412 results found
Shahin M, Sheppard D, Raynaud C, et al., 2023, Characterization of a glycan-binding complex of minor pilins completes theanalysis of Streptococcus sanguinis type 4 pili subunits, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of USA, Vol: 120, ISSN: 0027-8424
Type 4 filaments (T4F)—of which type 4 pili (T4P) are the archetype—are a superfamily of nanomachines nearly ubiquitous in prokaryotes. T4F are polymers of one major pilin, which also contain minor pilins whose roles are often poorly understood. Here, we complete the structure/function analysis of the full set of T4P pilins in the opportunistic bacterial pathogen Streptococcus sanguinis. We determined the structure of the minor pilin PilA, which is unexpectedly similar to one of the subunits of a tip-located complex of four minor pilins, widely conserved in T4F. We found that PilA interacts and dramatically stabilizes the minor pilin PilC. We determined the structure of PilC, showing that it is a modular pilin with a lectin module binding a subset of glycans prevalent in the human glycome, the host of S. sanguinis. Altogether, our findings support a model whereby the minor pilins in S. sanguinis T4P form a tip-located complex promoting adhesion to various host receptors. This has general implications for T4F.
Ribeiro DO, Pinheiro BA, Bras JLA, et al., 2022, Protein-carbohydrate recognition in the biodegradation of plant cell wall: functional studies using carbohydrate microarrays, Publisher: WILEY, Pages: 46-46, ISSN: 2211-5463
Akune Y, Arpinar S, Silva LM, et al., 2022, CarbArrayART-An update on the software tool for carbohydrate microarray data, storage, processing, presentation and reporting, Glycobiology, Vol: 30, Pages: 1031-1031, ISSN: 0959-6658
Glycan microarrays are essential tools in glycobiology and are being widely used for assignment of glycan ligands in diverse glycan recognition systems. We have developed a new software, called Carbohydrate microArray Analysis and Reporting Tool (CarbArrayART), to address the need for a distributable application for glycan microarray data management. The main features of CarbArrayART include: (i) Storage of quantified array data from different array layouts with scan data and array-specific metadata, such as lists of arrayed glycans, array geometry, information on glycan-binding samples, and experimental protocols. (ii) Presentation of microarray data as charts, tables, and heatmaps derived from the average fluorescence intensity values that are calculated based on the imaging scan data and array geometry, as well as filtering and sorting functions according to monosaccharide content and glycan sequences. (iii) Data export for reporting in Word, PDF, and Excel formats, together with metadata that are compliant with the guidelines of MIRAGE (Minimum Information Required for A Glycomics Experiment). CarbArrayART is designed for routine use in recording, storage, and management of any slide-based glycan microarray experiment. In conjunction with the MIRAGE guidelines, CarbArrayART addresses issues that are critical for glycobiology, namely, clarity of data for evaluation of reproducibility and validity.
