716 results found
Monteagudo-Vela M, Krasopoulos G, Athanasiou T, et al., 2022, Impact of third-generation left ventricular assist devices on quality of life: Scoping review and meta-analysis., Artif Organs, Vol: 46, Pages: 1012-1018
OBJECTIVES: Development in device technology and the scarcity of donor's hearts have increased the number of patients with advanced heart failure receiving durable left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) as a bridge to transplantation and destination therapy, with improved prognosis compared with guideline-directed medical therapy. We sought to examine the impact of modern durable LVADs on the quality of life (QoL) of the recipients. METHODS: We carried out a systematic review of articles on QoL following the implantation of third-generation LVADs published between January 2010 and February 2021. Included studies were critically analyzed and evidence synthesis was carried out into a meta-analysis. RESULTS: The systematic search yielded 269 articles, 11 of which met the search predefined criteria. Three of them reported results of randomized trials and eight were retrospective and registry studies. Statistically significant QoL improvement from baseline was observed in all published reports. When using the EuroQol 5L questionnaire (scale 0-100) as a QoL tool 6 months post-LVAD implantation, a meta-analysis of four included studies demonstrated a mean difference increase of 28.9 points (95% confidence interval: 26.71-31.14). CONCLUSIONS: Third-generation LVADs confer a significant improvement in QoL and their use can be supported not only for prognosis but also for symptom control. Although methodological limitations should be considered, the available QoL outcomes can be a useful tool in patient selection and the decision-making process.
Al Ani M, Garas G, Hollingshead J, et al., 2022, Which Electronic Health Record System Should We Use? - A Systematic Review., Med Princ Pract
The UK government had intended to introduce a comprehensive EHRs system in England by 2020. These EHRs would run across primary, secondary, and social care linking data in a single digital platform. This systematic review's objectives were to identify studies that compare EHRs in terms of direct comparison between systems and evaluate them using System and Software Quality Requirements and Evaluation (SQuaRE) ISO/IEC 25010. A systematic review was performed by searching EMBASE and Ovid MEDLINE databases between 1974 and April 2021. All original studies that appraised EHR systems and their providers were included. The main outcome measures were EHR system comparison and SQuaRE's eight characteristics: functional suitability, performance efficiency, compatibility, usability, reliability, security, maintainability, and portability. A total of 724 studies were identified using the search criteria. After review of titles and abstracts, this was filtered down to 40 studies as per exclusion and inclusion criteria set out in our study selection. Seven studies compared more than one EHR. The following number of studies looked at the various aspects of the SQuaRE respectively. Nineteen studies addressed functional suitability, n=18 performance efficiency, n=12 compatibility, n=25 usability, n=6 reliability, n=2 security, n=16 maintainability, and n=13 portability. Epic was the most studied EHR system and one of the most implemented vendors in the USA market, and one of the top ten in UK. It is difficult to assess which is the most advantageous EHR system currently available when looking at them in accordance with SQuaRE's eight characteristics for software evaluation.
Tasoudis PT, Varvoglis DN, Vitkos E, et al., 2022, Unilateral versus bilateral anterograde cerebral perfusion in acute type A aortic dissection repair: A systematic review and meta-analysis., Perfusion
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study is to compare the safety and efficacy of unilateral anterograde cerebral perfusion (UACP) and bilateral anterograde cerebral perfusion (BACP) for acute type A aortic dissection (ATAAD). METHODS: A systematic review of the MEDLINE (PubMed), Scopus, and Cochrane Library databases (last search: August 7th, 2021) was performed according to the PRISMA statement. Studies directly comparing UACP versus BACP for ATAAD were included. Random-effects meta-analyses were performed. RESULTS: Eight retrospective cohort studies were identified, incorporating 2416 patients (UACP: 843, BACP: 1573). No statistically significant difference was observed regarding in-hospital mortality (odds ratio [OR]:1.05 [95% Confidence Interval (95% CI):0.70-1.57]), permanent neurological deficit (PND) (OR: 0.94 [95% CI: 0.52-1.70]), transient neurological deficit (TND) (OR: 1.37 [95% CI: 0.98-1.92]), renal failure (OR: 0.96 [95% CI: 0.70-1.32]), and re-exploration for bleeding (OR: 0.77 [95% CI: 0.48-1.22]). Meta-regression analysis revealed that PND and TND were not influenced by differences in rates of total arch repair, Bentall procedure, and concomitant CABG in UACP and BACP groups. Cardiopulmonary bypass time (Standard Mean Difference [SMD]: -0.11 [95% CI: -0.22, 0.44]), Cross clamp time (SMD: -0.04 [95% CI: -0.38, 0.29]), and hypothermic circulatory arrest time (SMD: -0.12 [95% CI: -0.55, 0.30]) were comparable between UACP and BACP. Intensive care unit stay was shorter in BACP arm (SMD:0.16 [95% CI: 0.01, 0.31]); however, length of hospital stay was shorter in UACP arm (SMD: -0.25 [95% CI: -0.45, -0.06]). CONCLUSIONS: UACP and BACP had similar results in terms of in-hospital mortality, PND, TND, renal failure, and re-exploration for bleeding rate in patients with ATAAD. ICU stay was shorter in the BACP arm while LOS was shorter in the UACP arm.
