Imperial College London

Professor Thanos Athanasiou MD PhD MBA FECTS FRCS

Faculty of MedicineDepartment of Surgery & Cancer

Professor of Cardiovascular Sciences
 
 
 
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t.athanasiou

 
 
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1022Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother Wing (QEQM)St Mary's Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

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729 results found

Salmasi MY, Morris-Rosendahl D, Jarral OA, Rosendahl U, Asimakopoulos G, Raja S, Aragon-Martin JA, Child A, Pepper J, Oo A, Athanasiou Tet al., 2022, Determining the genetic contribution in patients with non-syndromic ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms: Correlation with findings from computational pathology, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CARDIOLOGY, Vol: 366, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 0167-5273

Journal article

Arjomandi Rad A, Naruka V, Vardanyan R, Salmasi MY, Tasoudis PT, Kendall S, Casula R, Athanasiou Tet al., 2022, Renal outcomes in valve-in-valve transcatheter versus redo surgical aortic valve replacement: A systematic review and meta-analysis., J Card Surg, Vol: 37, Pages: 3743-3753

INTRODUCTION: Postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) and the requirement for renal replacement therapy (RRT) remain common and significant complications of both transcatheter valve-in-valve aortic valve replacement (ViV-TAVR) and redo surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). Nevertheless, the understanding of renal outcomes in the population undergoing either redo SAVR or ViV-TAVR remains controversial. METHODS: A systematic database search with meta-analysis was conducted of comparative original articles of ViV-TAVR versus redo SAVR in EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane database, and Google Scholar, from inception to September 2021. Primary outcomes were AKI and RRT. Secondary outcomes were stroke, major bleeding, pacemaker implantation rate, operative mortality, and 30-day mortality. RESULTS: Our search yielded 5435 relevant studies. Eighteen studies met the inclusion criteria with a total of 11,198 patients. We found ViV-TAVR to be associated with lower rates of AKI, postoperative RRT, major bleeding, pacemaker implantation, operative mortality, and 30-day mortality. No significant difference was observed in terms of stroke rate. The mean incidence of AKI in ViV-TAVR was 6.95% (±6%) and in redo SAVR was 15.2% (±9.6%). For RRT, our data showed that VIV-TAVR to be 1.48% (±1.46%) and redo SAVR to be 8.54% (±8.06%). CONCLUSION: Renoprotective strategies should be put into place to prevent and reduce AKI incidence regardless of the treatment modality. Patients undergoing re-intervention for the aortic valve constitute a high-risk and frail population in which ViV-TAVR demonstrated it might be a feasible option for carefully selected patients. Long-term follow-up data and randomized control trials will be needed to evaluate mortality and morbidity outcomes between these 2 treatments.

Journal article

Xanthopoulos A, Magouliotis DE, Tryposkiadis K, Zotos P-A, Spiliopoulos K, Athanasiou T, Giamouzis G, Skoularigis J, Starling RC, Triposkiadis Fet al., 2022, Post-Implant Phosphodiesterase-5 Inhibitors in Patients with Left Ventricular Assist Device: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis., J Clin Med, Vol: 11, ISSN: 2077-0383

BACKGROUND: Despite the improvement in left ventricular assist device (LVAD) technology and the advent of third-generation LVADs, hemocompatibility-related events remain a significant issue. Therefore, new pharmacological treatments are necessary to optimize patient management and to further reduce hemocompatibility-related events. The purpose of the present systematic review and meta-analysis was to summarize the existing data regarding the safety and efficacy of post-implant phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (PDE-5i) on hemocompatibility-related events. METHODS: Among the 258 articles in Pubmed, Scopus, and CENTRAL that were retrieved (1990-2022), 15 studies were included in the qualitative synthesis, and 9 studies were included in the quantitative synthesis. The fixed-effects model was used because it is statistically sound for combining a very small number of studies. The primary endpoint of the study was all-cause mortality, whereas the secondary endpoints were ischemic stroke, pump thrombosis, and gastrointestinal bleeding. RESULTS: Mortality was significantly lower in the PDE-5i group vs. the control group (OR: 0.92 [95% CI: 0.85, 0.98]; p = 0.02). The secondary endpoints ischemic stroke (OR: 0.87 [95% CI: 0.78, 0.98]; p = 0.02) and pump thrombosis (OR: 0.90 [95% CI: 0.82, 0.99]; p = 0.04) were also lower in the PDE-5i group. The incidence of gastrointestinal bleeding was significantly higher in patients with LVAD receiving PDE-5i (OR: 1.26 [95% CI: 1.11, 1.44]; p < 0.01). In the overall analysis, the heterogeneity of outcomes was low, except for pump thrombosis. CONCLUSIONS: The use of PDE-5i post-implant was associated with lower mortality and thrombotic events but with a higher risk of gastrointestinal bleeding.

