77 results found
Vassie C, Mulki O, Chu A, et al., 2020, A practical guide to fostering teaching excellence in clinical education: experience from theUK, The Clinical Teacher, ISSN: 1743-4971
Vassie C, Smith S, Leedham-Green K, 2020, Factors impacting on retention, success and equitable participation in clinical academic careers: A scoping review and meta-thematic synthesis, BMJ Open, Vol: 10, ISSN: 2044-6055
Objectives To examine and synthesise current evidence on the factors that affect recruitment, retention, participation and progression within the clinical academic pathway, focusing on equitable participation across protected characteristics including gender, ethnicity and sexual orientation.Design Scoping review and meta-thematic synthesis.Data sources Web of Science, Google Scholar.Article selection We conducted a scoping review of English language articles on factors affecting recruitment, retention, progression and equitable participation in clinical academic careers published in North America, Australasia and Western Europe between January 2005 and April 2019. The most recent and relevant 39 articles were selected for meta-thematic synthesis using detailed inclusion/exclusion criteria.Data extraction The articles were purposively sampled to cover protected characteristics and career stages and coded for factors related to equitable participation. 17 articles were fully coded. No new themes arose after nine papers. Themes and higher level categories were derived through an iterative consensual process.Results 13 discrete themes of factors impacting on equitable participation were identified including societal attitudes and expectations; national and organisational policies, priorities and resourcing; academic and clinical workplace cultures; supportive, discriminatory and compensatory interpersonal behaviours and personal factors related to social capital, finances, competing priorities, confidence and ambition, and orientation to clinical, academic and leadership roles.Conclusions The broad and often interconnected nature of these factors suggests that interventions will need to address structural and cultural factors as well as individual needs. In addition to standard good practice on equality and diversity, we suggest that organisations provide equitable support towards early publication success and targeted mentoring; address financial and role insecurity;
Chu A, Morton C, Pye C, et al., 2019, Clinical teaching fellowships - enhancing the out of programme experience through a peer network, CLINICAL MEDICINE, Vol: 19, Pages: 259-259, ISSN: 1470-2118
Morton CE, Smith SF, Lwin T, et al., 2019, What are the benefits of teaching medical students computer coding?, JMIR Medical Education, Vol: 5, ISSN: 2369-3762
Background:The ability to construct simple computer programs ("coding") is being progressively recognised as a life skill. Coding is now being taught to primary-school children world-wide, but current medical students usually lack coding skills, and current measures of computer literacy for medical students focus on the use of software and internet safety. There is a need to train a cohort of doctors who can both practice medicine and also engage in the development of useful, innovative technologies to increase efficiency and adapt to the modern medical world.Objective:The aim of the study was to address the following questions: 1) Is it possible to teach undergraduate medical students the basics of computer coding in a weekend? 2) How do students perceive the value of learning computer coding at medical school? 3) Do students see computer coding as an important skill for future doctors?Methods:We developed a 2-day coding course to teach self-selected cohorts of medical students basic coding. The course included a practical introduction to writing software, discussion of computational thinking, and how to discuss projects with mainstream computer scientists. We explored in focus groups whether students thought that coding has a place in the undergraduate medical curriculum.Results:Our results demonstrate that medical students who were complete novices at coding could be taught enough to be able to create simple usable clinical programs with 2 days of intensive teaching. In addition, 6 major themes emerged from the focus group 1) Making sense of coding 2) Developing the students’ skillset 3) The value of coding in medicine, research and business 4) Role of teaching coding in medical school 5) The concept of an enjoyable challenge 6) Comments on the course designConclusions:Medical students can acquire usable coding skills in a weekend course. They valued the teaching and identified that, as well as gaining coding skills, they had acquired an understan
Morton C, Smith S, Lwin T, et al., 2018, What are the benefits of teaching medical students computer coding?, Journal of Medical Internet Research, ISSN: 1438-8871
Smith SF, Vassie C, 2017, Shifting discourses of widening access from 'why not you?' to 'we want you', Medical Education, Vol: 51, Pages: 1295-1295, ISSN: 0308-0110
Patrick Y, Lee A, Raha O, et al., 2017, EFFECTS OF SLEEP DEPRIVATION ON COGNITIVE AND PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE IN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS, Publisher: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, Pages: E182-E183, ISSN: 1389-9457
Vassie C, Smith SF, 2017, Shifting discourses of widening access from "why not you?' to "we want you': only one part of the solution, MEDICAL EDUCATION, Vol: 51, Pages: 1295-1295, ISSN: 0308-0110
Hunukumbure AK, Smith S, Das S, 2017, Holistic feedback approach with video and peer discussion under teacher supervision, BMC Medical Education, Vol: 17, ISSN: 1472-6920
