Imperial College London

DrStefanoSandrone

Faculty of MedicineDepartment of Brain Sciences

Principal Teaching Fellow
 
 
 
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Contact

 

stefano.sandrone Website

 
 
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Location

 

C3NLBurlington DanesHammersmith Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

55 results found

Figari Jordan R, Sandrone S, Southerland AM, 2024, Opportunities and Challenges for Incorporating Artificial Intelligence and Natural Language Processing in Neurology Education, Neurology Education, Vol: 3

Journal article

Sandrone S, 2024, Sir Henry Dale (1875-1968)., J Neurol

Journal article

Sandrone S, Aiello M, Cavaliere C, Thiebaut de Schotten M, Reimann K, Troakes C, Bodi I, Lacerda L, Monti S, Murphy D, Geyer S, Catani M, Dell'Acqua Fet al., 2023, Mapping myelin in white matter with T1-weighted/T2-weighted maps: discrepancy with histology and other myelin MRI measures, BRAIN STRUCTURE & FUNCTION, Vol: 228, Pages: 525-535, ISSN: 1863-2653

Journal article

Sandrone S, 2023, Leslie G. Ungerleider (1946-2020), JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY, Vol: 270, Pages: 1813-1814, ISSN: 0340-5354

Journal article

Sandrone S, 2022, Medical education in the metaverse, NATURE MEDICINE, Vol: 28, Pages: 2456-2457, ISSN: 1078-8956

Journal article

Sandrone S, Ntonia I, 2022, Exploring the identity development of the budding neuroscientist at postgraduate level: a mixed-method study with perspectives from alumni and academics, BMC Medical Education, Vol: 22, Pages: 1-14, ISSN: 1472-6920

Introduction: Neuroscience represents one of the most exciting frontiers in scientific research. However, given the recency of neuroscience as a discipline, its inter- and multi-disciplinary nature, the lack of educational research on brain science training, the absence of a national or global benchmark and the numerous neuroscience subfields, the development of the academic neuroscientist identity across career stages remainsobfuscated. Neuroscience is not predominantly taught at the undergraduate level but presents as a postgraduate specialism, accepting graduates from a wide range of primary disciplines.Methods: This work represents the first mixed-method study exploring the development of the neuroscientist identity at the postgraduate level at a high-ranking, research-intensive UK University. It combines responses from standardised self-efficacy and professional identity questionnaires and qualitative data from nineteen semi-structured interviews with alumniand academics.Results: Key findings on influences, identity transitions, curricular skills and sense of belonging have been discussed. The results obtained can be mapped against the theoretical framework proposed by Laudel and Gläser in 2008, although some minor changes to the model can be suggested.Discussion: Implementing active learning strategies and experiential assessments, designing mentoring opportunities and creating spaces for interaction can favour the transition from students to neuroscientists and contribute to an inclusive and diverse neuroscientific community.

Journal article

Sandrone S, 2022, Roger W. Sperry (1913-1994), JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY, Vol: 269, Pages: 5194-5195, ISSN: 0340-5354

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Sandrone S, 2022, David H. Hubel (1926-2013), JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY, Vol: 269, Pages: 4578-4579, ISSN: 0340-5354

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Sandrone S, 2022, Science Identity and Its “Identity Crisis”: On Science Identity and Strategies to Foster Self-Efficacy and Sense of Belonging in STEM, Frontiers in Education, Vol: 7

The word identity etymologically derives from the Latin expression identitas, from idem, which means same. But the identities each of us has in the same moment and across life stages can be multiple and continuously changing, and are influenced by internal (i.e., personal) and external (i.e., environmental) factors. In this manuscript, I reviewed the existing literature on the theoretical and practical aspects of science identity across school levels. I explored how it can be measured and shed light on the links between science identity, professional identity, mentoring and sense of belonging. Then, I analysed strategies to foster self-efficacy and sense of belonging in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM), with the aim of creating a scientific community that is genuinely inclusive and diverse. A set of recommendations to build a community with shared goals and enhanced diversity, with beneficial effects at several societal levels, has been included.