Journal article

Salmasi MY, Alwis S, Cyclewala S, Jarral OA, Mohamed H, Mozalbat D, Nienaber CA, Athanasiou T, Morris-Rosendahl D, Members of the London Aortic Mechanobiology Working Groupet al., 2022, The genetic basis of thoracic aortic disease: The future of aneurysm classification?, Hellenic J Cardiol

The expansion in the repertoire of genes linked to thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAA) has revolutionised our understanding of the disease process. The clinical benefits of such progress are numerous, particularly helping our understanding of non-syndromic hereditary causes of TAA (HTAAD) and further refinement in the subclassification of disease. Furthermore, the understanding of aortic biomechanics and mechanical homeostasis has been significantly informed by the discovery of deleterious mutations and their effect on aortic phenotype. The drawbacks in genetic testing in TAA lie with the inability to translate genotype to accurate prognostication in the risk of thoracic aortic dissection (TAD), which is a life-threatening condition. Under current guidelines, there are no metrics by which those at risk for dissection with normal aortic diameters may undergo preventive surgery. Future research lies with more advanced genetic diagnosis of HTAAD and investigation of the diverse pathways involved in its pathophysiology, which will i) serve to improve our understanding of the underlying mechanisms, ii) improve guidelines for treatment and iii) prevent complications for HTAAD and sporadic aortopathies.

Journal article

Spanos K, Nana P, von Kodolitsch Y, Behrendt C-A, Kouvelos G, Panuccio G, Athanasiou T, Matsagkas M, Giannoukas A, Detter C, Kölbel Tet al., 2022, Management of Ascending Aorta and Aortic Arch: Similarities and Differences Among Cardiovascular Guidelines., J Endovasc Ther, Vol: 29, Pages: 667-677

BACKGROUND: Ascending aorta and aortic arch diseases have an increasing interest among cardiovascular specialists regarding diagnosis and management. Innovations in endovascular surgery and evolution of open surgery have extended the indications for treatment in patients previously considered unfit for surgery. The aim of this systematic review of the literature was to present and analyze current cardiovascular guidelines for overlap and differences in their recommendations regarding ascending aorta and aortic arch diseases and the assessment of evidence. METHODS: The English medical literature was searched using the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases from January 2009 to December 2020. Recommendations on selected topics were analyzed, including issues from definitions and diagnosis (imaging and biomarkers) and indications for treatment to management, including surgical techniques, of the most important ascending aorta and aortic arch diseases. RESULTS: The initial search identified 2414 articles. After exclusion of duplicate or inappropriate articles, the final analysis included 5 articles from multidisciplinary, cardiovascular societies published between 2010 and 2019. The definition of non-A-non-B aortic dissection is lacking from most of the guidelines. There is a disagreement regarding the class of recommendation and level of evidence for the diameter of ascending aorta as an indication. The indication for treatment of aortic disease may be individualized in specific cases while the growth rate may also affect the decision making. The role of endovascular techniques has not been established in current guidelines except by 1 society. Supportive evidence level in the management of aortic arch diseases remains limited. CONCLUSION: In current recommendations of cardiovascular societies, the ascending aorta and aortic arch remain a domain of open surgery despite the introduction of endovascular techniques. Recommendations o

Journal article

Sá MP, Jacquemyn X, Tasoudis PT, Van den Eynde J, Erten O, Dokollari A, Torregrossa G, Sicouri S, Weymann A, Ruhparwar A, Athanasiou T, Ramlawi Bet al., 2022, Immediate and late outcomes of transcatheter aortic valve implantation versus surgical aortic valve replacement in bicuspid valves: Meta-analysis of reconstructed time-to-event data., J Card Surg, Vol: 37, Pages: 3300-3310

BACKGROUND: Outcomes of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) versus surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) in patients with aortic stenosis and bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) must be better investigated. METHODS: A meta-analysis including studies published by January 2022 reporting immediate outcomes (in-hospital death, stroke, acute kidney injury [AKI], major bleeding, new permanent pacemaker implantation [PPI], paravalvular leakage [PVL]), mortality in the follow-up (with Kaplan-Meier curves for reconstruction of individual patient data). RESULTS: Five studies met our eligibility criteria. No statistically significant difference was observed for in-hospital death, stroke, AKI, and PVL. TAVI was associated with lower risk of major bleeding (odds ratio [OR]: 0.29; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.12-0.69; p = .025), but higher risk of PPI (OR: 2.00; 95% CI: 1.05-3.77; p = .041). In the follow-up, mortality after TAVI was significantly higher in the analysis with the largest samples (HR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.01-1.53, p = .043), but no statistically significant difference was observed with risk-adjusted populations (HR: 1.06, 95% CI: 0.86-1.32, p = .57). Landmark analyses suggested a time-varying risk with TAVI after 10 and 13 months in both largest and risk-adjusted populations (HR: 2.13, 95% CI: 1.45-3.12, p < .001; HR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.11-2.61, p = .015, respectively). CONCLUSION: Considering the immediate outcomes and comparable overall survival observed in risk-adjusted populations, TAVI can be used safely in selected BAV patients. However, a time-varying risk is present (favoring SAVR over TAVI at a later timepoint). This finding was likely driven by higher rates of PPI with TAVI.

