Imperial College London

Professor Trevor Hansel

Faculty of MedicineNational Heart & Lung Institute

Emeritus Professor of Respiratory Pharmacology
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 3312 5733t.hansel

 
 
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Location

 

Imperial Clinical Respiratory ReMint WingSt Mary's Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

151 results found

Dhariwal J, Cameron A, Wong E, Trujillo-Torralbo B, Del Rosario A, Bakhsoliani E, Paulsen M, Jackson D, Hansel TT, Edwards M, Cousins D, Walton RP, Johnston SLet al., 2021, Pulmonary innate lymphoid cell responses during rhinovirus-induced asthma exacerbations, Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Vol: 204, Pages: 1259-1273, ISSN: 0091-6749

Rationale Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are significant sources of type 2 cytokines, which are implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma and asthma exacerbations. The role of ILC2s in virus-induced asthma exacerbations is not well-characterized. Objectives To characterize pulmonary ILC responses following experimental rhinovirus challenge in patients with moderate asthma and healthy subjects. Methods Patients with moderate asthma and healthy subjects were inoculated with rhinovirus-16, and underwent bronchoscopy at baseline, day 3 and day 8 post-inoculation. Pulmonary ILC1s and ILC2s were quantified in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) using flow cytometry. The ratio of BAL ILC2:ILC1 was assessed to determine their relative contributions to the clinical and immune response to rhinovirus challenge. Measurements and Main Results At baseline, ILC2s were significantly higher in patients with asthma than healthy subjects. At day 8, ILC2s significantly increased from baseline in both groups, which was significantly higher in asthma than in healthy subjects (all comparisons P<0.05). In healthy subjects, ILC1s increased from baseline at day 3 (P=0.001), while in patients with asthma, ILC1s increased from baseline at day 8 (P=0.042). Patients with asthma had significantly higher ILC2:ILC1 ratios at baseline (P=0.024) and day 8 (P=0.005). Increased ILC2:ILC1 ratio in asthma correlated with clinical exacerbation severity and type 2 cytokines in nasal mucosal lining fluid. Conclusions An ILC2-predominant inflammatory profile in asthma was associated with increased severity and duration of rhinovirus infection compared with healthy subjects, supporting the potential role of ILC2s in the pathogenesis of virus-induced asthma exacerbations. Clinical trial registration available at www.clinicaltrials.gov, ID: NCT01773590

Journal article

Baumann R, Untersmayr E, Zissler UM, Eyerich S, Adcock IM, Brockow K, Biedermann T, Ollert M, Chaker AM, Pfaar O, Garn H, Thwaites RS, Togias A, Kowalski ML, Hansel T, Jakwerth C, Schmidt-Weber CBet al., 2021, Non-invasive and minimally-invasive techniques for the diagnosis and management of allergic diseases., Allergy, Vol: 76, Pages: 1010-1023, ISSN: 0105-4538

Allergic diseases of the (upper and lower) airways, the skin as well as the gastrointestinal tract, are on the rise, resulting in impaired quality of life, decreased productivity and increased healthcare costs. As allergic diseases are mostly tissue specific, local sampling methods for respective biomarkers offer the potential for increased sensitivity and specificity. Additionally, local sampling using non-invasive or minimally-invasive methods can be cost-effective and well tolerated, which may even be suitable for primary or home care sampling. Non- or minimally-invasive local sampling and diagnostics may enable a more thorough endotyping, may help to avoid under- or overdiagnosis, and may provide the possibility to approach precision prevention, due to early diagnosis of these local diseases even before they get systemically manifested and detectable. At the same time, dried blood samples may help to facilitate minimal-invasive primary or home care sampling for classical systemic diagnostic approaches. This EAACI position paper contains a thorough review of the various technologies in allergy diagnosis available on the market, which analytes or biomarkers are employed, and which samples or matrices can be used. Based on this assessment, EAACIs position is to drive these developments to efficiently identify allergy and possibly later also viral epidemics and take advantage of comprehensive knowledge to initiate preventions and treatments.

