The impact of strike action on healthcare delivery: A scoping review., Int J Health Plann Manage, Vol: 38, Pages: 599-627
BACKGROUND: Strike action carried out by healthcare workers raises a range of ethical issues. Most fundamentally, as a strike is designed to disrupt, it has the potential to impact patient outcomes and healthcare delivery. This paper synthesises and analyses the empirical literature that details the impact of strike action on healthcare delivery. METHODS: A systematic scoping review was utilised to examine the extent, range and nature of research activity. Embase, Medline, CINAHL, Bioethicsline, EconLit and Web of Science were searched, yielding 5644 results. Papers were included if they examined the impact that strike action had on healthcare delivery (i.e., admissions, presentations, waiting time). After screening, 43 papers met inclusion criteria. RESULTS: Nineteen studies explored presentations to emergency or admissions to hospital. Both dropped dramatically when comparing non-strike to strike periods. Ten studies examined length of stay in hospital and waiting times. No clear relationship was found with strike action, with some studies showing that wait times decreased. Nine studies examined the impact of strike action in facilities that were not on strike, but were impacted by nearby strike action along with the impact that strike action had on treatment seeking. Hospitals dealing with these upstream impacts often saw increase in presentations at hospitals, but results relates to treatment seeking during strike action were mixed. CONCLUSION: Strike action can have a substantial impact on the delivery of healthcare, but this impact is not felt uniformly across services. While many services are disrupted, a number are not, with several studies reporting increased efficiency.
Creane S, Joyce M, MacLoughlin R, et al., 2023, <i>In</i><i> vitro</i> evaluation of the potential use of snake-derived peptides in the treatment of respiratory infections using inhalation therapy: A proof of concept study, EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES, Vol: 183, ISSN: 0928-0987
Essex R, Burns C, Evans TR, et al., 2023, A last resort? A scoping review of patient and healthcare worker attitudes toward strike action., Nurs Inq, Vol: 30
While strike action has been common since the industrial revolution, it often invokes a passionate and polarising response, from the strikers themselves, from employers, governments and the general public. Support or lack thereof from health workers and the general public is an important consideration in the justification of strike action. This systematic review sought to examine the impact of strike action on patient and clinician attitudes, specifically to explore (1) patient and health worker support for strike action and (2) the predictors for supporting strike action and the reasons given for engaging in strike action. A systematic scoping review was employed to identify all relevant literature, followed by a textual narrative synthesis. A total of 34 studies met inclusion criteria. Support for strike action was largely context-dependent. A range of factors impact support for strike action; broader cultural and structural factors, such as unionisation and general acceptance of strike action; systemic factors, such as the nature of the healthcare system, including infrastructure and work conditions; the strike itself and a range of individual factors, the most notable of which was being a student or in an early career stage. There were also some surprising results, for example, during doctors strike, nurses were provided with the opportunity to expand their role, which led to greater professional autonomy and job satisfaction.
Cleaver K, Don C, Chojnacka I, et al., 2023, A systematic scoping review of undergraduate nursing hub-and-spoke placement models., Br J Nurs, Vol: 32, Pages: 252-258, ISSN: 0966-0461
BACKGROUND: While nursing education has been forecast to continue to grow, placement capacity is now the key factor precluding growth in supply. AIMS: To provide a comprehensive understanding of hub-and-spoke placements and their ability to increase placement capacity. METHOD: A systematic scoping review and narrative synthesis were used (Arksey and O'Malley, 2005). PRISMA checklist and ENTREQ reporting guidelines were followed. FINDINGS: The search returned 418 results. After a first and second screen 11 papers were included. Results suggest that hub-and-spoke models were generally evaluated favourably by nursing students, with a range of benefits reported. However, many of the studies included in the review were small and of low quality. CONCLUSION: Given the exponential increase in applications to study nursing, hub-and-spoke placements appear to have the potential to better meet these increased demands, while also providing a number of benefits.