Tasoudis PT, Varvoglis DN, Vitkos E, et al., 2022, Mechanical versus bioprosthetic valve for aortic valve replacement: systematic review and meta-analysis of reconstructed individual participant data, EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CARDIO-THORACIC SURGERY, ISSN: 1010-7940
Tasoudis PT, Magouliotis DE, Varvoglis DN, et al., 2022, Proximal versus extensive repair in acute type A aortic dissection: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis., Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg, Vol: 70, Pages: 315-328
OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to compare the safety and efficacy of proximal repair (PR) versus extensive repair (ER) for acute type A aortic dissection (ATAAD). METHODS: A literature search in three databases was performed according to the PRISMA statement. Studies comparing PR versus ER for ATAAD were included. Random-effects meta-analyses were performed. RESULTS: A total of 27 studies incorporating 7113 patients (PR: 5080; ER: 2033) were included. Patients undergoing PR presented decreased in-hospital mortality (odds ratio [OR]: 0.67 [95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) 0.53-0.85]; p < 0.01) and post-operative bleeding (OR 0.75 [95% CI 0.60-0.95]; p = 0.02) compared to ER. Meta-regression analysis revealed that in-hospital mortality was not influenced by differences regarding the extent of dissection (p = 0.43). Cardiopulmonary bypass time (SMD:-0.93 [95% CI - 1.22, - 0.66]; p < 0.01) and length of hospital stay (SMD:-0.19 [95% CI - 0.34, - 0.05]; p = 0.01) were also lower in the PR group, while there was no difference in terms of renal failure and permanent neurological deficit. The ER approach demonstrated a lower post-discharge mortality compared to PR (OR 1.46 [95% CI 1.09, 1.97]; p = 0.01), while the post-discharge reoperation rate was comparable between the two groups. 1 and 3-year overall survival (OS) were comparable between PR and ER (OR 1.05, [95% CI 0.77-1.44]; p = 0.76) and (OR 1.27 [95% CI 0.86-1.86]; p = 0.23), respectively. The 5-year OS (OR 1.67 [95% CI 1.16-2.41]; p = 0.01) was in favor of the PR arm. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with ATAAD, PR was associated with lower odds of in-hospital mortality but higher odds of late mortality. ER and PR demonstrated similar post-operative complication and reoperation rates.