Journal article

Jha A, Thwaites RS, Tunstall T, Kon OM, Shattock RJ, Hansel TT, Openshaw PJMet al., 2021, Increased nasal mucosal interferon and CCL13 response to a TLR7/8 agonist in asthma and allergic rhinitis., Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Vol: 147, Pages: 694-703.e12, ISSN: 0091-6749

BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory viral infections are a major cause of respiratory morbidity and mortality, especially in patients with preexisting lung diseases such as asthma. Toll-like receptors are critical in the early detection of viruses and in activating innate immunity in the respiratory mucosa, but there is no reliable and convenient method by which respiratory mucosal innate immune responses can be measured. OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess in vivo immune responses to an innate stimulus and compare responsiveness between healthy volunteers and volunteers with allergy. METHODS: We administered the Toll-like receptor 7/8 agonist resiquimod (R848; a synthetic analogue of single-stranded RNA) or saline by nasal spray to healthy participants without allergy (n = 12), those with allergic rhinitis (n = 12), or those with allergic rhinitis with asthma (n = 11). Immune mediators in blood and nasal fluid and mucosal gene expression were monitored over time. RESULTS: R848 was well tolerated and significantly induced IFN-α2a, IFN-γ, proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-2, IL-12p70), and chemokines (CXCL10, C-C motif chemokine ligand [CCL]2, CCL3, CCL4, and CCL13) in nasal mucosal fluid, without causing systemic immune activation. Participants with allergic rhinitis or allergic rhinitis with asthma had increased IFN-α2a, CCL3, and CCL13 responses relative to healthy participants; those with asthma had increased induction of IFN-stimulated genes DExD/H-box helicase 58, MX dynamin-like GTPase 1, and IFN-induced protein with tetratricopeptide repeats 3. CONCLUSIONS: Responses to nasal delivery of R848 enables simple assessment of mucosal innate responsiveness, revealing that patients with allergic disorders have an increased nasal mucosal IFN and chemokine response to the viral RNA analogue R848. This highlights that dysregulated innate immune responses of the nasal mucosa in allergic individuals may be important in determining the

Journal article

Habibi M, Thwaites R, Chang M, Jozwik A, Paras A, Kirsebom F, Varese A, Owen A, Cuthbertson L, James P, Tunstall T, Nickle D, Hansel T, Moffatt M, Johansson C, Chiu C, Openshaw Pet al., 2020, Neutrophilic inflammation in the respiratory mucosa predisposes to RSV infection, Science, Vol: 370, Pages: 1-15, ISSN: 0036-8075

INTRODUCTIONEven with intimate exposure to a virus, some people fail to become infected. Variable transmission partly depends on the dose and duration of exposure but is also governed by the immune status of the host, such as the presence of specific protective antibodies or T cells. However, for some infections, the reasons for erratic transmission are largely unknown. For example, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) can repeatedly reinfect individuals throughout their lives despite the presence of specific immunity. Additionally, antibodies and T cells have limited efficacy against newly emergent pathogens with pandemic potential. However, the intrinsic and innate mechanisms underlying protection when people are exposed to these viruses are poorly understood.RATIONALEWe reasoned that the prior state of the respiratory mucosa’s innate defenses may contribute to the variable outcome of RSV inoculation. By performing experimental challenge of adult volunteers, we were able to measure variations in the status of the nasal mucosa before inoculation and in mucosal responses during the presymptomatic phase of infection. Neither of these phases is easily observable during natural spontaneous transmission. Our observations could then be validated using specific interventional studies in a well-established mouse model of RSV infection.RESULTSAfter nasal administration of RSV, 57% of inoculated volunteers became infected. The uptake of infection was poorly explained by specific B or T cell immunity. However, transcriptomic profiling of the nasal tissue before inoculation demonstrated a neutrophilic inflammatory signal in those destined to develop symptomatic infection, and this was associated with suppression of an early interleukin-17 (IL-17)–dominated immune response during the presymptomatic period. This was followed by symptomatic infection associated with the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. By contrast, those who resisted infection showed a transient

Journal article

Pertsinidou E, Singh N, Thwaites R, Hansel TT, Sjolander A, Molin Met al., 2020, Automated measurement of MPO and NGAL in nasal mucosal lining fluid, European-Academy-of-Allergology-and-Clinical-Immunology Digital Congress (EAACI), Publisher: WILEY, Pages: 399-400, ISSN: 0105-4538

Conference paper

Pertsinidou E, Singh N, Thwaites R, Hansel TT, Sjolander A, Molin Met al., 2020, Fully automated, precise measurement of EDN in nasal mucosal lining fluid, European-Academy-of-Allergology-and-Clinical-Immunology Digital Congress (EAACI), Publisher: WILEY, Pages: 393-393, ISSN: 0105-4538