Journal article

Magouliotis DE, Zotos P-A, Fergadi MP, Koukousaki D, Zacharoulis D, Diamantis A, Spiliopoulos K, Athanasiou Tet al., 2022, Meta-analysis of robot-assisted versus video-assisted McKeown esophagectomy for esophageal cancer., Updates Surg, Vol: 74, Pages: 1501-1510

We aim to review the available literature on patients with esophageal cancer treated with robot-assisted (RAME) or video-assisted McKeown's esophagectomy (VAME), to compare the efficacy and safety of the two approaches. Original research studies that evaluated perioperative and oncologic outcomes of RAME versus VAME were identified, from January 1990 to July 2022. The 90-day mortality, the R0 resection rate, the dissected lymph nodes, the perioperative parameters, and the complications were calculated according to a fixed and a random effect model. The Q statistics and I2 statistic were used to test for heterogeneity among the studies. Seven studies were included, incorporating a total of 1617 patients treated with RAME or VAME. The 90-day mortality was similar between the two groups. No difference was found regarding the R0 resection rate and the number of dissected lymph nodes. In addition, the perioperative parameters, along with the total complications were similar between RAME and VAME. Nonetheless, the incidence of postoperative pneumonia was higher in the VAME group (OR:0.67 [95% CI: 0.49, 0.93]; p = 0.02). Finally, our outcomes were further validated by sensitivity analysis including only studies performing propensity score-matched analysis. Our meta-analysis showed that RAME was equivalent to VAME in terms of safety, feasibility, and oncologic adequacy. These results should be interpreted with caution due to the small number of included studies. New Randomized Controlled trials, that are currently active, will provide further evidence with greater clarity to assess the effectiveness and safety of RAME for esophageal cancer.

Journal article

Magouliotis DE, Zotos P-A, Rad AA, Koukousaki D, Vasilaki V, Portesi I, Spiliopoulos K, Athanasiou Tet al., 2022, Meta-analysis of survival after extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) versus pleurectomy/decortication (P/D) for malignant pleural mesothelioma in the context of macroscopic complete resection (MCR)., Updates Surg

OBJECTIVE: We reviewed the available literature on patients with MPM undergoing either extrapleural pneumonectomy (EPP) or pleurectomy/decortication (P/D). METHODS: Original research studies that evaluated long-term outcomes of P/D versus EPP were identified, from January 1980 to February 2022. The 30-days and 90-day mortality, along with the 1-, 2-, 3-, 5-year survival, the median overall survival, the macroscopic complete resection (MCR) rate, and the complications were calculated according to both a fixed and a random effect model. The Q and I2 statistic were used to test for heterogeneity among the studies. Sensitivity analysis was performed including only studies that incorporated the MCR concept. RESULTS: Eighteen studies were included, incorporating a total of 4,852 patients treated with EPP and P/D. The 30-day mortality was significantly higher in the EPP group (OR: 2.79 [95% CI 1.30, 6.01]; p = 0.009). The median overall survival was higher in the P/D group (WMD:-4.55 [-6.05, -3.04]; p < 0.001). No differences were found regarding the 90-day mortality, MCR rate, and the 1-, 2-,3-, 5-year survival between the EPP and P/D groups. These findings were validated by the sensitivity analysis. The incidence of atrial fibrillation, hemorrhage, pulmonary embolism, air leak, and reoperation was significantly increased in the EPP group (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The present meta-analysis indicates that P/D is associated with enhanced outcomes regarding 30-day mortality, median overall survival, and complications. The P/D approach should be preferred when technically feasible. However, the procedure of choice should be decided based on the goal of MCR in the safest approach for the patient.

Journal article

Naruka V, Arjomandi Rad A, Subbiah Ponniah H, Francis J, Vardanyan R, Tasoudis P, Magouliotis DE, Lazopoulos GL, Salmasi MY, Athanasiou Tet al., 2022, Machine learning and artificial intelligence in cardiac transplantation: A systematic review., Artif Organs, Vol: 46, Pages: 1741-1753

BACKGROUND: This review aims to systematically evaluate the currently available evidence investigating the use of artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) in the field of cardiac transplantation. Furthermore, based on the challenges identified we aim to provide a series of recommendations and a knowledge base for future research in the field of ML and heart transplantation. METHODS: A systematic database search was conducted of original articles that explored the use of ML and/or AI in heart transplantation in EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane database, and Google Scholar, from inception to November 2021. RESULTS: Our search yielded 237 articles, of which 13 studies were included in this review, featuring 463 850 patients. Three main areas of application were identified: (1) ML for predictive modeling of heart transplantation mortality outcomes; (2) ML in graft failure outcomes; (3) ML to aid imaging in heart transplantation. The results of the included studies suggest that AI and ML are more accurate in predicting graft failure and mortality than traditional scoring systems and conventional regression analysis. Major predictors of graft failure and mortality identified in ML models were: length of hospital stay, immunosuppressive regimen, recipient's age, congenital heart disease, and organ ischemia time. Other potential benefits include analyzing initial lab investigations and imaging, assisting a patient with medication adherence, and creating positive behavioral changes to minimize further cardiovascular risk. CONCLUSION: ML demonstrated promising applications for improving heart transplantation outcomes and patient-centered care, nevertheless, there remain important limitations relating to implementing AI into everyday surgical practices.