Kundu S, Lee Y, Sykes L, et al., 2022, The Effect of Secretor Status and the Vaginal Microbiome on Birth Outcome, Publisher: SPRINGER HEIDELBERG, Pages: 197-197, ISSN: 1933-7191
McAllister N, Liu Y, Silva LM, et al., 2021, Chikungunya Virus Strains from Each Genetic Clade Bind Sulfated Glycosaminoglycans as Attachment Factors (vol 94, e01500-20, 2020), JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY, Vol: 95, ISSN: 0022-538X
Correia VG, Trovao F, Pinheiro BA, et al., 2021, Mapping Molecular Recognition of β1,3-1,4-Glucans by a Surface Glycan-Binding Protein from the Human Gut Symbiont <i>Bacteroides ovatus</i>, MICROBIOLOGY SPECTRUM, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2165-0497
Gyapon-Quast F, Goicoechea de Jorge E, Malik T, et al., 2021, Defining the glycosaminoglycan interactions of complement factor H-related protein 5, Journal of Immunology, Vol: 207, Pages: 534-541, ISSN: 0022-1767
Complement activation is an important mediator of kidney injury in glomerulonephritis. Complement factor H (FH) and FH-related protein 5 (FHR-5) influence complement activation in C3 glomerulopathy and IgA nephropathy by differentially regulating glomerular complement. FH is a negative regulator of complement C3 activation. Conversely, FHR-5 in vitro promotes C3 activation either directly or by competing with FH for binding to complement C3b. The FH-C3b interaction is enhanced by surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and the FH-GAG interaction is well-characterized. In contrast, the contributions of carbohydrates to the interaction of FHR-5 and C3b are unknown. Using plate-based and microarray technologies we demonstrate that FHR-5 interacts with sulfated GAGs and that this interaction is influenced by the pattern and degree of GAG sulfation. The FHR-5-GAG interaction that we identified has functional relevance as we could show that the ability of FHR-5 to prevent binding of FH to surface C3b is enhanced by surface kidney heparan sulfate. Our findings are important in understanding the molecular basis of the binding of FHR-5 to glomerular complement and the role of FHR-5 in complement-mediated glomerular disease.
Bonnardel F, Haslam SM, Dell A, et al., 2021, Proteome-wide prediction of bacterial carbohydrate-binding proteins as a tool for understanding commensal and pathogen colonisation of the vaginal microbiome, npj Biofilms and Microbiomes, Vol: 7, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 2055-5008
Bacteria use carbohydrate-binding proteins (CBPs), such as lectins and carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs), to anchor to specific sugars on host surfaces. CBPs in the gut microbiome are well studied, but their roles in the vagina microbiome and involvement in sexually transmitted infections, cervical cancer and preterm birth are largely unknown. We established a classification system for lectins and designed Hidden Markov Model (HMM) profiles for data mining of bacterial genomes, resulting in identification of >100,000 predicted bacterial lectins available at unilectin.eu/bacteria. Genome screening of 90 isolates from 21 vaginal bacterial species shows that those associated with infection and inflammation produce a larger CBPs repertoire, thus enabling them to potentially bind a wider array of glycans in the vagina. Both the number of predicted bacterial CBPs and their specificities correlated with pathogenicity. This study provides new insights into potential mechanisms of colonisation by commensals and potential pathogens of the reproductive tract that underpin health and disease states.
Janssen J, Donner N, Li Z, et al., 2021, A Major Subset of Mutated CLL Expresses Affinity-selected and Functionally Proficient Rheumatoid Factors, HEMASPHERE, Vol: 5
Silva LM, Correia VG, Moreira ASP, et al., 2021, Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide structural domains and their recognition by immune proteins revealed with carbohydrate microarrays, Carbohydrate Polymers, Vol: 253, ISSN: 0144-8617
The structural diversity of the lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) from Helicobacter pylori poses a challenge to establish accurate and strain-specific structure-function relationships in interactions with the host. Here, LPS structural domains from five clinical isolates were obtained and compared with the reference strain 26695. This was achieved combining information from structural analysis (GC-MS and ESI-MSn) with binding data after interrogation of a LPS-derived carbohydrate microarray with sequence-specific proteins. All LPSs expressed Lewisx/y and N-acetyllactosamine determinants. Ribans were also detected in LPSs from all clinical isolates, allowing their distinction from the 26695 LPS. There was evidence for 1,3-d-galactans and blood group H-type 2 sequences in two of the clinical isolates, the latter not yet described for H. pylori LPS. Furthermore, carbohydrate microarray analyses showed a strain-associated LPS recognition by the immune lectins DC-SIGN and galectin-3 and revealed distinctive LPS binding patterns by IgG antibodies in the serum from H. pylori-infected patients.