Conference paper

Mashbat B, Bellos E, Hodeib S, Bidmos F, Thwaites RS, Lu Y, Wright VJ, Herberg JA, Klobassa DS, Zenz W, Hansel TT, Nadel S, Langford PR, Schlapbach LJ, Li M-S, Redinbo MR, Di YP, Levin M, Sancho-Shimizu Vet al., 2020, A rare mutation in SPLUNC1 underlies meningococcal disease affecting bacterial adherence and invasion, Clinical Infectious Diseases, Vol: 70, Pages: 2045-2053, ISSN: 1058-4838

BackgroundNeisseriameningitidis (Nm) is a nasopharyngeal commensal carried by healthy individuals. However, invasive infections occurs in a minority of individuals, with devastating consequences. There is evidence that common polymorphisms are associated with invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) but the contribution of rare variants other than complement has not been determined.MethodsWe identified familial cases of IMD in the UK meningococcal disease study and the European Union Life-threatening Infectious Disease Study. Candidate genetic variants were identified by whole exome sequencing of two patients with familial IMD. Candidate variants were further validated by in vitro assays.ResultsExomes of two siblings with IMD identified a novel heterozygous missense mutation in BPIFA1/SPLUNC1. Sequencing of 186 other non-familial cases identified another unrelated IMD patient with the same mutation. SPLUNC1 is an innate immune defence protein expressed in the nasopharyngeal epithelia, however, its role in invasive infections is unknown. In vitro assays demonstrated that recombinant SPLUNC1 inhibits biofilm formation by Nm, and impedes Nm adhesion and invasion of human airway cells. The dominant negative mutant rSPLUNC1 (p.G22E) showed reduced anti-biofilm activity, increased meningococcal adhesion and invasion of cells compared with wild type SPLUNC1.ConclusionsA mutation in SPLUNC1 affecting mucosal attachment, biofilm formation and invasion of mucosal epithelial cells is a new genetic cause of meningococcal disease.

Journal article

Abbara A, Collin SM, Kon OM, Buell K, Sullivan A, Barrett J, Corrah T, McGregor A, Hansel T, John L, Davidson RNet al., 2019, Time to diagnosis of tuberculosis is greater in older patients: a retrospective cohort review, ERJ OPEN RESEARCH, Vol: 5

Journal article

Jha A, Dunning J, Tunstall T, Thwaites R, Hoang L, The MOSAIC Investigators, Kon OM, Zambon MC, Hansel TT, Openshaw P, Openshaw P, Jha A, Dunning J, Thwaites R, Hoang Let al., 2019, Patterns of systemic and local inflammation in patients with asthma hospitalised with influenza, European Respiratory Journal, Vol: 54, ISSN: 0903-1936

BackgroundPatients with asthma are at risk of hospitalisation with influenza, but the reasons for this predisposition are unknown.Study settingA prospective observational study of adults with PCR-confirmed influenza in 11 UK hospitals, measuring nasal, nasopharyngeal and systemic immune mediators and whole-blood gene expression.ResultsOf 133 admissions, 40 (30%) had previous asthma; these were more often female (70% vs 38.7%, OR 3.69, 95% CI 1.67 to 8.18, P = 0.0012), required less mechanical ventilation (15% vs 37.6%, χ2 6.78, P=0.0338) and had shorter hospital stays (mean 8.3 vs 15.3 d, P=0.0333) than those without. In patients without asthma, severe outcomes were more frequent in those given corticosteroids (OR=2.63, 95% CI=1.02-6.96, P=0.0466) or presenting >4 days after disease onset (OR 5.49, 95% CI 2.28–14.03, P=0.0002). Influenza vaccination in at-risk groups (including asthma) were lower than intended by national policy and the early use of antiviral medications were less than optimal. Mucosal immune responses were equivalent between groups. Those with asthma had higher serum IFN-α but lower serum TNF, IL-5, IL-6, CXCL8, CXCL9, IL-10, IL-17 and CCL2 levels (all P<0.05); both groups had similar serum IL-13, total IgE, periostin and blood eosinophil gene expression levels. Asthma diagnosis was unrelated to viral load, IFN-α, IFN-γ, IL-5 or IL-13 levels.ConclusionsAsthma is common in those hospitalised with influenza, but may not represent classical Type 2-driven disease. Those admitted with influenza tend to be female with mild serum inflammatory responses, increased serum IFN-α levels and good clinical outcomes.