Manchester E, Pirola S, Salmasi MY, et al., 2022, Evaluation of computational methodologies for accurate prediction of wall shear stress and turbulence parameters in a patient-specific aorta, Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology, Vol: 10, ISSN: 2296-4185
Background: Recent studies suggest that blood flow in main arteries is intrinsically disturbed, even under healthy conditions. Despite this, many computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses of aortic haemodynamics make the assumption of laminar flow, and best practices surroundingappropriate modelling choices are lacking. This study aims to address this gap by evaluating different modelling and post-processing approaches in simulations of a patient-specific aorta. Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 4D flow MRI from a patient with aortic valve stenosis were used to reconstruct the aortic geometry and derive patient-specific inlet and outlet boundary conditions. Three different computational approaches were considered based on assumed laminar or assumed disturbed flow states including low-resolution laminar (LR-laminar),high-resolution laminar (HR-Laminar) and large-eddy simulation (LES). Each simulation was ran for 30 cardiac cycles and post-processing was conducted on either the final cardiac cycle, or using a phase-averaged approach which utilised all 30 simulated cycles. Model capabilities were evaluated in terms of mean and turbulence-based parameters. Results: All simulation types, regardless of post-processing approach could correctly predict velocity values and flow patterns throughout the aorta. Lower resolution simulations could not accurately predict gradient-derived parameters including wall shear stress and viscous energy loss (largest differences up to 44.6% and 130.3%, respectively), although phase-averagingthese parameters improved predictions. The HR-Laminar simulation produced more comparable results to LES with largest differences in wall shear stress and viscous energy loss parameters up to 5.1% and 11.6%, respectively. Laminar-based parameters were better estimated thanturbulence-based parameters.Conclusions: Our findings suggest that well-resolved laminar simulations can accurately predict many laminar-based parameters in disturbed flo
Pring ET, Malietzis G, Gould LE, et al., 2022, Tumour grade and stage are associated with specific body composition phenotypes with visceral obesity predisposing the host to a less aggressive tumour in colorectal cancer., Eur J Surg Oncol
BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia, myosteatosis and visceral obesity (VO) are known to negatively impact on outcomes from colorectal cancer (CRC). Little is known about tumour factors associated with these body composition (BC) phenotypes. We aimed to identify whether histopathological tumour characteristics were associated with various BC phenotypes. METHODS: A prospectively collected database of patients undergoing surgery for primary CRC at a tertiary referral unit in the United Kingdom was analysed. Sarcopenia, myosteatosis and VO were identified on preoperative CT. Binary logistic regression modelling was performed to determine significant associations between tumour stage, grade and BC phenotype. RESULTS: Final analysis included 795 patients; median age 69, 56% male, 65% were sarcopenic, 72% myosteatotic, 52% VO and 20% had sarcopenic obesity (SO). VO patients were significantly less likely to have advanced T Stage (T3-4) OR0.62(95%CI 0.44-0.86, p = 0.005); nodal metastases OR0.60(95%CI 0.44-0.82, p = 0.001); vascular invasion OR0.63(95%CI 0.46-0.88, p = 0.006) and poor tumour differentiation OR0.49(95%CI 0.28-0.86, p = 0.012). Myosteatotic patients were more likely to have metastatic disease OR2.31(95%CI 1.15-4.63, p = 0.018) but less likely to have poorly differentiated tumours OR0.48(95%CI 0.27-0.86, p = 0.013). SO patients were significantly more likely to have poorly differentiated tumours OR2.01(95%CI 1.04-3.87, p = 0.037). CONCLUSION: VO predisposes to earlier stage tumours with a less aggressive tumour phenotype. The SO group have adverse tumour characteristics which may be explained by differences in fat distribution. Myosteatosis relates to increased likelihood of distant metastasis that may be related to a systemic inflammatory response, despite the association with better differentiated tumours.
Maesen B, van der Heijden CAJ, Bidar E, et al., 2022, Patient-reported quality of life after stand-alone and concomitant arrhythmia surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis, INTERACTIVE CARDIOVASCULAR AND THORACIC SURGERY, Vol: 34, Pages: 339-348, ISSN: 1569-9293
Boyalla V, Harling L, Snell A, et al., 2022, Biomarkers as predictors of recurrence of atrial fibrillation post ablation: an updated and expanded systematic review and meta-analysis, CLINICAL RESEARCH IN CARDIOLOGY, ISSN: 1861-0684
Fergadi MP, Magouliotis DE, Rountas C, et al., 2022, A meta-analysis evaluating the role of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) as a fourth treatment modality for patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer., Abdom Radiol (NY), Vol: 47, Pages: 254-264
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the outcomes of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) on patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. METHODS: A literature search was performed in PubMed, Scopus and Cochrane databases, in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. The Odds Ratio, Weighted Mean Difference, and 95% Confidence Interval were evaluated by means of the Random-Effects model. RESULTS: Nineteen articles met the inclusion criteria, incorporating 939 patients. This study reveals that patients in the HIFU group presented increased median overall survival (OS), along with higher OS at 6 and 12 months after treatment compared with the control group (p < 0.05). Furthermore, patients treated with HIFU in conjunction with chemotherapy presented reduced levels of pain (p < 0.05) compared to the traditional treatment group. In addition, HIFU contributed to significant tumor responsiveness, in terms of CA19-9 reduction (p < 0.05). Finally, HIFU was a considerably safe treatment modality with a low incidence of complications. CONCLUSION: These outcomes suggest that HIFU is a feasible and safe treatment modality for patients with advanced pancreatic cancer and provides enhanced outcomes regarding survival and quality of life. Given the lack of a significant number of randomized clinical trials, this meta-analysis represents the best currently available evidence. New randomized trials assessing HIFU are necessary to further evaluate their outcomes.