Murugesan G, Correia VG, Palma AS, et al., 2021, Siglec-15 recognition of sialoglycans on tumor cell lines can occur independently of sialyl Tn antigen expression, GLYCOBIOLOGY, Vol: 31, Pages: 44-54, ISSN: 0959-6658
McAllister N, Liu Y, Silva LM, et al., 2020, Chikungunya virus strains from each genetic clade bind sulfated glycosaminoglycans as attachment factors, Journal of Virology, Vol: 94, ISSN: 0022-538X
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthritogenic alphavirus that causes debilitating musculoskeletal disease. CHIKV displays broad cell, tissue, and species tropism, which may correlate with the attachment factors and entry receptors used by the virus. Cell-surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) have been identified as CHIKV attachment factors. However, the specific types of GAGs and potentially other glycans to which CHIKV binds and whether there are strain-specific differences in GAG binding is not fully understood. To identify the types of glycans bound by CHIKV, we conducted glycan microarray analyses and discovered that CHIKV preferentially binds GAGs. Microarray results also indicate that sulfate groups on GAGs are essential for CHIKV binding and that CHIKV binds most strongly to longer GAG chains of heparin and heparan sulfate. To determine whether GAG-binding capacity varies among CHIKV strains, a representative strain from each genetic clade was tested. While all strains directly bound to heparin and chondroitin sulfate in ELISAs and depended on heparan sulfate for efficient cell-binding and infection, we observed some variation by strain. Enzymatic removal of cell-surface GAGs and genetic ablation that diminishes GAG expression reduced CHIKV binding and infectivity of all strains. Collectively, these data demonstrate that GAGs are the preferred glycan bound by CHIKV, enhance our understanding of the specific GAG moieties required for CHIKV binding, define strain differences in GAG engagement, and provide further evidence for a critical function of GAGs in CHIKV cell attachment and infection.IMPORTANCE Alphavirus infections are a global health threat, contributing to outbreaks of disease in many parts of the world. Recent epidemics caused by CHIKV, an arthritogenic alphavirus, resulted in more than 8.5 million cases as the virus has spread into new geographic regions, including the Western Hemisphere. CHIKV causes disease in the majority of people infected, leading
Ribeiro DO, Costa R, Pinheiro BA, et al., 2020, Unravelling Clostridium thermocellum LysM domains: Structural basis for the recognition of chitin and peptidoglycan, Publisher: OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, Pages: 1099-1100, ISSN: 0959-6658
York WS, Mazumder R, Ranzinger R, et al., 2020, GlyGen: Computational and Informatics Resources for Glycoscience, GLYCOBIOLOGY, Vol: 30, Pages: 72-73, ISSN: 0959-6658
Vendele I, Willment JA, Silva LM, et al., 2020, Mannan detecting C-type lectin receptor probes recognise immune epitopes with diverse chemical, spatial and phylogenetic heterogeneity in fungal cell walls, PLoS Pathogens, Vol: 16, Pages: 1-29, ISSN: 1553-7366
During the course of fungal infection, pathogen recognition by the innate immune system is critical to initiate efficient protective immune responses. The primary event that triggers immune responses is the binding of Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs), which are expressed at the surface of host immune cells, to Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs) located predominantly in the fungal cell wall. Most fungi have mannosylated PAMPs in their cell walls and these are recognized by a range of C-type lectin receptors (CTLs). However, the precise spatial distribution of the ligands that induce immune responses within the cell walls of fungi are not well defined. We used recombinant IgG Fc-CTLs fusions of three murine mannan detecting CTLs, including dectin-2, the mannose receptor (MR) carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs) 4–7 (CRD4-7), and human DC-SIGN (hDC-SIGN) and of the β-1,3 glucan-binding lectin dectin-1 to map PRR ligands in the fungal cell wall of fungi grown in vitro in rich and minimal media. We show that epitopes of mannan-specific CTL receptors can be clustered or diffuse, superficial or buried in the inner cell wall. We demonstrate that PRR ligands do not correlate well with phylogenetic relationships between fungi, and that Fc-lectin binding discriminated between mannosides expressed on different cell morphologies of the same fungus. We also demonstrate CTL epitope differentiation during different phases of the growth cycle of Candida albicans and that MR and DC-SIGN labelled outer chain N-mannans whilst dectin-2 labelled core N-mannans displayed deeper in the cell wall. These immune receptor maps of fungal walls of in vitro grown cells therefore reveal remarkable spatial, temporal and chemical diversity, indicating that the triggering of immune recognition events originates from multiple physical origins at the fungal cell surface.