Journal article

Scott IC, Singh N, Killick H, Kenton C, Ly J, Hansel TT, Kell C, Thwaites R, Cohen ESet al., 2019, Novel assays to measure forms of interleukin-33 in the circulation and airway mucosa, European-Respiratory-Society (ERS) International Congress, Publisher: EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY SOC JOURNALS LTD, ISSN: 0903-1936

Conference paper

Progatzky F, Jha A, Wane M, Thwaites RS, Makris S, Shattock RJ, Johansson C, Openshaw PJ, Bugeon L, Hansel TT, Dallman MJet al., 2019, Induction of innate cytokine responses by respiratory mucosal challenge with R848 in zebrafish, mice and humans, Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Vol: 144, Pages: 342-345.e7, ISSN: 0091-6749

We compared live zebrafish, mouse and human nasal challenge responses to the TLR7/8 agonist resiquimod (R848). We found remarkably similar induction of mediators in the three species, offering novel mucosal models of innate anti-viral immunity.

Journal article

Jha A, Thwaites R, Tunstall T, Kon OM, Shattock R, Openshaw P, Hansel Tet al., 2019, Enhanced in vivo vivo mucosal interferon and chemokine responses to a single stranded RNA analogue (R848) in participants with asthma, ERJ Open Research, Vol: 5, ISSN: 2312-0541

Background: Viruses play an important role in asthma exacerbations and are detected by Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Better characterization of mucosal innate immunity to viral triggers may help understand dysregulated host responses in asthma.Aims & Objectives: A synthetic analogue of single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) and TLR7/8 agonist resiquimod (R848) was administered in vivo to study the effect of allergy and asthma on nasal mucosal innate immune responses.Methods: Nasal spray with saline and R848 was administered to healthy non-allergic (n=12), allergic rhinitis (n=12) and allergic asthma (n=11) participants. Immune mediators from nasal and blood samples, nasal mucosal gene expression and peripheral differential cell counts were measured.Results: R848 was well tolerated with no evidence of systemic immune activation. R848 significantly induced nasal mucosal IFN-a2a, IFN-?, pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-a, IL-2, IL-12p70) and chemokines (CXCL10, CCL2, CCL3, CCL4 and CCL13) compared to saline. Participants with allergic rhinitis and asthma had increased IFN-a2a, CCL3 and CCL13 relative to healthy participants, whilst those with asthma alone had increased gene expression of interferon stimulated genes DDX58, MX1 and IFIT3. Nasal R848 administration was associated with a decrease in blood eosinophils at 4h and decrease in peripheral lymphocytes at 24h, a finding restricted to participants with allergic rhinitis and asthma.Conclusions: These results confirm the suitability of nasal delivery of R848 as a non-invasive tool to assess mucosal innate immunity and highlights a key role for asthma in determining host responses to viral RNA analogues.

Journal article

Dunning J, Blankley S, Hoang LT, Cox M, Graham CM, James PL, Bloom CI, Chaussabel D, Banchereau J, Brett SJ, MOSAIC Investigators, Moffatt MF, O'Garra A, Openshaw PJMet al., 2019, Author Correction: Progression of whole-blood transcriptional signatures from interferon-induced to neutrophil-associated patterns in severe influenza., Nature Immunology, Vol: 20, Pages: 373-373, ISSN: 1529-2908

In the version of this article initially published, a source of funding was not included in the Acknowledgements section. That section should include the following: P.J.M.O. was supported by EU FP7 PREPARE project 602525. The error has been corrected in the HTML and PDF version of the article.