Journal article

Naruka V, Salmasi MY, Arjomandi Rad A, Marczin N, Lazopoulos G, Moscarelli M, Casula R, Athanasiou Tet al., 2022, Use of Cytokine Filters During Cardiopulmonary Bypass: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis., Heart Lung Circ

INTRODUCTION: Cardiac surgery involving cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) activates an inflammatory response releasing cytokines that are associated with less favourable outcomes. This study aims to compare i) CPB during cardiac surgery (control) versus ii) CPB with haemoadsorption therapy; and assess the effect of adding this therapy in reducing the inflammatory cytokines burden. METHODS: A systematic literature review with metanalysis was conducted regarding the main outcomes (operative mortality, ventilation duration, intensive care unit [ICU] and hospital stays) and day-1 inflammatory markers levels post-surgery. Fifteen (15) studies were included for final analysis (eight randomised controlled trials, seven observational studies) with no evidence of publication bias. RESULTS: Subgroup analysis of non-elective surgeries across observational studies (emergency and infective endocarditis) significantly favoured cytokine filters in terms of 30-day mortality (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.20, 0.83; p=0.01) and shorter ICU stay (MD -42.36, 95% CI -68.07, -16.65; p=0.001). At day-1 post-surgery, there was a significant difference favouring the cytokine filter group in c-reactive protein (CRP) (MD -0.71, 95% CI -0.84, -0.59; p<0.001) with no differences in white blood count (WBC), procalcitonin (PCT), tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), IL-6, IL-8 and lactate. When comparing cytokine filters and control across all studies there was no significant difference in operative mortality, ventilation duration, hospital stay and ICU length of stay. Also, there were no statistical differences in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) using haemadsorption filters. CONCLUSIONS: A significant reduction in 30-day mortality and ICU stay could be obtained by using haemadsorption therapy during non-elective cardiac surgery, especially emergency surgery and in patients with higher inflammatory burden such as infective endocarditis.

Journal article

Salmasi MY, Sasidharan S, Frattolin J, Edgar L, Stock U, Athanasiou T, Moore Jet al., 2022, Regional variation in biomechanical properties of ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms, EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CARDIO-THORACIC SURGERY, Vol: 62, ISSN: 1010-7940

Journal article

Salmasi MYB, Morris-Rosendahl D, Jarral O, Rosendahl U, Asimakopoulos G, Aragon-Martin J, Child A, Pepper J, Oo A, Athanasiou Tet al., 2022, Determining the genetic contribution in patients with non-syndromic ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms: Correlation with findings from computational pathology, International Journal of Cardiology, ISSN: 0167-5273

Journal article

Pring ET, Malietzis G, Gould LE, Lung P, Drami I, Athanasiou T, Jenkins JTet al., 2022, Tumour grade and stage are associated with specific body composition phenotypes with visceral obesity predisposing the host to a less aggressive tumour in colorectal cancer., Eur J Surg Oncol, Vol: 48, Pages: 1664-1670

BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia, myosteatosis and visceral obesity (VO) are known to negatively impact on outcomes from colorectal cancer (CRC). Little is known about tumour factors associated with these body composition (BC) phenotypes. We aimed to identify whether histopathological tumour characteristics were associated with various BC phenotypes. METHODS: A prospectively collected database of patients undergoing surgery for primary CRC at a tertiary referral unit in the United Kingdom was analysed. Sarcopenia, myosteatosis and VO were identified on preoperative CT. Binary logistic regression modelling was performed to determine significant associations between tumour stage, grade and BC phenotype. RESULTS: Final analysis included 795 patients; median age 69, 56% male, 65% were sarcopenic, 72% myosteatotic, 52% VO and 20% had sarcopenic obesity (SO). VO patients were significantly less likely to have advanced T Stage (T3-4) OR0.62(95%CI 0.44-0.86, p = 0.005); nodal metastases OR0.60(95%CI 0.44-0.82, p = 0.001); vascular invasion OR0.63(95%CI 0.46-0.88, p = 0.006) and poor tumour differentiation OR0.49(95%CI 0.28-0.86, p = 0.012). Myosteatotic patients were more likely to have metastatic disease OR2.31(95%CI 1.15-4.63, p = 0.018) but less likely to have poorly differentiated tumours OR0.48(95%CI 0.27-0.86, p = 0.013). SO patients were significantly more likely to have poorly differentiated tumours OR2.01(95%CI 1.04-3.87, p = 0.037). CONCLUSION: VO predisposes to earlier stage tumours with a less aggressive tumour phenotype. The SO group have adverse tumour characteristics which may be explained by differences in fat distribution. Myosteatosis relates to increased likelihood of distant metastasis that may be related to a systemic inflammatory response, despite the association with better differentiated tumours.