BackgroundHigh quality feedback is vital to learning in medical education but many students and teachers have expressed dissatisfaction on current feedback practices. Lack of teachers’ insight into students’ feedback requirements may be a key, which might be addressed by giving control to the students with student led feedback practices. The conceptual framework was built on three dimensions of learning theory by Illeris and Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development and scaffolding. We introduced a feedback session with self-reflection and peer feedback in the form of open discussion on video-recorded student performances under teacher’s guidance. The aims of this qualitative study were to explore students’ perception on this holistic feedback approach and to investigate ways of maximising effective feedback and learning.MethodsSemi-structured interviews were used to gather data which were evaluated using a thematic analytical approach. The participants were third year medical students of Imperial College London on clinical placements at Hillingdon Hospital.ResultsVideo based self-reflection helped some students to identify mistakes in communication and technical skills of which they were unaware prior to the session. Those who were new to video feedback found their expected self-image different to that of their actual image on video, leading to some distress. However many also identified that mistakes were not unique to themselves through peer videos and learnt from both model performances and from each other’s mistakes. Balancing honest feedback with empathy was a challenge for many during peer discussion. The teacher played a vital role in making the session a success by providing guidance and a supportive environment.ConclusionsThis study has demonstrated many potential benefits of this holistic feedback approach with video based self-reflection and peer discussion with students engaging at a deeper cognitive level than the stan
Vassie C, Smith SF, 2017, Empowering junior doctors to maximise medical student learning in the clinical setting, Medical Education, Vol: 51, Pages: 1088-1088, ISSN: 0308-0110
Patrick Y, Lee A, Raha O, et al., 2017, Effects of sleep deprivation on cognitive and physical performance in university students, Sleep and Biological Rhythms, Vol: 15, Pages: 217-225, ISSN: 1446-9235
Sleep deprivation is common among university students, and has been associated with poor academic performance and physical dysfunction. However, current literature has a narrow focus in regard to domains tested, this study aimed to investigate the effects of a night of sleep deprivation on cognitive and physical performance in students. A randomized controlled crossover study was carried out with 64 participants [58% male (n = 37); 22 ± 4 years old (mean ± SD)]. Participants were randomized into two conditions: normal sleep or one night sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation was monitored using an online time-stamped questionnaire at 45 min intervals, completed in the participants’ homes. The outcomes were cognitive: working memory (Simon game© derivative), executive function (Stroop test); and physical: reaction time (ruler drop testing), lung function (spirometry), rate of perceived exertion, heart rate, and blood pressure during submaximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Data were analysed using paired two-tailed T tests and MANOVA. Reaction time and systolic blood pressure post-exercise were significantly increased following sleep deprivation (mean ± SD change: reaction time: 0.15 ± 0.04 s, p = 0.003; systolic BP: 6 ± 17 mmHg, p = 0.012). No significant differences were found in other variables. Reaction time and vascular response to exercise were significantly affected by sleep deprivation in university students, whilst other cognitive and cardiopulmonary measures showed no significant changes. These findings indicate that acute sleep deprivation can have an impact on physical but not cognitive ability in young healthy university students. Further research is needed to identify mechanisms of change and the impact of longer term sleep deprivation in this population.
Morton CE, Saleh S, Smith SFS, et al., 2016, Blended Learning: How do you optimise undergraduate student engagement?, BMC Medical Education, Vol: 16, ISSN: 1472-6920
Background: Blended learning is a combination of online and face-to-face learning and is increasingly of interest for use in undergraduate medical education. It has been used to teach clinical post-graduate students pharmacology but needs evaluation for its use in teaching pharmacology to undergraduate medical students, which represent a different group of students with different learning needs. Methods: An existing BSc-level module on neuropharmacology was redesigned using the Blended Learning Design Tool (BLEnDT), a tool which uses learning domains (psychomotor, cognitive and affective) to classify learning outcomes into those taught best by self-directed learning (online) or by collaborative learning (face-to-face). Two online courses were developed, one on Neurotransmitters and the other on Neurodegenerative Conditions. These were supported with face-to-face tutorials. Undergraduate students’ engagement with blended learning was explored by the means of three focus groups, the data from which were analysed thematically. Results: Five major themes emerged from the data 1) Purpose and Acceptability 2) Structure, Focus and Consolidation 3) Preparation and workload 4) Engagement with e-learning component 5) Future Medical Education. Conclusion: Blended learning was acceptable and of interest to undergraduate students learning this subject. They expressed a desire for more blended learning in their courses, but only if it was highly structured, of high quality and supported by tutorials. Students identified that the ’blend’ was beneficial rather than purely online learning.