Journal article

Spadaro S, Park M, Turrini C, Tunstall T, Thwaites R, Mauri T, Ragazzi R, Ruggeri P, Hansel TT, Caramori G, Volta CAet al., 2019, Biomarkers for Acute Respiratory Distress syndrome and prospects for personalised medicine, Journal of Inflammation, Vol: 16, ISSN: 1476-9255

Acute lung injury (ALI) affects over 10% of patients hospitalised in critical care, with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) being the most severe form of ALI and having a mortality rate in the region of 40%. There has been slow but incremental progress in identification of biomarkers that contribute to the pathophysiology of ARDS, have utility in diagnosis and monitoring, and that are potential therapeutic targets (Calfee CS, Delucchi K, Parsons PE, Thompson BT, Ware LB, Matthay MA, Thompson T, Ware LB, Matthay MA, Lancet Respir Med 2014, 2:611–-620). However, a major issue is that ARDS is such a heterogeneous, multi-factorial, end-stage condition that the strategies for “lumping and splitting” are critical (Prescott HC, Calfee CS, Thompson BT, Angus DC, Liu VX, Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2016, 194:147–-155). Nevertheless, sequencing of the human genome, the availability of improved methods for analysis of transcription to mRNA (gene expression), and development of sensitive immunoassays has allowed the application of network biology to ARDS, with these biomarkers offering potential for personalised or precision medicine (Sweeney TE, Khatri P, Toward precision medicine Crit Care Med; 2017 45:934-939).Biomarker panels have potential applications in molecular phenotyping for identifying patients at risk of developing ARDS, diagnosis of ARDS, risk stratification and monitoring. Two subphenotypes of ARDS have been identified on the basis of blood biomarkers: hypo-inflammatory and hyper-inflammatory. The hyper-inflammatory subphenotype is associated with shock, metabolic acidosis and worst clinical outcomes. Biomarkers of particular interest have included interleukins (IL-6 and IL-8), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), surfactant proteins (SPD and SPB), von Willebrand factor antigen, angiopoietin 1/2 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). In terms of gene expression (mRNA) in blood there have been found to be increases in neutrophil-re

Journal article

Melo J, Tunstall T, Pizzichini M, Maurici R, Rocha C, Dal-Pizzol F, Goncalves J, Hansel T, Thwaites R, Pizzichini Eet al., 2019, IL-5 levels in nasosorption and sputosorption correlate with sputum eosinophilia in allergic asthma, American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Vol: 199, Pages: 240-243, ISSN: 1073-449X

Journal article

Swieboda D, Thwaites R, Nadel S, Hansel T, Openshaw P, Culley Fet al., 2018, The role of innate lymphoid cells in early life lung infection, 28th International Congress of the European-Respiratory-Society (ERS), Publisher: EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY SOC JOURNALS LTD, ISSN: 0903-1936

Conference paper

Dunning J, Blankley S, Hoang LT, Cox M, Graham CM, James PL, Bloom CI, Chaussabel D, Banchereau J, Brett SJ, Moffatt MF, OGarra A, Openshaw PJMet al., 2018, Progression of whole-blood transcriptional signatures from interferon-induced to neutrophil-associated patterns in severe influenza, Nature Immunology, Vol: 19, Pages: 625-635, ISSN: 1529-2916

Transcriptional profiles and host-response biomarkers are used increasingly to investigate the severity, subtype and pathogenesis of disease. We now describe whole-blood mRNA signatures and concentrations of local and systemic immunological mediators in 131 adults hospitalized with influenza, from whom extensive clinical and investigational data were obtained by MOSAIC investigators. Signatures reflective of interferon-related antiviral pathways were common up to day 4 of symptoms in patients who did not require mechanical ventilator support; in those who needed mechanical ventilation, an inflammatory, activated-neutrophil and cell-stress or death (‘bacterial’) pattern was seen, even early in disease. Identifiable bacterial co-infection was not necessary for this ‘bacterial’ signature but was able to enhance its development while attenuating the early ‘viral’ signature. Our findings emphasize the importance of timing and severity in the interpretation of host responses to acute viral infection and identify specific patterns of immune-system activation that might enable the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic tools for severe influenza.

Journal article

Thwaites RS, Gunawardana NC, Broich V, Mann EH, Ahnström J, Campbell GA, Lindsley S, Singh N, Tunstall T, Lane DA, Openshaw PJ, Hawrylowicz CM, Hansel TTet al., 2018, Biphasic activation of complement and fibrinolysis during the human nasal allergic response, Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Vol: 141, Pages: 1892-1895.e6, ISSN: 0091-6749

Complement, coagulation and fibrinolysis contribute to the pathology of many respiratory diseases. Here we detail the biphasic activation of these pathways following nasal allergen challenge. Understanding these mechanisms may lead to therapeutic insight in common respiratory diseases.