Essex R, Aked H, Daniels R, et al., 2023, Exploring the concept of non-violent resistance amongst healthcare workers., Nurs Ethics, Vol: 30, Pages: 7-19
BACKGROUND: Non-violent resistance which has involved healthcare workers has been instrumental in securing a number of health-related gains and a force in opposing threats to health. Despite this, we know little about healthcare workers who have engaged in acts of non-violent resistance. RESEARCH AIM: Amongst a sample of healthcare workers who had engaged in acts of resistance this study sought to explore their understanding of non-violent resistance and how or whether they felt healthcare workers made a distinct contribution to such action. RESEARCH DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. PARTICIPANTS AND RESEARCH CONTEXT: Healthcare workers (doctors, nurses, academics and others) from the UK and Europe who had engaged in acts of non-violent resistance. ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS: Ethical approval for this study was granted by the University of Greenwich Human Research Ethics Committee (UREC/184.108.40.206). FINDINGS/RESULTS: Most participants spoke about the nature of non-violent resistance, its oppositional, didactic and symbolic functions and the role of violence or harm. While most people understood non-violent resistance as a public, oppositional and collective act, many identified more subtle everyday acts in the workplace that undermined policy or procedures they saw as harmful. When asked about distinctions in non-violent resistance carried out by healthcare workers, most participants referred to their standing in society, noting that healthcare works were a trusted and authoritative source. Some identified an ethical imperative to act while others identified the risks that came with such action, noting their accountability and responsibility they had to patients. About a quarter of participants felt that such action was no different to others carrying out non-violent resistance or dependent on the issue or nature of the action. CONCLUSIONS: These findings speak to the complex and multifaceted nature of non-violent resistance. Additionally our findings suggest healthcare wo
Essex R, Aked H, Daniels R, et al., 2023, Justifying non-violent resistance: The perspectives of healthcare workers, Clinical Ethics, ISSN: 1477-7509
Introduction: Non-violent resistance, carried out by healthcare workers, has been a common phenomenon. Despite this and despite the issues this type of action raises, we know little about the healthcare workers who engage in this action and their perspectives about its justification. This exploratory study sought to address this gap, examining these fundamental questions amongst a sample of healthcare workers who have engaged in acts of resistance, exploring their understanding of non-violent resistance, its justification and the barriers they faced in engaging in such action. Methods: Participants were recruited through Medact's (https://www.medact.org/) member database and directed to an online survey hosted on Qualtrics. While participants were unlikely to be representative of the broader UK healthcare community, participants were in an advantageous position to comment on non-violent resistance. Descriptive quantitative analysis and a content analysis were conducted. Results: The majority of participants felt that non-violent resistance could be justified dependent on its cause and/or the action in question. Within this, most felt that if action were non-violent, that if it didn't harm patients and that if the issue in question had to do with health being compromised, action was often justified. A number of others framed their justification as being a right or duty to engage in non-violent resistance. In relation to barriers to engaging in non-violent resistance, these fell into three categories: personal, professional and broader concerns related to society or the general culture found in healthcare. Within these, time and concerns about registration or the consequences of engaging in action were cited as the greatest barriers. Conclusions: These results suggest that healthcare workers who regularly engage in non-violent action carefully thought through their actions, acknowledging the diversity of actions and issues that could be challenged, for many patient ca
Evans TR, Burns C, Essex R, et al., 2023, A systematic scoping review on the evidence behind debriefing practices for the wellbeing/emotional outcomes of healthcare workers, Frontiers in Psychiatry, Vol: 14
Introduction: Debriefings give healthcare workers voice through the opportunity to discuss unanticipated or difficult events and recommend changes. The typical goal of routine debriefings has been to improve clinical outcomes by learning through discussion and reflection of events and then transferring that learning into clinical practice. However, little research has investigated the effects of debriefings on the emotional experiences and well-being of healthcare workers. There is some evidence that debriefings are a multi-faceted and cost-effective intervention for minimising negative health outcomes, but their use is inconsistent and they are infrequently adopted with the specific intention of giving healthcare workers a voice. The purpose of this systematic scoping review is therefore to assess the scope of existing evidence on debriefing practices for the well-being and emotional outcomes of healthcare workers. Methods: Following screening, 184 papers were synthesised through keyword mapping and exploratory trend identification. Results: The body of evidence reviewed were clustered geographically, but diverse on many other criteria of interest including the types of evidence produced, debriefing models and practices, and outcomes captured. Discussion: The current review provides a clear map of our existing understanding and highlights the need for more systematic, collaborative and rigorous bodies of evidence to determine the potential of debriefing to support the emotional outcomes of those working within healthcare. Systematic Review Registration: https://osf.io/za6rj.