Journal article

Lorusso L, Zago S, Sandrone S, 2022, Carlo Francesco Giuseppe Bellingeri (1785-1843), JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY, Vol: 269, Pages: 1068-1069, ISSN: 0340-5354

Journal article

Sandrone S, Carlson CE, 2021, Future of Neurology & Technology: Virtual and Augmented Reality in Neurology and Neuroscience Education Applications and Curricular Strategies, NEUROLOGY, Vol: 97, Pages: 740-744, ISSN: 0028-3878

Journal article

Parkin B, Daws R, Das Neves I, Violante I, Soreq E, Faisal A, Sandrone S, Lao-Kaim N, Martin-Bastida A, Roussakis A-A, Piccini P, Hampshire Aet al., 2021, Dissociable effects of age and Parkinson's disease on instruction based learning, Brain Communications, Vol: 3, ISSN: 2632-1297

The cognitive deficits associated with Parkinson’s disease vary across individuals and change across time, with implications for prognosis and treatment. Key outstanding challenges are to define the distinct behavioural characteristics of this disorder and develop diagnostic paradigms that can assess these sensitively in individuals. In a previous study, we measured different aspects of attentional control in Parkinson’s disease using an established fMRI switching paradigm. We observed no deficits for the aspects of attention the task was designed to examine; instead those with Parkinson’s disease learnt the operational requirements of the task more slowly. We hypothesized that a subset of people with early-to-mid stage Parkinson’s might be impaired when encoding rules for performing new tasks. Here, we directly test this hypothesis and investigate whether deficits in instruction-based learning represent a characteristic of Parkinson’s Disease. Seventeen participants with Parkinson’s disease (8 male; mean age: 61.2 years), 18 older adults (8 male; mean age: 61.3 years) and 20 younger adults (10 males; mean age: 26.7 years) undertook a simple instruction-based learning paradigm in the MRI scanner. They sorted sequences of coloured shapes according to binary discrimination rules that were updated at two-minute intervals. Unlike common reinforcement learning tasks, the rules were unambiguous, being explicitly presented; consequently, there was no requirement to monitor feedback or estimate contingencies. Despite its simplicity, a third of the Parkinson’s group, but only one older adult, showed marked increases in errors, 4 SD greater than the worst performing young adult. The pattern of errors was consistent, reflecting a tendency to misbind discrimination rules. The misbinding behaviour was coupled with reduced frontal, parietal and anterior caudate activity when rules were being encoded, but not when attention was initially o

Journal article

Farheen AS, George IC, Singhal D, Troxell RM, Pillai J, Schneider L, Lomen-Hoerth C, Graves JS, Sandrone S, Nobleza COSet al., 2021, Current Status and Future Strategies for Mentoring Women in Neurology., Neurology, Vol: 97, Pages: 30-37

The American Academy of Neurology's (AAN) 2017 Gender Disparity Report identified improving mentorship as a key intervention to fill the leadership and pay gaps for women in neurology. Here we summarize the literature on mentoring women, provide an outline of ideal components of programs geared toward closing gender gaps, and present a mentoring program for AAN members. The strategies discussed share similarities with those for closing gaps related to race, ethnicity, and religion. Developing effective mentorship and sponsorship programs is essential to ensure a sufficiently diverse pool of academic faculty and private practitioners and to establish equal representation in leadership roles in this field.