Azevedo HS, Braunschweig AB, Chiechi RC, et al., 2019, New directions in surface functionalization and characterization: general discussion., Faraday Discuss, Vol: 219, Pages: 252-261
Ten F, 2019, Nanolithography of biointerfaces, FARADAY DISCUSSIONS, Vol: 219, Pages: 262-275, ISSN: 1359-6640
Wu N, Silva LM, Liu Y, et al., 2019, Glycan Markers of Human Stem Cells Assigned with Beam Search Arrays., Mol Cell Proteomics, Vol: 18, Pages: 1981-2002, ISSN: 1535-9476
Glycan antigens recognized by monoclonal antibodies have served as stem cell markers. To understand regulation of their biosynthesis and their roles in stem cell behavior precise assignments are required. We have applied state-of-the-art glycan array technologies to compare the glycans bound by five antibodies that recognize carbohydrates on human stem cells. These are: FC10.2, TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81, anti-i and R-10G. Microarray analyses with a panel of sequence-defined glycans corroborate that FC10.2, TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81 recognize the type 1-(Galβ-3GlcNAc)-terminating backbone sequence, Galβ-3GlcNAcβ-3Galβ-4GlcNAcβ-3Galβ-4GlcNAc, and anti-i, the type 2-(Galβ-4GlcNAc) analog, Galβ-4GlcNAcβ-3Galβ-4GlcNAcβ-3Galβ-4GlcNAc, and we determine substituents they can accommodate. They differ from R-10G, which requires sulfate. By Beam Search approach, starting with an antigen-positive keratan sulfate polysaccharide, followed by targeted iterative microarray analyses of glycan populations released with keratanases and mass spectrometric monitoring, R-10G is assigned as a mono-sulfated type 2 chain with 6-sulfation at the penultimate N-acetylglucosamine, Galβ-4GlcNAc(6S)β-3Galβ-4GlcNAcβ-3Galβ-4GlcNAc. Microarray analyses using newly synthesized glycans corroborate the assignment of this unique determinant raising questions regarding involvement as a ligand in the stem cell niche.
Wells L, Feizi T, 2019, Editorial overview: Carbohydrates: <i>O</i>-glycosylation, CURRENT OPINION IN STRUCTURAL BIOLOGY, Vol: 56, Pages: III-V, ISSN: 0959-440X
Chandra N, Liu Y, Liu J-X, et al., 2019, Sulfated glycosaminoglycans as viral decoy receptors for human adenovirus type 37, Viruses, Vol: 11, ISSN: 1999-4915
Glycans on plasma membranes and in secretions play important roles in infection by many viruses. Species D human adenovirus type 37 (HAdV-D37) is a major cause of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC) and infects target cells by interacting with sialic acid (SA)-containing glycans via the fiber knob domain of the viral fiber protein. HAdV-D37 also interacts with sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), but the outcome of this interaction remains unknown. Here, we investigated the molecular requirements of HAdV-D37 fiber knob:GAG interactions using a GAG microarray and demonstrated that fiber knob interacts with a broad range of sulfated GAGs. These interactions were corroborated in cell-based assays and by surface plasmon resonance analysis. Removal of heparan sulfate (HS) and sulfate groups from human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells by heparinase III and sodium chlorate treatments, respectively, reduced HAdV-D37 binding to cells. Remarkably, removal of HS by heparinase III enhanced the virus infection. Our results suggest that interaction of HAdV-D37 with sulfated GAGs in secretions and on plasma membranes prevents/delays the virus binding to SA-containing receptors and inhibits subsequent infection. We also found abundant HS in the basement membrane of the human corneal epithelium, which may act as a barrier to sub-epithelial infection. Collectively, our findings provide novel insights into the role of GAGs as viral decoy receptors and highlight the therapeutic potential of GAGs and/or GAG-mimetics in HAdV-D37 infection.