Essex R, Weldon SM, Markowski M, et al., 2022, A Systematic Mapping Literature Review of Ethics in Healthcare Simulation and its Methodological Feasibility, Clinical Simulation in Nursing, Vol: 73, Pages: 48-58, ISSN: 1876-1399
Both the ethics of simulation and how it may be used to explore, train and assess ethical issues in a clinical context have received growing interest in recent years. As ethical considerations permeate almost every element of simulation and clinical practice, the emerging literature in this field remains relatively fragmented, lacking a common vocabulary or standardized practice and methodology. Given this, the primary aim of this paper was to systematically map the literature related to ethics in healthcare simulation, guided by the research question of ‘how is ethics in healthcare simulation recorded in current literature?’. Our secondary aim was to explore the feasibility of conducting a systematic mapping review. One hundred four papers were included and analyzed. Results suggest that this is relatively small, but rapidly growing field. Most research was carried out in the US and with variety of research methods employed. Research involving samples of nurses relied more heavily on qualitative methods and students in their samples than that of medical doctors or other professions. Keyword co-occurrence suggested that studies utilized simulation overwhelmingly in an educational context.
Osbourn M, Rodgers AM, Dubois AV, et al., 2022, Secretory Leucoprotease Inhibitor (SLPI) Promotes Survival during Acute <i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i> Infection by Suppression of Inflammation Rather Than Microbial Killing, BIOMOLECULES, Vol: 12
Essex R, Weldon SM, Thompson T, et al., 2022, The impact of health care strikes on patient mortality: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies., Health Serv Res, Vol: 57, Pages: 1218-1234
OBJECTIVE: This study sought to evaluate the impact of health care strike action on patient mortality. DATA SOURCES: EMBASE, PubMed CINAHL, BIOETHICSLINE, EconLit, WEB OF SCIENCE, and grey literature were searched up to December 2021. STUDY DESIGN: A systematic review and meta-analysis were utilized. DATA COLLECTION/EXTRACTION: Random-effects meta-analysis was used to compare mortality rate during strike versus pre- or post-strike, with meta-regression employed to identify factors that might influence the potential impact of strike action. Studies were included if they were observational studies that examined in-hospital/clinic or population mortality during a strike period compared with a control period where there was no strike action. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Seventeen studies examined mortality: 14 examined in-hospital mortality and three examined population mortality. In-hospital studies represented 768,918 admissions and 7191 deaths during strike action and 1,034,437 admissions and 12,676 deaths during control periods. The pooled relative risk (RR) of in-hospital mortality did not significantly differ during strike action versus non-strike periods (RR = 0.91, 95% confidence interval 0.63, 1.31, p = 0.598). Meta-regression also showed that mortality RR was not significantly impacted by country (p = 0.98), profession on strike (p = 0.32 for multiple professions, p = 0.80 for nurses), the duration of the strike (p = 0.26), or whether multiple facilities were on strike (p = 0.55). Only three studies that examined population mortality met the inclusion criteria; therefore, further analysis was not conducted. However, it is noteworthy that none of these studies reported a significant increase in population mortality attributable to strike action. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the data available, this review did not find any evidence that strike action has any significant impact on in-hospital patient mortality
Imran A, Mpofu S, Weldon SM, 2022, Clinical research nurses, perspectives on recruitment challenges and lessons learnt from a large multi-site observational study, Journal of Research in Nursing, Vol: 27, Pages: 579-589, ISSN: 1744-9871
Background: Recruitment of large numbers of study participants within a designated time frame for multi-site clinical research studies is a significant challenge faced by researchers. If a study does not manage to recruit targeted number of participants, it could have a significant impact on the statistical significance of the research. Purpose: This paper highlights the challenges of recruitment for a large multi-site UK-based tuberculosis observational study ‘PREDICT’. Methods: It uses a case-study analysis from the research nurses, perspective, and descriptive information retrieved from non-recruitment log forms to understand reasons for potential recruits not participating. Results: Some of the main challenges to recruitment included patients not attending their clinic appointments, time required to obtain site-specific permissions and courier timings for blood sample collection. This paper also outlines key reasons for potential recruits who did not participate. Some of the common barriers to participation for non-recruited participants were work and family commitments, additional blood tests and language barriers. Conclusion: Successful strategies which were implemented to overcome some of the challenges during the study are presented. This paper, therefore, aims to present the challenges faced, lessons learnt and successful strategies implemented to inform the planning of similar longitudinal studies of this scale in future.