Salmasi MYB, Papa K, David M, et al., 2021, Converging rapid deployment prostheses with minimal access surgery: analysis of early outcomes, Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Vol: 16, ISSN: 1749-8090
Background:Sutureless prostheses may have added benefit when combined with minimal access surgery, although this has not been fully assessed in the literature. This study aims to provide a comparative analysis of the Perceval valve comparing median sternotomy (MS) with mini-sternotomy (MIS).Methods:A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data was conducted for all isolated aortic valve replacement (AVR), using the Perceval valve, for severe aortic stenosis cases in the period 2014 to 2019. Patients undergoing concomitant valve or revascularisation surgery were excluded.Results:A total of 78 patients were included: MS group 41; MIS group 37. Operatively, bypass times were comparable between MS and MIS groups (mean 89.3 vs 83.4, p = 0.307), as were aortic cross clamp times (58.4 vs 55.9, p = 0.434). There were no operative deaths or new onset post-operative neurology. MIS was a predictor of reduced stay in the intensive care unit (coef − 3.25, 95% CI [− 4.93, − 0.59], p = 0.036) and hospital stay overall (p = 0.004). Blood transfusion units were comparable as were the incidence of heart block (n = 5 vs n = 3, p = 0.429) and new onset atrial fibrillation (n = 15 vs n = 9, p = 0.250). Follow-up echocardiography found a significant improvement in effective orifice area, left ventricular dimension and volume indices, and LVEF (p > 0.05) for all patients. Multivariate analysis found mini-sternotomy to be a predictor for reduced LV diastolic volume (coef − 0.35, 95% CI [− 1.02, − 0.05], p = 0.05).Conclusions:The combination of minimal access surgery and sutureless AVR may enhance patient recovery and provide early LV remodelling.
Spanos K, Nana P, von Kodolitsch Y, et al., 2021, Management of Ascending Aorta and Aortic Arch: Similarities and Differences Among Cardiovascular Guidelines., J Endovasc Ther
BACKGROUND: Ascending aorta and aortic arch diseases have an increasing interest among cardiovascular specialists regarding diagnosis and management. Innovations in endovascular surgery and evolution of open surgery have extended the indications for treatment in patients previously considered unfit for surgery. The aim of this systematic review of the literature was to present and analyze current cardiovascular guidelines for overlap and differences in their recommendations regarding ascending aorta and aortic arch diseases and the assessment of evidence. METHODS: The English medical literature was searched using the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases from January 2009 to December 2020. Recommendations on selected topics were analyzed, including issues from definitions and diagnosis (imaging and biomarkers) and indications for treatment to management, including surgical techniques, of the most important ascending aorta and aortic arch diseases. RESULTS: The initial search identified 2414 articles. After exclusion of duplicate or inappropriate articles, the final analysis included 5 articles from multidisciplinary, cardiovascular societies published between 2010 and 2019. The definition of non-A-non-B aortic dissection is lacking from most of the guidelines. There is a disagreement regarding the class of recommendation and level of evidence for the diameter of ascending aorta as an indication. The indication for treatment of aortic disease may be individualized in specific cases while the growth rate may also affect the decision making. The role of endovascular techniques has not been established in current guidelines except by 1 society. Supportive evidence level in the management of aortic arch diseases remains limited. CONCLUSION: In current recommendations of cardiovascular societies, the ascending aorta and aortic arch remain a domain of open surgery despite the introduction of endovascular techniques. Recommendations o
Drami I, Pring ET, Gould L, et al., 2021, Body Composition and Dose-limiting Toxicity in Colorectal Cancer Chemotherapy Treatment; a Systematic Review of the Literature. Could Muscle Mass be the New Body Surface Area in Chemotherapy Dosing?, CLINICAL ONCOLOGY, Vol: 33, Pages: E540-E552, ISSN: 0936-6555
Arjomandi Rad A, Naruka V, Vardanyan R, et al., 2021, Mitral and tricuspid annuloplasty ring dehiscence: a systematic review with pooled analysis., Eur J Cardiothorac Surg, Vol: 60, Pages: 801-810