Journal article

Sandrone S, Albert DVF, Dunham SR, Kraker J, Noviawaty I, Palm M, Kushlaf Het al., 2021, Training in Neurology: How Lessons Learned on Teaching, Well-being, and Telemedicine During the COVID-19 Pandemic Can Shape the Future of Neurology Education, NEUROLOGY, Vol: 96, Pages: E3007-E3010, ISSN: 0028-3878

Journal article

Sandrone S, Scott G, Anderson WJ, Musunuru Ket al., 2021, Active learning-based STEM education for in-person and online learning, CELL, Vol: 184, Pages: 1409-1414, ISSN: 0092-8674

Journal article

Sandrone S, Alavian KN, 2021, Threshold concepts in neuroscience: identification challenges, educational opportunities and recommendations for practice, Frontiers in Education, Vol: 5, Pages: 1-7, ISSN: 2504-284X

Threshold concepts are recent, yet already established, aspects of medical education. However, they represent a new area in neuroscience education, especially given the recency of neuroscience as a field of research in its own right when compared to more established STEM disciplines. In this article, we reviewed the existing literature on threshold concepts in clinical/translational neuroscience education and argued the relevance and the importance of biomarker as a new threshold concept. Moreover, we included a set of recommendations for practice that has the potential to improve the students' experience by offering them an authentic journey and, ultimately, to build a community of practice with shared goals and an enhanced diversity, with beneficial effects at several societal levels.

Journal article

Sandrone S, Carlson C, 2021, Gamification and game-based education in neurology and neuroscience: Applications, challenges, and opportunities, Brain Disorders, Vol: 1

The role of games in education continues to evolve. The integration of game-based learning with technology has become more common and contributed to a growing body of literature promoting the use of game-based learning techniques. However, it is only recently that these approaches have been applied to the realm of medical education. Here, we review the evidence supporting game-based learning in undergraduate and graduate medical education and in neurology education. Moreover, we discuss challenges and opportunities for neurologic curricular implementation and explore applications in clinical settings. The potential for leveraging game-based learning might represent a chance to seize for neurology and neuroscience.

Journal article

Beppi C, Violante IR, Scott G, Sandrone Set al., 2021, EEG, MEG and neuromodulatory approaches to explore cognition: Current status and future directions, BRAIN AND COGNITION, Vol: 148, ISSN: 0278-2626

Journal article

Necka E, Gruszka A, Hampshire A, Sarzynska-Wawer J, Anicai A-E, Orzechowski J, Nowak M, Wojcik N, Sandrone S, Soreq Eet al., 2021, The Effects of Working Memory Training on Brain Activity, BRAIN SCIENCES, Vol: 11

Journal article

Jolly AE, Balaet M, Azor A, Friedland D, Sandrone S, Graham NSN, Zimmerman K, Sharp DJet al., 2021, Detecting axonal injury in individual patients after traumatic brain injury., Brain: a journal of neurology, Vol: 144, Pages: 92-113, ISSN: 0006-8950

Poor outcomes after traumatic brain injury (TBI) are common yet remain difficult to predict. Diffuse axonal injury is important for outcomes, but its assessment remains limited in the clinical setting. Currently, axonal injury is diagnosed based on clinical presentation, visible damage to the white matter or via surrogate markers of axonal injury such as microbleeds. These do not accurately quantify axonal injury leading to misdiagnosis in a proportion of patients. Diffusion tensor imaging provides a quantitative measure of axonal injury in vivo, with fractional anisotropy often used as a proxy for white matter damage. Diffusion imaging has been widely used in TBI but is not routinely applied clinically. This is in part because robust analysis methods to diagnose axonal injury at the individual level have not yet been developed. Here, we present a pipeline for diffusion imaging analysis designed to accurately assess the presence of axonal injury in large white matter tracts in individuals. Average fractional anisotropy is calculated from tracts selected on the basis of high test-retest reliability, good anatomical coverage and their association to cognitive and clinical impairments after TBI. We test our pipeline for common methodological issues such as the impact of varying control sample sizes, focal lesions and age-related changes to demonstrate high specificity, sensitivity and test-retest reliability. We assess 92 patients with moderate-severe TBI in the chronic phase (≥6 months post-injury), 25 patients in the subacute phase (10 days to 6 weeks post-injury) with 6-month follow-up and a large control cohort (n = 103). Evidence of axonal injury is identified in 52% of chronic and 28% of subacute patients. Those classified with axonal injury had significantly poorer cognitive and functional outcomes than those without, a difference not seen for focal lesions or microbleeds. Almost a third of patients with unremarkable standard MRIs had evidence o