Scott A, Weldon S, Taggart CC, 2022, Outcomes from COVID-19 Clinical Trials in Hospitalized Patients Seeking the Truth That Matters, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE, Vol: 206, Pages: 658-660, ISSN: 1073-449X
Scott A, Weldon S, Taggart CC, 2022, The Serpin-tine Search for Factors Associated with COVID-19 Severity in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE, Vol: 206, Pages: 657-658, ISSN: 1073-449X
Ferris P, Brown R, Delaney R, et al., 2022, Genetic deletion of SLPI results in increased protease activity and mucus clearance in a murine model of chronic lung disease, Publisher: EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY SOC JOURNALS LTD, ISSN: 0903-1936
McKelvey MC, Bradbury I, McDowell C, et al., 2022, The relationship between plasma cystatin C, mortality and acute respiratory distress syndrome subphenotype in the HARP-2 trial, CRITICAL CARE AND RESUSCITATION, Vol: 24, Pages: 251-258, ISSN: 1441-2772
Essex R, Weldon SM, 2022, The justification for strike action in healthcare: A systematic critical interpretive synthesis., Nurs Ethics, Vol: 29, Pages: 1152-1173
Strike action in healthcare has been a common global phenomenon. As such action is designed to be disruptive, it creates substantial ethical tension, the most cited of which relates to patient harm, that is, a strike may not only disrupt an employer, but it could also have serious implications for the delivery of care. This article systematically reviewed the literature on strike action in healthcare with the aim of providing an overview of the major justifications for strike action, identifying relative strengths and shortcomings of this literature and providing direction for future discussions, and theoretical and empirical research. Three major themes emerged related to (1) the relationship between healthcare workers, patients and society; (2) the consequences of strike action; and (3) the conduct of strike action. Those who argue against strike action generally cite the harms of such action, particularly as it relates to patients. Many also argue that healthcare workers, because of their skills and position in society, have a special obligation to their patients and society more generally. Those who see this action as not only permissible but also, in some cases, necessary have advanced several points in response, arguing that healthcare workers do not necessarily have any special obligation to their patients or society, and even if so, this obligation is not absolute. Overwhelmingly, when talking about the potential risks of strike action, authors have focused on patient welfare and the impact that a strike could have. Several directions for future work are identified, including greater explorations into how structural and systemic issues impact strike action, the need for greater consideration about the contextual factors that influence the risks and characteristics of strike action and finally the need to tie this literature to existing empirical evidence.
Francesca P, Weldon SM, Lomi A, 2022, Lost in translation: Collecting and coding data on social relations from audio-visual recordings, Social Networks, Vol: 69, Pages: 102-112, ISSN: 0378-8733
Some of the constitutive features of social relations fade from view when information naturally produced by sequential social interaction is translated into network ties. Building on core concepts and ideas developed within conversation analysis, in this paper we argue that this happens because the sequential, multimodal and embodied character of social relations can be fully understood only with reference to the sequential constrains that are generated by – and at the same time shape the micro-dynamics of social interaction. We suggest that the translation of social interaction into social networks precludes analysis of the multiple interfaces that sustain social relations (multimodality), and the material resources around which social relations are organized (embodiment). We highlight audio-visual recording as a data collection technology that facilitates storage, retrieval, and analysis of complex information on social relations that is typically absent from social network data. An illustrative video-supported case study based on the observation of social and task-related interaction among members of surgical teams provides the empirical context that supports and motivates our general reflection on network data collection strategies and technologies to study social interaction. The analysis highlights the need for social networks research to return to the study of social relations.
Essex R, Milligan W, Williams G, et al., 2022, The impact of strike action on patient morbidity: A systematic literature review., Int J Health Plann Manage, Vol: 37, Pages: 1311-1326
Strike action in healthcare has been common over the last several decades. The overarching aim of this systematic review was to synthesise and analyse the empirical literature that examines the impact of strike action on patient morbidity, that is, all patient outcomes except mortality. After conducting a search and apply eligibility criteria, 15 studies were included in this review. These articles included a variety of outcomes from hypertension control to rates of chlamydia. Strikes ranged from 13 to 118 days, with a mean strike length of 56 days. A textual narrative synthesis was employed to arrange studies by whether they had a positive, mixed or neutral or negative impact on patient morbidity. Results suggest that strike action has little impact on patient morbidity. The majority of studies reported that strike action had a neutral or mixed impact of strike action on patient morbidity. One study reported positive outcomes and three studies reported negative outcomes, however in both cases, the impact that the strike had was marginal.