OBJECTIVES: Mitral and tricuspid ring annuloplasty dehiscence with consequent recurrent valve regurgitation is a rare but challenging procedural failure. The incidence and predisposing risk factors for annuloplasty ring dehiscence include technical and pathological ones. METHODS: A systematic database search with pooled analysis was conducted of original articles that only included dehiscence rate of mitral and tricuspid ring in EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane database and Google Scholar, from inception to November 2020. The outcomes included were dehiscence rate in mitral and tricuspid, type of ring implanted, dehiscence rate by pathology and by ring size and shape. RESULTS: Our search yielded 821 relevant studies. Thirty-three studies met the inclusion criteria with a total of 10 340 patients (6543 mitral, 1414 tricuspid) of which 87 (mitral) and 30 (tricuspid) had dehiscence. Overall, dehiscence rate was 1.43%, diagnosed at a median of 4.5 ± 1.0 months postoperatively. A significant difference in mitral dehiscence rate was found by ring type (semi-rigid 1.86%, rigid 2.32%; flexible 0.43%; P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in rate of dehiscence by ring size (P = 0.067) and shape in mitral (P = 0.281) but there was higher dehiscence rate in ischaemic compared to non-ischaemic mitral regurgitation (3.91% vs 1.63%; P = 0.022). Among tricuspid studies, 9 of 10 studies did not report any dehiscence. CONCLUSIONS: Although rigid, semi-rigid and flexible annuloplasty rings provide acceptable valve repair outcomes, mitral annuloplasty ring dehiscence is clinically more common among rigid rings. Understanding the multifactorial nature of ring dehiscence will help in identifying the patients at high risk and improve their clinical outcomes.
Salmasi MYB, Pirola S, Sasidharan S, et al., 2021, High wall shear stress can predict wall degradation in ascending aorticaneurysms: an integrated biomechanics study, Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology, Vol: 9, Pages: 1-13, ISSN: 2296-4185
Background: Blood flow patterns can alter material properties of ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms (ATAA) via vascular wall remodeling. This study examines the relationship between wall shear stress (WSS) obtained from image-based computational modelling with tissue-derived mechanical and microstructural properties of the ATAA wall using segmental analysis.Methods: Ten patients undergoing surgery for ATAA were recruited. Exclusions: bicuspid aortopathy, connective tissue disease. All patients had pre-operative 4-dimensional flow magnetic resonance imaging (4D-MRI), allowing for patient-specific computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis and anatomically precise WSS mapping of ATAA regions (6–12 segments per patient). ATAA samples were obtained from surgery and subjected to region-specific tensile and peel testing (matched to WSS segments). Computational pathology was used to characterize elastin/collagen abundance and smooth muscle cell (SMC) count.Results: Elevated values of WSS were predictive of: reduced wall thickness [coef −0.0489, 95% CI (−0.0905, −0.00727), p = 0.022] and dissection energy function (longitudinal) [−15,0, 95% CI (−33.00, −2.98), p = 0.048]. High WSS values also predicted higher ultimate tensile strength [coef 0.136, 95% CI (0 0.001, 0.270), p = 0.048]. Additionally, elevated WSS also predicted a reduction in elastin levels [coef −0.276, 95% (CI −0.531, −0.020), p = 0.035] and lower SMC count ([oef −6.19, 95% CI (−11.41, −0.98), p = 0.021]. WSS was found to have no effect on collagen abundance or circumferential mechanical properties.Conclusions: Our study suggests an association between elevated WSS values and aortic wall degradation in ATAA disease. Further studies might help identify threshold values to predict acute aortic events.
Pring ET, Gould LE, Malietzis G, et al., 2021, BiCyCLE NMES-neuromuscular electrical stimulation in the perioperative treatment of sarcopenia and myosteatosis in advanced rectal cancer patients: design and methodology of a phase II randomised controlled trial, TRIALS, Vol: 22
Fergadi MP, Magouliotis DE, Vlychou M, et al., 2021, A meta-analysis evaluating contrast-enhanced intraoperative ultrasound (CE-IOUS) in the context of surgery for colorectal liver metastases., Abdom Radiol (NY), Vol: 46, Pages: 4178-4188
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to assess the outcomes of contrast-enhanced intraoperative ultrasound (CE-IOUS) for patients with colorectal liver metastases (CRLMs) undergoing surgery. METHOD: A thorough literature search was performed in PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane databases, in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. The Odds Ratio, Weighted Mean Difference, and 95% Confidence Interval were evaluated, by means of Random-Effects model. RESULTS: Eleven articles met the inclusion criteria and incorporated 497 patients. The present study shows that CE-IOUS is associated with higher sensitivity and accuracy compared with multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and intraoperative ultrasound (IOUS) in identifying CRLMs (p < 0.05). The positive predictive value was similar among the different modalities. Furthermore, new CRLMs were identified by CE-IOUS, thus affecting the surgical plan in 128 patients (51.8% of the patients with new CRLMs). Moreover, 91 patients (71%) underwent a more extensive hepatectomy and 15 patients (11.7%) were considered non-operable. Two alternative contrast agents, Sonazoid and Sonovue, were employed with similar sensitivity (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: These outcomes suggest the superiority of the CE-IOUS over MDCT, MRI, and IOUS for the staging of patients with CRLMs undergoing surgery. However, they should be treated with caution given the small number of the included studies.