Journal article

Thwaites RS, Coates M, Ito K, Ghazaly M, Feather C, Abdulla F, Tunstall T, Jain P, Cass L, Rapeport G, Hansel TT, Nadel S, Openshaw PJet al., 2018, Reduced nasal viral load and IFN responses in infants with RSV bronchiolitis and respiratory failure, American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Vol: 198, Pages: 1074-1084, ISSN: 1073-449X

RATIONALE: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in infancy. Severe disease is thought to result from uncontrolled viral replication, an excessive immune response, or both. OBJECTIVES: To determine RSV load and immune mediator levels in nasal mucosal lining fluid by serial sampling of nasal fluids from cases of moderate and severe bronchiolitis over the course of infection. METHODS: Infants with viral bronchiolitis necessitating admission (n=55) were recruited from a paediatric centre during 2016/17. Of these, 30 were RSV infected (18 'moderate', and 12 mechanically ventilated 'severe'). Nasal fluids were sampled frequently over time using nasosorption devices and nasophayngeal aspiration (NPA). Hierarchical clustering of time weighted averages (TWA) was performed to investigate cytokine and chemokine levels, and gene expression profiling was conducted. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Unexpectedly, cases of severe RSV bronchiolitis had lower nasal viral loads and reduced interferon (IFN)-γ and CCL5/RANTES levels compared to those with moderate disease, especially when allowance was made for disease duration (all P<0.05). Reduced cytokine/chemokine levels in severe disease were also seen in children with other viral infections. Gene expression analysis of NPA samples (n=43) confirmed reduced type-I IFN gene expression in severe bronchiolitis accompanied by enhanced expression of MUC5AC and IL17A. CONCLUSIONS: Infants with severe RSV bronchiolitis have lower nasal viral load, IP-10/CXCL10 and type-I IFNs levels compared to moderately ill children, but enhanced MUC5AC and IL17A gene expression in nasal cells.

Journal article

Cai F, Abreu F, Ding HT, Choy D, Bremer M, Staton T, Erickson R, Peng K, Wang JS, Au-Yeung A, Hansel TT, Bjermer L, Holweg C, Yen K, Matthews JG, Scheerens Het al., 2018, Nasal Biomarkers Characterization In Lebrikizumab Bronchoscopy Study (CLAVIER), American-Academy-of-Allergy-Asthma-and-Immunology / World-Allergy-Organization Joint Congress, Publisher: MOSBY-ELSEVIER, Pages: AB118-AB118, ISSN: 0091-6749

Conference paper

Dhariwal J, Cameron A, Wong E, Trujillo-Torralbo B, Del Rosario A, Bakhsoliani E, Paulsen M, Jackson D, Hansel TT, Edwards M, Cousins D, Walton RP, Johnston SLet al., 2018, Pulmonary Innate Lymphoid Cell Responses During Rhinovirus-Induced Asthma Exacerbations, JOURNAL OF ALLERGY AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY, Vol: 141, Pages: AB195-AB195, ISSN: 0091-6749

Journal article

Thwaites RS, Jarvis HC, Singh N, Jha A, Pritchard A, Fan H, Tunstall T, Nanan J, Nadel S, Kon OM, Openshaw PJ, Hansel TTet al., 2018, Absorption of nasal and bronchial fluids: precision sampling of the human respiratory mucosa and laboratory processing of samples, Jove-Journal of Visualized Experiments, Vol: 131, ISSN: 1940-087X

The methods of nasal absorption (NA) and bronchial absorption (BA) use synthetic absorptive matrices (SAM) to absorb the mucosal lining fluid (MLF) of the human respiratory tract. NA is a non-invasive technique which absorbs fluid from the inferior turbinate, and causes minimal discomfort. NA has yielded reproducible results with the ability to frequently repeat sampling of the upper airway. By comparison, alternative methods of sampling the respiratory mucosa, such as nasopharyngeal aspiration (NPA) and conventional swabbing, are more invasive and may result in greater data variability. Other methods have limitations, for instance, biopsies and bronchial procedures are invasive, sputum contains many dead and dying cells and requires liquefaction, exhaled breath condensate (EBC) contains water and saliva, and lavage samples are dilute and variable. BA can be performed through the working channel of a bronchoscope in clinic. Sampling is well tolerated and can be conducted at multiple sites in the airway. BA results in MLF samples being less dilute than bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples. This article demonstrates the techniques of NA and BA, as well as the laboratory processing of the resulting samples, which can be tailored to the desired downstream biomarker being measured. These absorption techniques are useful alternatives to the conventional sampling techniques used in clinical respiratory research.