Rudkin FM, Raziunaite I, Workman H, et al., 2019, Single human B cell-derived monoclonal anti-<i>Candida</i> antibodies enhance phagocytosis and protect against disseminated candidiasis (vol 9, 5288, 2018), NATURE COMMUNICATIONS, Vol: 10, ISSN: 2041-1723
Rudkin FM, Raziunaite I, Workman H, et al., 2018, Single human B cell-derived monoclonal anti-<i>Candida</i> antibodies enhance phagocytosis and protect against disseminated candidiasis, NATURE COMMUNICATIONS, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2041-1723
Akune Y, Arpinar S, Silva LM, et al., 2018, CarbArrayART: Carbohydrate Array Analysis and Reporting Tool New software for glycan array for data processing, storage and presentation, Annual Meeting of the Society-for-Glycobiology (SFG), Publisher: OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC, Pages: 1034-1035, ISSN: 0959-6658
Li Z, Feizi T, 2018, The neoglycolipid (NGL) technology-based microarrays and future prospects., FEBS Lett, Vol: 592, Pages: 3976-3991
The neoglycolipid (NGL) technology is the basis of a state-of-the-art oligosaccharide microarray system, which we offer for screening analyses to the broad scientific community. We review here the sequential development of the technology and its power in pinpointing and isolating naturally occurring ligands for glycan-binding proteins (GBPs) within glycan populations. We highlight our Designer Array approach and Beam Search Array approach for generating natural glycome arrays to identify novel ligands of biological relevance. These two microarray approaches have been applied for assignments of ligands or antigens on glucan polysaccharides for effector proteins of the immune system (Dectin-1, DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR) and carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) on bacterial hydrolases. We also discuss here the more recent applications to elucidate the structure of a prostate cancer- associated antigen F77 and identify ligands for adhesins of two rotaviruses, P and P, expressed on an epithelial mucin glycoprotein.
Chai W, Zhang Y, Mauri L, et al., 2018, Assignment by Negative-Ion Electrospray Tandem Mass Spectrometry of the Tetrasaccharide Backbones of Monosialylated Glycans Released from Bovine Brain Gangliosides, JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN SOCIETY FOR MASS SPECTROMETRY, Vol: 29, Pages: 1308-1318, ISSN: 1044-0305
Gangliosides, as plasma membrane-associated sialylated glycolipids, are antigenic structures and they serve as ligands for adhesion proteins of pathogens, for toxins of bacteria, and for endogenous proteins of the host. The detectability by carbohydrate-binding proteins of glycan antigens and ligands on glycolipids can be influenced by the differing lipid moieties. To investigate glycan sequences of gangliosides as recognition structures, we have underway a program of work to develop a “gangliome” microarray consisting of isolated natural gangliosides and neoglycolipids (NGLs) derived from glycans released from them, and each linked to the same lipid molecule for arraying and comparative microarray binding analyses. Here, in the first phase of our studies, we describe a strategy for high-sensitivity assignment of the tetrasaccharide backbones and application to identification of eight of monosialylated glycans released from bovine brain gangliosides. This approach is based on negative-ion electrospray mass spectrometry with collision-induced dissociation (ESI-CID-MS/MS) of the desialylated glycans. Using this strategy, we have the data on backbone regions of four minor components among the monosialo-ganglioside-derived glycans; these are of the ganglio-, lacto-, and neolacto-series.