Journal article

Monteagudo-Vela M, Krasopoulos G, Athanasiou T, Tsui S, Kourliouros Aet al., 2022, Impact of third-generation left ventricular assist devices on quality of life: Scoping review and meta-analysis., Artif Organs, Vol: 46, Pages: 1012-1018

OBJECTIVES: Development in device technology and the scarcity of donor's hearts have increased the number of patients with advanced heart failure receiving durable left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) as a bridge to transplantation and destination therapy, with improved prognosis compared with guideline-directed medical therapy. We sought to examine the impact of modern durable LVADs on the quality of life (QoL) of the recipients. METHODS: We carried out a systematic review of articles on QoL following the implantation of third-generation LVADs published between January 2010 and February 2021. Included studies were critically analyzed and evidence synthesis was carried out into a meta-analysis. RESULTS: The systematic search yielded 269 articles, 11 of which met the search predefined criteria. Three of them reported results of randomized trials and eight were retrospective and registry studies. Statistically significant QoL improvement from baseline was observed in all published reports. When using the EuroQol 5L questionnaire (scale 0-100) as a QoL tool 6 months post-LVAD implantation, a meta-analysis of four included studies demonstrated a mean difference increase of 28.9 points (95% confidence interval: 26.71-31.14). CONCLUSIONS: Third-generation LVADs confer a significant improvement in QoL and their use can be supported not only for prognosis but also for symptom control. Although methodological limitations should be considered, the available QoL outcomes can be a useful tool in patient selection and the decision-making process.

Journal article

Al Ani M, Garas G, Hollingshead J, Cheetham D, Athanasiou T, Patel Vet al., 2022, Which electronic health record system should we use? A systematic review, Medical Principles and Practice, Vol: 31, Pages: 342-351, ISSN: 1011-7571

The UK government had intended to introduce a comprehensive EHRs system in England by 2020. These EHRs would run across primary, secondary, and social care linking data in a single digital platform. This systematic review's objectives were to identify studies that compare EHRs in terms of direct comparison between systems and evaluate them using System and Software Quality Requirements and Evaluation (SQuaRE) ISO/IEC 25010. A systematic review was performed by searching EMBASE and Ovid MEDLINE databases between 1974 and April 2021. All original studies that appraised EHR systems and their providers were included. The main outcome measures were EHR system comparison and SQuaRE's eight characteristics: functional suitability, performance efficiency, compatibility, usability, reliability, security, maintainability, and portability. A total of 724 studies were identified using the search criteria. After review of titles and abstracts, this was filtered down to 40 studies as per exclusion and inclusion criteria set out in our study selection. Seven studies compared more than one EHR. The following number of studies looked at the various aspects of the SQuaRE respectively. Nineteen studies addressed functional suitability, n=18 performance efficiency, n=12 compatibility, n=25 usability, n=6 reliability, n=2 security, n=16 maintainability, and n=13 portability. Epic was the most studied EHR system and one of the most implemented vendors in the USA market, and one of the top ten in UK. It is difficult to assess which is the most advantageous EHR system currently available when looking at them in accordance with SQuaRE's eight characteristics for software evaluation.

Journal article

Tasoudis PT, Varvoglis DN, Vitkos E, Ikonomidis JS, Athanasiou Tet al., 2022, Unilateral versus bilateral anterograde cerebral perfusion in acute type A aortic dissection repair: A systematic review and meta-analysis., Perfusion

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study is to compare the safety and efficacy of unilateral anterograde cerebral perfusion (UACP) and bilateral anterograde cerebral perfusion (BACP) for acute type A aortic dissection (ATAAD). METHODS: A systematic review of the MEDLINE (PubMed), Scopus, and Cochrane Library databases (last search: August 7th, 2021) was performed according to the PRISMA statement. Studies directly comparing UACP versus BACP for ATAAD were included. Random-effects meta-analyses were performed. RESULTS: Eight retrospective cohort studies were identified, incorporating 2416 patients (UACP: 843, BACP: 1573). No statistically significant difference was observed regarding in-hospital mortality (odds ratio [OR]:1.05 [95% Confidence Interval (95% CI):0.70-1.57]), permanent neurological deficit (PND) (OR: 0.94 [95% CI: 0.52-1.70]), transient neurological deficit (TND) (OR: 1.37 [95% CI: 0.98-1.92]), renal failure (OR: 0.96 [95% CI: 0.70-1.32]), and re-exploration for bleeding (OR: 0.77 [95% CI: 0.48-1.22]). Meta-regression analysis revealed that PND and TND were not influenced by differences in rates of total arch repair, Bentall procedure, and concomitant CABG in UACP and BACP groups. Cardiopulmonary bypass time (Standard Mean Difference [SMD]: -0.11 [95% CI: -0.22, 0.44]), Cross clamp time (SMD: -0.04 [95% CI: -0.38, 0.29]), and hypothermic circulatory arrest time (SMD: -0.12 [95% CI: -0.55, 0.30]) were comparable between UACP and BACP. Intensive care unit stay was shorter in BACP arm (SMD:0.16 [95% CI: 0.01, 0.31]); however, length of hospital stay was shorter in UACP arm (SMD: -0.25 [95% CI: -0.45, -0.06]). CONCLUSIONS: UACP and BACP had similar results in terms of in-hospital mortality, PND, TND, renal failure, and re-exploration for bleeding rate in patients with ATAAD. ICU stay was shorter in the BACP arm while LOS was shorter in the UACP arm.