Smith SF, Fox KM, 2016, The Importance of creating infrastructure to support future clinician-educators response, Journal of the American College of Cardiology, Vol: 67, Pages: 341-342, ISSN: 1558-3597
Modi HN, Smith S, 2015, Effective supervision in surgical training: a phenomenological analysis of trainees’ experiences, Association for Medical Education in Europe
Smith S, Alexander A, Dubb S, et al., 2013, Opening doors and minds: a path for widening access., Clin Teach, Vol: 10, Pages: 124-128
BACKGROUND: Students from disadvantaged socio-economic backgrounds are under-represented in UK medical schools. Many successful interventions are also highly labour-intensive for medical schools to implement. We describe and evaluate a sustainable, low-cost strategy that provides participants with targeted support, advice and experience. METHODS: Year-12 participants (29-74 annually) from schools in areas of deprivation were paired with e-mentors from the medical student population. Engagement with this programme was used as one criterion to select approximately 20 mentees per year for participation in a 1-week summer school. All participants were offered consultant-led work experience during their summer holiday and were guaranteed places at a student-led outreach conference, where they received specific help with the writing of personal statements and interview skills. Summer school participants were followed-up by questionnaire to establish their career plans. RESULTS: We have delivered this programme annually for 3 years. All respondents to follow-up applied to study medicine, dentistry or a related bioscience, to degree level. The success rate of these disadvantaged students was similar to that of the general population of UK applicants who applied to study medicine at this medical school. DISCUSSION: By collaboratively linking multiple activities organised by the Outreach Office, academic staff and medical students, an annual cohort of approximately 20 participants from non-traditional backgrounds was provided with sustained support in preparing for applying to medical school. The limited data available from follow-up suggests that this approach may have helped overcome the social disadvantage facing these applicants.
Smith S, Alexander A, Dubb S, et al., 2013, Opening doors and minds: A path for widening access, Clinical Teacher, Vol: 10, Pages: 124-128, ISSN: 1743-4971
Background: Students from disadvantaged socio-economic backgrounds are under-represented in UK medical schools. Many successful interventions are also highly labour-intensive for medical schools to implement. We describe and evaluate a sustainable, low-cost strategy that provides participants with targeted support, advice and experience. Methods: Year-12 participants (29-74 annually) from schools in areas of deprivation were paired with e-mentors from the medical student population. Engagement with this programme was used as one criterion to select approximately 20 mentees per year for participation in a 1-week summer school. All participants were offered consultant-led work experience during their summer holiday and were guaranteed places at a student-led outreach conference, where they received specific help with the writing of personal statements and interview skills. Summer school participants were followed-up by questionnaire to establish their career plans. Results: We have delivered this programme annually for 3years. All respondents to follow-up applied to study medicine, dentistry or a related bioscience, to degree level. The success rate of these disadvantaged students was similar to that of the general population of UK applicants who applied to study medicine at this medical school. Discussion: By collaboratively linking multiple activities organised by the Outreach Office, academic staff and medical students, an annual cohort of approximately 20 participants from non-traditional backgrounds was provided with sustained support in preparing for applying to medical school. The limited data available from follow-up suggests that this approach may have helped overcome the social disadvantage facing these applicants. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2013.