Journal article

Mew BG, Custovic D, Soreq E, Lorenz R, Violante I, Sandrone S, Hampshire Aet al., 2020, Mapping the common and distinct neural correlates of visual, rule and motor conflict

<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title><jats:p>Flexible behaviour requires cognitive-control mechanisms to efficiently resolve conflict between competing information and alternative actions. Whether a global neural resource mediates all forms of conflict or this is achieved within domainspecific systems remains debated. We use a novel fMRI paradigm to orthogonally manipulate rule, response and stimulus-based conflict within a full-factorial design. Whole-brain voxelwise analyses show that activation patterns associated with these conflict types are distinct but partially overlapping within Multiple Demand Cortex (MDC), the brain regions that are most commonly active during cognitive tasks. Region of interest analysis shows that most MDC sub-regions are activated for all conflict types, but to significantly varying levels. We propose that conflict resolution is an emergent property of distributed brain networks, the functional-anatomical components of which place on a continuous, not categorical, scale from domain-specialised to domain general. MDC brain regions place towards one end of that scale but display considerable functional heterogeneity.</jats:p>

Journal article

Beppi C, Violante IR, Hampshire A, Grossman N, Sandrone Set al., 2020, Patterns of Focal- and Large-Scale Synchronization in Cognitive Control and Inhibition: A Review, FRONTIERS IN HUMAN NEUROSCIENCE, Vol: 14, ISSN: 1662-5161

Journal article

Sandrone S, Schneider L, 2020, Active and distance learning in neuroscience education, Neuron, Vol: 106, Pages: 895-898, ISSN: 0896-6273

Journal article

Sandrone S, Jimmy B, Chad C, Jacquelyne C, Neel D, Amtul F, Jessica K, James O, Gustavo P, Harini S, Daniel W, Logan Set al., 2020, Active learning in psychiatry education: current practices and future perspectives, Frontiers in Psychiatry, Vol: 11, ISSN: 1664-0640

Over the past few decades medical education has seen increased interest in the use of active learning formats to engage learners and promote knowledge application over knowledge acquisition. The field of psychiatry, in particular, has pioneered a host of novel active-learning paradigms. These have contributed to our understanding of the role of andragogy along the continuum of medical education, from undergraduate to continuing medical education. In an effort to frame the successes and failures of various attempts at integrating active learning into healthcare curricula, a group of educators from the A. B. Baker Section on Neurological Education from the American Academy of Neurology reviewed the state of the field in its partner field of medical neuroscience. Herein we provide a narrative review of the literature, outlining the basis for implementing active learning, the novel formats that have been used, and the lessons learned from qualitative and quantitative analysis of the research that has been done to date. While preparation time seems to present the greatest obstacle to acceptance from learners and educators, there is generally positive reception to the new educational formats. Additionally, most assessments of trainee performance have suggested non-inferiority (if not superiority); however, occasional mixed findings point to a need for better assessments of the type of learning that these new formats engender: knowledge application rather than acquisition. Moreover, this field is relatively nascent and, in order to ascertain how best to integrate active learning into psychiatry education, a framework for quantitative outcome assessments is needed going forward.

Journal article

Hampshire A, Zadel A, Sandrone S, Soreq E, Fineberg N, Bullmore ET, Robbins TW, Sahakian BJ, Chamberlain SRet al., 2020, Inhibition-Related Cortical Hypoconnectivity as a Candidate Vulnerability Marker for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, BIOLOGICAL PSYCHIATRY-COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENCE AND NEUROIMAGING, Vol: 5, Pages: 222-230, ISSN: 2451-9022