Journal article

Salmasi MY, Pirola S, Asimakopoulos G, Nienaber C, Athanasiou T, London Aortic Mechanobiology Working Groupet al., 2022, Risk prediction for thoracic aortic dissection: Is it time to go with the flow?, J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg

Journal article

Tasoudis PT, Varvoglis DN, Vitkos E, Mylonas KS, Sa MP, Ikonomidis JS, Caranasos TG, Athanasiou Tet al., 2022, Mechanical versus bioprosthetic valve for aortic valve replacement: systematic review and meta-analysis of reconstructed individual participant data, EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CARDIO-THORACIC SURGERY, Vol: 62, ISSN: 1010-7940

Journal article

Tasoudis PT, Magouliotis DE, Varvoglis DN, Ziogas IA, Salmasi MY, Spanos K, Kourliouros A, Matsagkas M, Giannoukas A, Athanasiou Tet al., 2022, Proximal versus extensive repair in acute type A aortic dissection: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis., Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg, Vol: 70, Pages: 315-328

OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to compare the safety and efficacy of proximal repair (PR) versus extensive repair (ER) for acute type A aortic dissection (ATAAD). METHODS: A literature search in three databases was performed according to the PRISMA statement. Studies comparing PR versus ER for ATAAD were included. Random-effects meta-analyses were performed. RESULTS: A total of 27 studies incorporating 7113 patients (PR: 5080; ER: 2033) were included. Patients undergoing PR presented decreased in-hospital mortality (odds ratio [OR]: 0.67 [95% Confidence Interval (95% CI) 0.53-0.85]; p < 0.01) and post-operative bleeding (OR 0.75 [95% CI 0.60-0.95]; p = 0.02) compared to ER. Meta-regression analysis revealed that in-hospital mortality was not influenced by differences regarding the extent of dissection (p = 0.43). Cardiopulmonary bypass time (SMD:-0.93 [95% CI - 1.22, - 0.66]; p < 0.01) and length of hospital stay (SMD:-0.19 [95% CI - 0.34, - 0.05]; p = 0.01) were also lower in the PR group, while there was no difference in terms of renal failure and permanent neurological deficit. The ER approach demonstrated a lower post-discharge mortality compared to PR (OR 1.46 [95% CI 1.09, 1.97]; p = 0.01), while the post-discharge reoperation rate was comparable between the two groups. 1 and 3-year overall survival (OS) were comparable between PR and ER (OR 1.05, [95% CI 0.77-1.44]; p = 0.76) and (OR 1.27 [95% CI 0.86-1.86]; p = 0.23), respectively. The 5-year OS (OR 1.67 [95% CI 1.16-2.41]; p = 0.01) was in favor of the PR arm. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with ATAAD, PR was associated with lower odds of in-hospital mortality but higher odds of late mortality. ER and PR demonstrated similar post-operative complication and reoperation rates.

Journal article

Manchester E, Pirola S, Salmasi MY, O'Regan D, Athanasiou T, Xu Xet al., 2022, Evaluation of computational methodologies for accurate prediction of wall shear stress and turbulence parameters in a patient-specific aorta, Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology, Vol: 10, ISSN: 2296-4185

Background: Recent studies suggest that blood flow in main arteries is intrinsically disturbed, even under healthy conditions. Despite this, many computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses of aortic haemodynamics make the assumption of laminar flow, and best practices surroundingappropriate modelling choices are lacking. This study aims to address this gap by evaluating different modelling and post-processing approaches in simulations of a patient-specific aorta. Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 4D flow MRI from a patient with aortic valve stenosis were used to reconstruct the aortic geometry and derive patient-specific inlet and outlet boundary conditions. Three different computational approaches were considered based on assumed laminar or assumed disturbed flow states including low-resolution laminar (LR-laminar),high-resolution laminar (HR-Laminar) and large-eddy simulation (LES). Each simulation was ran for 30 cardiac cycles and post-processing was conducted on either the final cardiac cycle, or using a phase-averaged approach which utilised all 30 simulated cycles. Model capabilities were evaluated in terms of mean and turbulence-based parameters. Results: All simulation types, regardless of post-processing approach could correctly predict velocity values and flow patterns throughout the aorta. Lower resolution simulations could not accurately predict gradient-derived parameters including wall shear stress and viscous energy loss (largest differences up to 44.6% and 130.3%, respectively), although phase-averagingthese parameters improved predictions. The HR-Laminar simulation produced more comparable results to LES with largest differences in wall shear stress and viscous energy loss parameters up to 5.1% and 11.6%, respectively. Laminar-based parameters were better estimated thanturbulence-based parameters.Conclusions: Our findings suggest that well-resolved laminar simulations can accurately predict many laminar-based parameters in disturbed flo

Journal article

Boyalla V, Harling L, Snell A, Kralj-Hans I, Barradas-Pires A, Haldar S, Khan HR, Cleland JGF, Athanasiou T, Harding SE, Wong Tet al., 2022, Biomarkers as predictors of recurrence of atrial fibrillation post ablation: an updated and expanded systematic review and meta-analysis, CLINICAL RESEARCH IN CARDIOLOGY, Vol: 111, Pages: 680-691, ISSN: 1861-0684

Journal article

Fergadi MP, Magouliotis DE, Rountas C, Vlychou M, Athanasiou T, Symeonidis D, Pappa PA, Zacharoulis Det al., 2022, A meta-analysis evaluating the role of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) as a fourth treatment modality for patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer., Abdom Radiol (NY), Vol: 47, Pages: 254-264