McKelvey MC, Abladey AA, Small DM, et al., 2022, Cathepsin S Contributes to Lung Inflammation in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE, Vol: 205, Pages: 769-782, ISSN: 1073-449X
Harvey C, Weldon S, Elborn S, et al., 2022, The Effect of CFTR Modulators on Airway Infection in Cystic Fibrosis, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES, Vol: 23
Guo-Parke H, Linden D, Mousnier A, et al., 2022, Altered Differentiation and Inflammation Profiles Contribute to Enhanced Innate Responses in Severe COPD Epithelium to Rhinovirus Infection, FRONTIERS IN MEDICINE, Vol: 9
Guo-Parke H, Linden D, Weldon S, et al., 2022, Deciphering Respiratory-Virus-Associated Interferon Signaling in COPD Airway Epithelium, MEDICINA-LITHUANIA, Vol: 58, ISSN: 1010-660X
Essex R, Weldon SM, Thompson T, et al., 2021, Impact of healthcare strikes on patient mortality: A protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies, BMJ Open, Vol: 11
Introduction A strike is a collective, temporary and calculated action, which involves a temporary stoppage of work. For healthcare professionals strike action poses a unique dilemma. Perhaps most fundamentally, as strike action is designed to be disruptive it has the potential to impact the delivery of care and place patient well-being in jeopardy. The objective of this study is therefore to evaluate the impact of healthcare strike action on patient mortality outcomes globally using meta-analysis in order to provide a comprehensive evidence base that can advise healthcare professionals, governments and regulatory bodies on the impact that strike action has on patients. Methods and analysis A comprehensive literature search of major electronic databases (EMBASE, MEDLINE, CINAHL, BIOETHICSLINE, EconLit, WEB OF SCIENCE, OPEN GREY and SIGMA REPOSITORY) will be undertaken to identify observational studies of strike action among healthcare professionals where in-hospital/clinic and population/community mortality is examined, prestrike, during and poststrike. Meta-analysis will be performed to estimate in-hospital/clinic and population/community mortality during periods of strike action. The quality of evidence will be assessed using the National Institute of Health quality assessment tool for observational cohort and cross-sectional studies. Risk of bias will be assessed using the Cochrane Risk Of Bias In Non-Randomized Studies - of Interventions tool. Ethics and dissemination This study does not require ethical approval. Findings will be submitted to an appropriate peer-reviewed journal. Trial registration number CRD42021238879.
Thompson T, Ahmed B, Weldon SM, et al., 2021, Relative effectiveness of non-surgical interventions for pain management in knee osteoarthritis: a protocol for a component network meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials., BMJ Open, Vol: 11
INTRODUCTION: Knee osteoarthritis is a chronic degenerative disease associated with significant chronic pain, disability and impaired quality of life and is the most common form of osteoarthritis. There is no cure for knee osteoarthritis, and the main therapeutic goals are pain management and improving quality of life. The objective of this study is to evaluate the relative efficacy and acceptability of available interventions using network meta-analysis (NMA) to provide a comprehensive evidence base to inform future treatment guidelines. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A comprehensive literature search of major electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials) and clinical trial registries will identify randomised control trials (RCTs) of interventions listed in NICE guidelines for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis in adults. We will perform an NMA to estimate relative intervention effects across the whole treatment network. If any studies use multicomponent intervention packages, we will employ a component NMA model to estimate the contribution of individual components. The quality of evidence will be assessed using the Confidence in Network Meta-Analysis approach, which is based on the traditional GRADE framework adapted for NMA. Risk of bias (RoB) will be assessed using the revised Cochrane RoB 2.0 tool for RCTs. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study does not require ethical approval. Findings will be submitted to a peer-reviewed journal. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020184192.
Essex R, Weldon SM, 2021, Health Care Worker Strikes and the Covid Pandemic. Reply., N Engl J Med, Vol: 385
Guo-Parke H, Linden D, Scott I, et al., 2021, Characterization of well-differentiated bronchial epithelial cells derived from severe COPD patients, Publisher: EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY SOC JOURNALS LTD, ISSN: 0903-1936
Brown R, Ferris P, Dougan C, et al., 2021, Genetic deletion of SLPI promotes inflammatory cell recruitment in a model of chronic lung disease, Publisher: EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY SOC JOURNALS LTD, ISSN: 0903-1936
Ryan S, Shiels J, Taggart CC, et al., 2021, The anti-inflammatory effects of helminth-derived peptides in a model of endotoxin-induced acute lung injury, Publisher: EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY SOC JOURNALS LTD, ISSN: 0903-1936
Creane SE, Carlile SR, Downey D, et al., 2021, The Impact of Lung Proteases on Snake-Derived Antimicrobial Peptides, BIOMOLECULES, Vol: 11
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