Journal article

Sandrone S, Berthaud JV, Carlson C, Cios J, Dixit N, Farheen A, Kraker J, Owens JWM, Patino G, Sarva H, Weber D, Schneider LDet al., 2020, Strategic Considerations for Applying the Flipped Classroom to Neurology Education, ANNALS OF NEUROLOGY, Vol: 87, Pages: 4-9, ISSN: 0364-5134

Journal article

Hampshire A, Sandrone S, Hellyer P, 2019, A large-scale, cross-sectional investigation into the efficacy of brain training, Frontiers in Neuroscience, Vol: 13, Pages: 1-13, ISSN: 1662-4548

Brain training is a large and expanding industry, and yet there is a recurrent and ongoing debate concerning its scientific basis or evidence for efficacy. Much of evidence for the efficacy of brain training within this debate is from small-scale studies that do not assess the type of “brain training,” the specificity of transfer effects, or the length of training required to achieve a generalized effect. To explore these factors, we analyze cross-sectional data from two large Internet-cohort studies (total N = 60,222) to determine whether cognition differs at the population level for individuals who report that they brain train on different devices, and across different timeframes, with programs in common use circa 2010–2013. Examining scores for an assessment of working-memory, reasoning and verbal abilities shows no cognitive advantages for individuals who brain train. This contrasts unfavorably with significant advantages for individuals who regularly undertake other cognitive pursuits such as computer, board and card games. However, finer grained analyses reveal a more complex relationship between brain training and cognitive performance. Specifically, individuals who have just begun to brain train start from a low cognitive baseline compared to individuals who have never engaged in brain training, whereas those who have trained for a year or more have higher working-memory and verbal scores compared to those who have just started, thus suggesting an efficacy for brain training over an extended period of time. The advantages in global function, working memory, and verbal memory after several months of training are plausible and of clinically relevant scale. However, this relationship is not evident for reasoning performance or self-report measures of everyday function (e.g., employment status and problems with attention). These results accord with the view that although brain training programs can produce benefits, these might extend to tasks

Journal article

Sandrone S, Berthaud JV, Carlson C, Cios J, Dixit N, Farheen A, Kraker J, Owens JWM, Patino G, Sarva H, Weber D, Schneider LDet al., 2019, Education Research: Flipped classroom in neurology Principles, practices, and perspectives, NEUROLOGY, Vol: 93, Pages: E106-E111, ISSN: 0028-3878

Journal article

Hampshire A, Daws RE, Neves ID, Soreq E, Sandrone S, Violante IRet al., 2019, Probing cortical and sub-cortical contributions to instruction-based learning: Regional specialisation and global network dynamics, NeuroImage, Vol: 192, Pages: 88-100, ISSN: 1053-8119

Diverse cortical networks and striatal brain regions are implicated in instruction-based learning (IBL); however, their distinct contributions remain unclear. We use a modified fMRI paradigm to test two hypotheses regarding the brain mechanisms that underlie IBL. One hypothesis proposes that anterior caudate and frontoparietal regions transiently co-activate when new rules are being bound in working memory. The other proposes that they mediate the application of the rules at different stages of the consolidation process. In accordance with the former hypothesis, we report strong activation peaks within and increased connectivity between anterior caudate and frontoparietal regions when rule-instruction slides are presented. However, similar effects occur throughout a broader set of cortical and sub-cortical regions, indicating a metabolically costly reconfiguration of the global brain state. The distinct functional roles of cingulo-opercular, frontoparietal and default-mode networks are apparent from their activation throughout, early and late in the practice phase respectively. Furthermore, there is tentative evidence of a peak in anterior caudate activity mid-way through the practice stage. These results demonstrate how performance of the same simple task involves a steadily shifting balance of brain systems as learning progresses. They also highlight the importance of distinguishing between regional specialisation and global dynamics when studying the network mechanisms that underlie cognition and learning.

Journal article

Sandrone S, Moreno-Zambrano D, Kipnis J, van Gijn Jet al., 2019, A (delayed) history of the brain lymphatic system., Nat Med, Vol: 25, Pages: 538-540

Journal article

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