Stappers MHT, Clark AE, Aimanianda V, et al., 2018, Recognition of DHN-melanin by the C-type lectin, MelLec, is required for protective immunity to Aspergillus fumigatus, Publisher: OXFORD UNIV PRESS, Pages: S156-S156, ISSN: 1369-3786
Lenman A, Liaci AM, Liu Y, et al., 2018, Polysialic acid is a cellular receptor for human adenovirus 52, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol: 115, Pages: E4264-E4273, ISSN: 0027-8424
Human adenovirus 52 (HAdV-52) is one of only three known HAdVs equipped with both a long and a short fiber protein. While the long fiber binds to the coxsackie and adenovirus receptor, the function of the short fiber in the virus life cycle is poorly understood. Here, we show, by glycan microarray analysis and cellular studies, that the short fiber knob (SFK) of HAdV-52 recognizes long chains of α-2,8-linked polysialic acid (polySia), a large posttranslational modification of selected carrier proteins, and that HAdV-52 can use polySia as a receptor on target cells. X-ray crystallography, NMR, molecular dynamics simulation, and structure-guided mutagenesis of the SFK reveal that the nonreducing, terminal sialic acid of polySia engages the protein with direct contacts, and that specificity for polySia is achieved through subtle, transient electrostatic interactions with additional sialic acid residues. In this study, we present a previously unrecognized role for polySia as a cellular receptor for a human viral pathogen. Our detailed analysis of the determinants of specificity for this interaction has general implications for protein–carbohydrate interactions, particularly concerning highly charged glycan structures, and provides interesting dimensions on the biology and evolution of members of Human mastadenovirus G.
Stappers MHT, Clark AE, Aimanianda V, et al., 2018, Recognition of DHN-melanin by a C-type lectin receptor is required for immunity to Aspergillus, NATURE, Vol: 555, Pages: 382-386, ISSN: 0028-0836
Resistance to infection is critically dependent on the ability of pattern recognition receptors to recognize microbial invasion and induce protective immune responses. One such family of receptors are the C-type lectins, which are central to antifungal immunity1. These receptors activate key effector mechanisms upon recognition of conserved fungal cell-wall carbohydrates. However, several other immunologically active fungal ligands have been described; these include melanin2,3, for which the mechanism of recognition is hitherto undefined. Here we identify a C-type lectin receptor, melanin-sensing C-type lectin receptor (MelLec), that has an essential role in antifungal immunity through recognition of the naphthalene-diol unit of 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN)-melanin. MelLec recognizes melanin in conidial spores of Aspergillus fumigatus as well as in other DHN-melanized fungi. MelLec is ubiquitously expressed by CD31+ endothelial cells in mice, and is also expressed by a sub-population of these cells that co-express epithelial cell adhesion molecule and are detected only in the lung and the liver. In mouse models, MelLec was required for protection against disseminated infection with A. fumigatus. In humans, MelLec is also expressed by myeloid cells, and we identified a single nucleotide polymorphism of this receptor that negatively affected myeloid inflammatory responses and significantly increased the susceptibility of stem-cell transplant recipients to disseminated Aspergillus infections. MelLec therefore recognizes an immunologically active component commonly found on fungi and has an essential role in protective antifungal immunity in both mice and humans.
Liu Y, Palma AS, Ten F, et al., 2018, Insights Into Glucan Polysaccharide Recognition Using Glucooligosaccharide Microarrays With Oxime-Linked Neoglycolipid Probes, CHEMICAL GLYCOBIOLOGY, PT B: MONITORING GLYCANS AND THEIR INTERACTIONS, Editors: Imperiali, Publisher: ELSEVIER ACADEMIC PRESS INC, Pages: 139-167
Liu Y, Catera R, Gao C, et al., 2017, The (auto)antigen specificities of B cell receptor immunoglobulins from CLL stereotyped subset 4 are positively and negatively selected by structural elements introduced by somatic mutation and isotype class switching, Publisher: TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, Pages: 80-81, ISSN: 1042-8194
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