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the outcomes of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) on patients with advanced pancreatic cancer. METHODS: A literature search was performed in PubMed, Scopus and Cochrane databases, in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. The Odds Ratio, Weighted Mean Difference, and 95% Confidence Interval were evaluated by means of the Random-Effects model. RESULTS: Nineteen articles met the inclusion criteria, incorporating 939 patients. This study reveals that patients in the HIFU group presented increased median overall survival (OS), along with higher OS at 6 and 12 months after treatment compared with the control group (p < 0.05). Furthermore, patients treated with HIFU in conjunction with chemotherapy presented reduced levels of pain (p < 0.05) compared to the traditional treatment group. In addition, HIFU contributed to significant tumor responsiveness, in terms of CA19-9 reduction (p < 0.05). Finally, HIFU was a considerably safe treatment modality with a low incidence of complications. CONCLUSION: These outcomes suggest that HIFU is a feasible and safe treatment modality for patients with advanced pancreatic cancer and provides enhanced outcomes regarding survival and quality of life. Given the lack of a significant number of randomized clinical trials, this meta-analysis represents the best currently available evidence. New randomized trials assessing HIFU are necessary to further evaluate their outcomes.

Journal article

Salmasi MYB, Papa K, David M, Muhammad A, Alicja Z, Ishaan C, Thanos A, Isabelle R, Cesare Q, George Aet al., 2021, Converging rapid deployment prostheses with minimal access surgery: analysis of early outcomes, Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Vol: 16, ISSN: 1749-8090

Background:Sutureless prostheses may have added benefit when combined with minimal access surgery, although this has not been fully assessed in the literature. This study aims to provide a comparative analysis of the Perceval valve comparing median sternotomy (MS) with mini-sternotomy (MIS).Methods:A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data was conducted for all isolated aortic valve replacement (AVR), using the Perceval valve, for severe aortic stenosis cases in the period 2014 to 2019. Patients undergoing concomitant valve or revascularisation surgery were excluded.Results:A total of 78 patients were included: MS group 41; MIS group 37. Operatively, bypass times were comparable between MS and MIS groups (mean 89.3 vs 83.4, p = 0.307), as were aortic cross clamp times (58.4 vs 55.9, p = 0.434). There were no operative deaths or new onset post-operative neurology. MIS was a predictor of reduced stay in the intensive care unit (coef − 3.25, 95% CI [− 4.93, − 0.59], p = 0.036) and hospital stay overall (p = 0.004). Blood transfusion units were comparable as were the incidence of heart block (n = 5 vs n = 3, p = 0.429) and new onset atrial fibrillation (n = 15 vs n = 9, p = 0.250). Follow-up echocardiography found a significant improvement in effective orifice area, left ventricular dimension and volume indices, and LVEF (p > 0.05) for all patients. Multivariate analysis found mini-sternotomy to be a predictor for reduced LV diastolic volume (coef − 0.35, 95% CI [− 1.02, − 0.05], p = 0.05).Conclusions:The combination of minimal access surgery and sutureless AVR may enhance patient recovery and provide early LV remodelling.

Journal article

Drami I, Pring ET, Gould L, Malietzis G, Naghibi M, Athanasiou T, Glynne-Jones R, Jenkins JTet al., 2021, Body Composition and Dose-limiting Toxicity in Colorectal Cancer Chemotherapy Treatment; a Systematic Review of the Literature. Could Muscle Mass be the New Body Surface Area in Chemotherapy Dosing?, CLINICAL ONCOLOGY, Vol: 33, Pages: E540-E552, ISSN: 0936-6555

Journal article

Arjomandi Rad A, Naruka V, Vardanyan R, Viviano A, Salmasi MY, Magouliotis D, Kendall S, Casula R, Athanasiou Tet al., 2021, Mitral and tricuspid annuloplasty ring dehiscence: a systematic review with pooled analysis., Eur J Cardiothorac Surg, Vol: 60, Pages: 801-810

OBJECTIVES: Mitral and tricuspid ring annuloplasty dehiscence with consequent recurrent valve regurgitation is a rare but challenging procedural failure. The incidence and predisposing risk factors for annuloplasty ring dehiscence include technical and pathological ones. METHODS: A systematic database search with pooled analysis was conducted of original articles that only included dehiscence rate of mitral and tricuspid ring in EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane database and Google Scholar, from inception to November 2020. The outcomes included were dehiscence rate in mitral and tricuspid, type of ring implanted, dehiscence rate by pathology and by ring size and shape. RESULTS: Our search yielded 821 relevant studies. Thirty-three studies met the inclusion criteria with a total of 10 340 patients (6543 mitral, 1414 tricuspid) of which 87 (mitral) and 30 (tricuspid) had dehiscence. Overall, dehiscence rate was 1.43%, diagnosed at a median of 4.5 ± 1.0 months postoperatively. A significant difference in mitral dehiscence rate was found by ring type (semi-rigid 1.86%, rigid 2.32%; flexible 0.43%; P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in rate of dehiscence by ring size (P = 0.067) and shape in mitral (P = 0.281) but there was higher dehiscence rate in ischaemic compared to non-ischaemic mitral regurgitation (3.91% vs 1.63%; P = 0.022). Among tricuspid studies, 9 of 10 studies did not report any dehiscence. CONCLUSIONS: Although rigid, semi-rigid and flexible annuloplasty rings provide acceptable valve repair outcomes, mitral annuloplasty ring dehiscence is clinically more common among rigid rings. Understanding the multifactorial nature of ring dehiscence will help in identifying the patients at high risk and improve their clinical outcomes.