Maheswaran IA, Clements JRE, Khan MEA, 2011, How do postgraduate trainees in different subspecialties view portfolios as educational tool?, Association for Medical Education in Europe
Preston-Shoot M, McKimm J, Kong WM, et al., 2011, Readiness for legally literate medical practice? Student perceptions of their undergraduate medico-legal education., Journal of Medical Ethics, Vol: 37, Pages: 616-622
Roberts NJ, Smith SF, Partridge MR, 2011, Why is spirometry underused in the diagnosis of the breathless patient: a qualitative study, BMC PULMONARY MEDICINE, Vol: 11, ISSN: 1471-2466
Smith SF, Partridge MR, Roberts NR, 2010, The engagement of postgraduate medical trainees with e-learning, Association for Medical Education in Europe
Smith SF, Roberts NJ, Partridge MR, 2010, What factors influence medical trainee attitudes to computer-based learning?, The Internet Journal of Medical Education, Vol: 1, ISSN: 2155-6725
Smith SF, Roberts NJ, Partridge MR, 2009, UK RESPIRATORY TRAINEES' VIEWS ABOUT IMPLEMENTING E-LEARNING INTO POSTGRADUATE TRAINING, Winter Meeting of the British-Thoracic-Society, Publisher: B M J PUBLISHING GROUP, Pages: A166-A166, ISSN: 0040-6376
Smith SF, McKimm J, Kong WM, et al., 2009, How medical students learn law: an exploration of the teaching, learning and assessment of law at a UK medical school, Association for Medical Education in Europe
Roberts NJ, Smith SF, Partridge MR, 2008, WHAT INFLUENCES TRAINEES INVOLVEMENT WITH E-LEARNING IN RESPIRATORY MEDICINE?, Winter Meeting of the British-Thoracic-Society, Publisher: B M J PUBLISHING GROUP, Pages: A157-A157, ISSN: 0040-6376
Smith SF, Roberts NJ, Partridge MR, 2007, Comparison of a web-based package with tutor-based methods of teaching respiratory medicine: subjective and objective evaluations., BMC Med Educ, Vol: 7
BACKGROUND: Respiratory disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality not only in the United Kingdom, but globally. A good understanding of respiratory disease and its treatment is essential for all medical graduates. As a result of changes in clinical practice, patients with some common respiratory illnesses are less often admitted to hospital, restricting the experience available to undergraduate students. Combined with a potential shortage of clinical teachers, this means that new methods of teaching need to be developed and appraised. The aim of this study was to establish whether a web-based package on the diagnosis of respiratory disease would be as effective and as acceptable to final year medical students as tutor-led methods of teaching the same material. METHODS: 137 out of 315 final year undergraduate students in a single medical school volunteered to take part. Each received up to two hours of tutor-lead interactive, tutor-lead didactic or electronic, Web-based teaching on the accurate diagnosis and management of respiratory disease. Post teaching performance was assessed by multiple true/false questions and data interpretation exercises, whilst students' teaching preferences were assessed by questionnaire. RESULTS: Despite a high knowledge baseline before the study, there was a small, but statistically significant increase in knowledge score after all forms of teaching. Similarly, data interpretation skills improved in all groups, irrespective of teaching format, Although paradoxically most students expressed a preference for interactive tutor-lead teaching, spirometry interpretation in those receiving web-based teaching improved significantly more [p = 0.041] than in those in the interactive group. CONCLUSION: Web-based teaching is at least as good as other teaching formats, but we need to overcome students' reluctance to engage with this teaching method.
Smith SF, Roberts NJ, Partridge MR, 2007, Do newly qualified doctors use the knowledge and skills they learned as medical undergraduates?, Medical Education, Vol: 41, Pages: 917-917
John CD, Theogaraj E, Christian HC, et al., 2006, Time-specific effects of perinatal glucocorticoid treatment on anterior pituitary morphology, annexin 1 expression and adrenocorticotrophic hormone secretion in the adult female rat, JOURNAL OF NEUROENDOCRINOLOGY, Vol: 18, Pages: 949-959, ISSN: 0953-8194
Theogaraj E, John CD, Dewar A, et al., 2006, The long-term effects of perinatal glucocorticoid exposure on the host defence system of the respiratory tract, JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY, Vol: 210, Pages: 85-93, ISSN: 0022-3417
McArthur S, Siddique ZL, Christian HC, et al., 2006, Perinatal glucocorticoid treatment disrupts the hypothalamo-lactotroph axis in adult female, but not male, rats, ENDOCRINOLOGY, Vol: 147, Pages: 1904-1915, ISSN: 0013-7227
Smith SF, Brenton H, Roberts NJ, et al., 2005, Computer assisted learning is a useful tool to teach final year medical undergraduates the principles of spirometry, Winter Meeting of the British-Thoracic-Society, Publisher: B M J PUBLISHING GROUP, Pages: II59-II59, ISSN: 0040-6376
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