Journal article

Jha A, Thwaites RS, Tunstall T, Kon OM, Shattock RJ, Openshaw PJ, Hansel TTet al., 2018, Human Nasal Challenge with TLR7/8 Agonist Resiquimod (R848) Induces Mucosal Interferon-alpha, with Increased Responsiveness in Asthmatic Volunteers, International Conference of the American-Thoracic-Society, Publisher: AMER THORACIC SOC, ISSN: 1073-449X

Conference paper

Jarvis H, Thwaites R, Tunstall T, Nanan J, Tolosa-Wright MR, Marwah I, Reuschl AB, Hansel T, Lalvani A, Kon Oet al., 2017, Isolated mediastinal lymph node tuberculosis (IMLNTB) is characterised by elevation in systemic and bronchial IL-12 pathway mediators compared to pulmonary TB

Poster

Gunawardana NC, Zhao Q, Carayannopoulos LN, Tsai K, Malkov VA, Selverian D, Clarke G, Mant T, Butts BD, Lund K, Hansel TT, Nolte Het al., 2017, The effects of house dust mite sublingual immunotherapy tablet on immunologic biomarkers and nasal allergen challenge symptoms., Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Vol: 141, Pages: 785-788.e9, ISSN: 0091-6749

Journal article

Tunstall T, Kon OM, Bartlett N, Hansel TT, Johnston SL, Mallia P, Jackson DJ, Walton R, Edwards M, Trujillo-Torralbo MB, del-Rosario A, Shamji B, Dhariwal J, Kirk P, Stumpf M, Koopmann JO, Telcian A, Aniscenko J, Gogsadze L, Bakhsoliani E, Stanciu L, Hunt TM, Hunt TL, Hunt DG, Westwick J, Edwards Met al., 2017, A Comprehensive Evaluation of Nasal and Bronchial Cytokines and Chemokines Following Experimental Rhinovirus Infection in Allergic Asthma: Increased Interferons (IFN-γ and IFN-λ) and Type 2 Inflammation (IL-5 and IL-13), EBioMedicine, Vol: 19, Pages: 128-138, ISSN: 2352-3964

BackgroundRhinovirus infection is a major cause of asthma exacerbations.ObjectivesWe studied nasal and bronchial mucosal inflammatory responses during experimental rhinovirus-induced asthma exacerbations.MethodsWe used nasosorption on days 0, 2–5 and 7 and bronchosorption at baseline and day 4 to sample mucosal lining fluid to investigate airway mucosal responses to rhinovirus infection in patients with allergic asthma (n = 28) and healthy non-atopic controls (n = 11), by using a synthetic absorptive matrix and measuring levels of 34 cytokines and chemokines using a sensitive multiplex assay.ResultsFollowing rhinovirus infection asthmatics developed more upper and lower respiratory symptoms and lower peak expiratory flows compared to controls (all P < 0.05). Asthmatics also developed higher nasal lining fluid levels of an anti-viral pathway (including IFN-γ, IFN-λ/IL-29, CXCL11/ITAC, CXCL10/IP10 and IL-15) and a type 2 inflammatory pathway (IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, CCL17/TARC, CCL11/eotaxin, CCL26/eotaxin-3) (area under curve day 0–7, all P < 0.05). Nasal IL-5 and IL-13 were higher in asthmatics at day 0 (P < 0.01) and levels increased by days 3 and 4 (P < 0.01). A hierarchical correlation matrix of 24 nasal lining fluid cytokine and chemokine levels over 7 days demonstrated expression of distinct interferon-related and type 2 pathways in asthmatics. In asthmatics IFN-γ, CXCL10/IP10, CXCL11/ITAC, IL-15 and IL-5 increased in bronchial lining fluid following viral infection (all P < 0.05).ConclusionsPrecision sampling of mucosal lining fluid identifies robust interferon and type 2 responses in the upper and lower airways of asthmatics during an asthma exacerbation. Nasosorption and bronchosorption have potential to define asthma endotypes in stable disease and at exacerbation.