Journal article

Salmasi MYB, Pirola S, Sasidharan S, Fisichella S, Redaelli A, Jarral O, O'Regan D, Oo A, Moore Jr J, Xu XY, Athanasiou Tet al., 2021, High wall shear stress can predict wall degradation in ascending aorticaneurysms: an integrated biomechanics study, Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology, Vol: 9, Pages: 1-13, ISSN: 2296-4185

Background: Blood flow patterns can alter material properties of ascending thoracic aortic aneurysms (ATAA) via vascular wall remodeling. This study examines the relationship between wall shear stress (WSS) obtained from image-based computational modelling with tissue-derived mechanical and microstructural properties of the ATAA wall using segmental analysis.Methods: Ten patients undergoing surgery for ATAA were recruited. Exclusions: bicuspid aortopathy, connective tissue disease. All patients had pre-operative 4-dimensional flow magnetic resonance imaging (4D-MRI), allowing for patient-specific computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis and anatomically precise WSS mapping of ATAA regions (6–12 segments per patient). ATAA samples were obtained from surgery and subjected to region-specific tensile and peel testing (matched to WSS segments). Computational pathology was used to characterize elastin/collagen abundance and smooth muscle cell (SMC) count.Results: Elevated values of WSS were predictive of: reduced wall thickness [coef −0.0489, 95% CI (−0.0905, −0.00727), p = 0.022] and dissection energy function (longitudinal) [−15,0, 95% CI (−33.00, −2.98), p = 0.048]. High WSS values also predicted higher ultimate tensile strength [coef 0.136, 95% CI (0 0.001, 0.270), p = 0.048]. Additionally, elevated WSS also predicted a reduction in elastin levels [coef −0.276, 95% (CI −0.531, −0.020), p = 0.035] and lower SMC count ([oef −6.19, 95% CI (−11.41, −0.98), p = 0.021]. WSS was found to have no effect on collagen abundance or circumferential mechanical properties.Conclusions: Our study suggests an association between elevated WSS values and aortic wall degradation in ATAA disease. Further studies might help identify threshold values to predict acute aortic events.

Journal article

Maesen B, van der Heijden CAJ, Bidar E, Vos R, Athanasiou T, Maessen JGet al., 2021, Patient-reported quality of life after stand-alone and concomitant arrhythmia surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis, INTERACTIVE CARDIOVASCULAR AND THORACIC SURGERY, Vol: 34, Pages: 339-348, ISSN: 1569-9293

Journal article

Pring ET, Gould LE, Malietzis G, Lung P, Bharal M, Fadodun T, Bassett P, Naghibi M, Taylor C, Drami I, Chauhan D, Street T, Francis NK, Athanasiou T, Saxton JM, Jenkins JTet al., 2021, BiCyCLE NMES-neuromuscular electrical stimulation in the perioperative treatment of sarcopenia and myosteatosis in advanced rectal cancer patients: design and methodology of a phase II randomised controlled trial, TRIALS, Vol: 22

Journal article

Fergadi MP, Magouliotis DE, Vlychou M, Rountas C, Athanasiou T, Zacharoulis Det al., 2021, A meta-analysis evaluating contrast-enhanced intraoperative ultrasound (CE-IOUS) in the context of surgery for colorectal liver metastases., Abdom Radiol (NY), Vol: 46, Pages: 4178-4188

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to assess the outcomes of contrast-enhanced intraoperative ultrasound (CE-IOUS) for patients with colorectal liver metastases (CRLMs) undergoing surgery. METHOD: A thorough literature search was performed in PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane databases, in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. The Odds Ratio, Weighted Mean Difference, and 95% Confidence Interval were evaluated, by means of Random-Effects model. RESULTS: Eleven articles met the inclusion criteria and incorporated 497 patients. The present study shows that CE-IOUS is associated with higher sensitivity and accuracy compared with multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and intraoperative ultrasound (IOUS) in identifying CRLMs (p < 0.05). The positive predictive value was similar among the different modalities. Furthermore, new CRLMs were identified by CE-IOUS, thus affecting the surgical plan in 128 patients (51.8% of the patients with new CRLMs). Moreover, 91 patients (71%) underwent a more extensive hepatectomy and 15 patients (11.7%) were considered non-operable. Two alternative contrast agents, Sonazoid and Sonovue, were employed with similar sensitivity (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: These outcomes suggest the superiority of the CE-IOUS over MDCT, MRI, and IOUS for the staging of patients with CRLMs undergoing surgery. However, they should be treated with caution given the small number of the included studies.

Journal article

Salmasi MY, Ravishankar R, Abdullahi Y, Hartley P, Kyriazis PG, Athanasiou T, Punjabi Pet al., 2021, Predictors of outcome after CABG in the South-Asian community: a propensity matched analysis, PERFUSION-UK, ISSN: 0267-6591

Journal article

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