Salmasi MY, Ravishankar R, Abdullahi Y, et al., 2021, Predictors of outcome after CABG in the South-Asian community: a propensity matched analysis, PERFUSION-UK, ISSN: 0267-6591
Whittaker G, Salmasi MY, Aydin A, et al., 2021, Recommendations for the use of coronary and valve simulators in cardiac surgical training: a systematic review, EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CARDIO-THORACIC SURGERY, Vol: 61, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 1010-7940
Magouliotis DE, Fergadi MP, Christodoulidis G, et al., 2021, In-depth bioinformatic study of the cadherin 5 interactome in patients with thoracic aortic aneurysm unveils 8 novel biomarkers, EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CARDIO-THORACIC SURGERY, Vol: 61, Pages: 11-18, ISSN: 1010-7940
Salmasi MY, Pirola S, Mahuttanatan S, et al., 2021, Geometry and flow in ascending aortic aneurysms are influenced by left ventricular outflow tract orientation: Detecting increased wall shear stress on the outer curve of proximal aortic aneurysms., J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
BACKGROUND: The geometrical characterization of ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms in clinical practice is limited to diameter measurements. Despite growing interest in hemodynamic assessment, its relationship with ascending thoracic aortic aneurysm pathogenesis is poorly understood. This study examines the relationship between geometry of the ventriculo-aortic junction and blood flow patterns in ascending thoracic aortic aneurysm disease. METHODS: Thirty-three patients with ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms (exclusions: bicuspid aortic valves, connective tissue disease) underwent 4-dimensional flow magnetic resonance imaging. After image segmentation, geometrical parameters were measured, including aortic curvature, tortuosity, length, and diameter. A unique angular measurement made by the trajectory of the left ventricular outflow tract axis and the proximal aorta was also conducted. Velocity profiles were quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed. In addition, 11 patients (33%) underwent wall shear stress mapping of the ascending thoracic aortic aneurysm region using computational fluid dynamics simulation. RESULTS: Greater left ventricular outflow tract aortic angles were associated with larger aortic diameters at the levels of the sinus (coefficient = 0.387, P = .014) and ascending aorta (coefficient = 0.284, P = .031). Patients with left ventricular outflow tract aortic angles greater than 60° had marked asymmetric flow acceleration on the outer curvature in the proximal aorta, ascertained from 4-dimensional flow analysis. For patients undergoing computational fluid dynamics assessment, regression analysis found that higher left ventricular outflow tract aortic angles were associated with significantly higher wall shear stress values in the outer curve of the aorta (coefficient 0.07, 95% confidence interval 0.04-0.11, P = .002): Angles greater than 50° yielded time-averaged wall shear stress values g
Kan X, Yuan X, Salmasi MYB, et al., 2021, Comprehensive Mechanical Modelling of Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair in Type A Aortic Dissection, Publisher: The Japanese Circulation Society, ISSN: 0047-1828
Li J, Li JV, Ashrafian H, et al., 2021, Roux-en-Y Gastric bypass-induced bacterial perturbation contributes to altered host-bacterial co-metabolic phenotype, Microbiome, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2049-2618
BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery, used to achieve effective weight loss in individuals with severe obesity, modifies the gut microbiota and systemic metabolism in both humans and animal models. The aim of the current study was to understand better the metabolic functions of the altered gut microbiome by conducting deep phenotyping of bariatric surgery patients and bacterial culturing to investigate causality of the metabolic observations. METHODS: Three bariatric cohorts (n = 84, n = 14 and n = 9) with patients who had undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), sleeve gastrectomy (SG) or laparoscopic gastric banding (LGB), respectively, were enrolled. Metabolic and 16S rRNA bacterial profiles were compared between pre- and post-surgery. Faeces from RYGB patients and bacterial isolates were cultured to experimentally