Journal article

Thwaites RS, Ito K, Chingono JMS, Coates M, Jarvis HC, Tunstall T, Anderson-Dring L, Cass L, Rapeport G, Openshaw PJ, Nadel S, Hansel TTet al., 2017, Nasosorption is a minimally invasive diagnostic procedure for measurement of viral load and markers of mucosal inflammation in RSV bronchiolitis, The Journal of Infectious Diseases, Vol: 215, Pages: 1240-1244, ISSN: 1537-6613

Background.Existing respiratory mucosal sampling methods are flawed, particularly in a pediatric bronchiolitis setting.Methods.Twenty-four infants with bronchiolitis were recruited: 12 were respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)–positive, 12 were RSV-negative. Infants were sampled by nasosorption and nasopharyngeal aspiration (NPA).Results.Nasosorption was well tolerated and identified all RSV+ samples. RSV load measured by nasosorption (but not NPA) correlated with length of hospital stay (P = .04) and requirement for mechanical ventilation (P = .03). Nasosorption (but not NPA) levels of interferon γ, interleukin 1β, CCL5/RANTES, and interleukin 10 (IL-10) were elevated in RSV+ bronchiolitis (all P < .05), furthermore CCL5 and IL-10 correlated with RSV load (P < .05).Conclusions.Nasosorption allowed measurement of RSV load and the mucosal inflammatory response in infants.

Journal article

Thwaites RS, Gunawardana NC, Broich VL, Mann EH, Campbell GA, Tunstall T, Lindsley S, Hawrylowicz CM, Openshaw PJM, Hansel TTet al., 2017, Activation of the complement, coagulation and fibrinolysis pathways after nasal allergen challenge, Annual Meeting of the American-Academy-of-Allergy-Asthma-and-Immunology (AAAAI), Publisher: Elsevier, Pages: AB384-AB384, ISSN: 0091-6749

Conference paper

Gunawardana NC, Jain A, Zhao Q, Tsai K, George L, Selverian D, Carayannopoulos LN, Lund K, Clarke G, Mant T, Hansel TT, Nolte Het al., 2017, Biomarkers of 12 SQ House Dust Mite Sublingual Immunotherapy (SLIT)-Tablet Treatment After Nasal Allergen Challenge, Annual Meeting of the American-Academy-of-Allergy-Asthma-and-Immunology (AAAAI), Publisher: MOSBY-ELSEVIER, Pages: AB192-AB192, ISSN: 0091-6749

Conference paper

Dhariwal J, Cameron A, Trujillo-Torralbo MB, Del Rosario A, Bakhsoliani E, Paulsen M, Jackson DJ, Edwards MR, Rana BM, Cousins DJ, Hansel TT, Johnston SL, Walton RP, MRC-GSK strategic alliance consortiumet al., 2017, Mucosal type 2 innate lymphoid cells are a key component of the allergic response to aeroallergen, American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Vol: 195, Pages: 1586-1596, ISSN: 1535-4970

RATIONALE: Newly characterised type 2 innate lymphoid cells display potent type 2 effector functionality, however their contribution to allergic airways inflammation and asthma is poorly understood. Mucosal biopsy used to characterise the airway mucosa is invasive, poorly tolerated and does not allow sequential sampling. OBJECTIVES: To assess the role of type 2 innate lymphoid cells during nasal allergen challenge in subjects with allergic rhinitis, using novel non-invasive methodology. METHODS: We used a human experimental allergen challenge model, with flow cytometric analysis of nasal curettage samples, to assess the recruitment of type 2 innate lymphoid cells and granulocytes to the upper airways of atopic and healthy subjects following allergen provocation. Soluble mediators in the nasal lining fluid were measured using nasosorption. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Following allergen challenge, atopic subjects displayed rapid induction of upper airway symptoms, an enrichment of type 2 innate lymphoid cells, eosinophils and neutrophils, along with increased production of interleukin-5, prostaglandin D2, and eosinophil and T-helper type 2 cell chemokines compared to healthy subjects. The most pronounced type 2 innate lymphoid cell recruitment was observed in patients with elevated serum IgE and airway eosinophilia. CONCLUSIONS: The rapid recruitment of type 2 innate lymphoid cells to the upper airways of allergic rhinitis patients, and their association with key type 2 mediators, highlights their likely important role in the early allergic response to aeroallergen in the airways. The novel methodology described herein enables the analysis of rare cell populations from non-invasive, serial tissue sampling.

Journal article

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