associate the observed metabolic changes in biofluids with the altered gut microbiome. RESULTS: Compared to SG and LGB, RYGB induced the greatest weight loss and most profound metabolic and bacterial changes. RYGB patients showed increased aromatic amino acids-based host-bacterial co-metabolism, resulting in increased urinary excretion of 4-hydroxyphenylacetate, phenylacetylglutamine, 4-cresyl sulphate and indoxyl sulphate, and increased faecal excretion of tyramine and phenylacetate. Bacterial degradation of choline was increased as evidenced by altered urinary trimethylamine-N-oxide and dimethylamine excretion and faecal concentrations of dimethylamine. RYGB patients' bacteria had a greater capacity to produce tyramine from tyrosine, phenylalanine to phenylacetate and tryptophan to indole and tryptamine, compared to the microbiota from non-surgery, normal weight individuals. 3-Hydroxydicarboxylic acid metabolism and urinary excretion of primary bile acids, serum BCAAs and dimethyl sulfone were also perturbed following bariatric surgery. CONCLUSION: Altered bacterial composition and metabolism contribute to metabolic observations in biofluid
Pring ET, Malietzis G, Kendall SWH, et al., 2021, Crisis management for surgical teams and their leaders, lessons from the COVID-19 pandemic; A structured approach to developing resilience or natural organisational responses, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Vol: 91, ISSN: 1743-9191
Moscarelli M, Santarpino G, Athanasiou T, et al., 2021, A pooled analysis of pacemaker implantation after Perceval sutureless aortic valve replacement, INTERACTIVE CARDIOVASCULAR AND THORACIC SURGERY, Vol: 33, Pages: 501-509, ISSN: 1569-9293
Moscarelli M, Di Bari N, Nasso G, et al., 2021, Early safety performance of a modified technique of aorta replacement with sinotubular stabilization, ASIAN CARDIOVASCULAR & THORACIC ANNALS, Vol: 30, Pages: 171-176, ISSN: 0218-4923
Moscarelli M, Lorusso R, Abdullahi Y, et al., 2021, The Effect of Minimally Invasive Surgery and Sternotomy on Physical Activity and Quality of Life, HEART LUNG AND CIRCULATION, Vol: 30, Pages: 882-887, ISSN: 1443-9506
Manchester E, Pirola S, Salmasi M, et al., 2021, Analysis of turbulence effects in a patient-specific aorta with aortic valve stenosis, Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology, Vol: 12, Pages: 438-453, ISSN: 1869-408X
Blood flow in the aorta is often assumed laminar, however aortic valve pathologies may induce transition to turbulence and our understanding of turbulence effects is incomplete. The aim of the study was to provide a detailed analysis of turbulence effects in aortic valve stenosis (AVS).Methods:Large-eddy simulation (LES) of flow through a patient-specific aorta with AVS was conducted. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed and used for geometric reconstruction and patient-specific boundary conditions. Computed velocity field was compared with 4D flow MRI to check qualitative and quantitative consistency. The effect of turbulence was evaluated in terms of fluctuating kinetic energy, turbulence-related wall shear stress (WSS) and energy loss.Results:Our analysis suggested that turbulence was induced by a combination of a high velocity jet impinging on the arterial wall and a dilated ascending aorta which provided sufficient space for turbulence to develop. Turbulent WSS contributed to 40% of the total WSS in the ascending aorta and 38% in the entire aorta. Viscous and turbulent irreversible energy losses accounted for 3.9 and 2.7% of the total stroke work, respectively.Conclusions:This study demonstrates the importance of turbulence in assessing aortic haemodynamics in a patient with AVS. Neglecting the turbulent contribution to WSS could potentially result in a significant underestimation of the total WSS. Further work is warranted to extend the analysis to more AVS cases and patients with other aortic valve diseases.
Garas G, Darzi A, Athanasiou T, et al., 2021, Stapler closure versus manual closure in total laryngectomy for laryngeal cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis, CLINICAL OTOLARYNGOLOGY, Vol: 46, Pages: 918-918, ISSN: 1749-4478
Salmasi MY, Jarral OA, Athanasiou T, 2021, What can we learn from outliers in cardiac surgery?, JOURNAL OF CARDIAC SURGERY, Vol: 36, Pages: 1832-1834, ISSN: 0886-0440
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