Imperial College London

Professor Toby Maher

Faculty of MedicineNational Heart & Lung Institute

Professor of Interstitial Lung Disease
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 7594 2151t.maher

 
 
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Assistant

 

Ms Naho Ollason +44 (0)20 7594 2151

 
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Location

 

364Sir Alexander Fleming BuildingSouth Kensington Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
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516 results found

Hoffmann-Vold A-M, Allanore Y, Bendstrup E, Bruni C, Distler O, Maher TM, Wijsenbeek M, Kreuter Met al., 2020, The need for a holistic approach for SSc-ILD - achievements and ambiguity in a devastating disease., Respir Res, Vol: 21

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a multi-organ autoimmune disease with complex interactions between immune-mediated inflammatory processes and vascular pathology leading to small vessel obliteration, promoting uncontrolled fibrosis of skin and internal organs. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a common but highly variable manifestation of SSc and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Treatment approaches have focused on immunosuppressive therapies, which have shown some efficacy on lung function. Recently, a large phase 3 trial showed that treatment with nintedanib was associated with a reduction in lung function decline. None of the conducted randomized clinical trials have so far shown convincing efficacy on other outcome measures including quality of life determined by patient reported outcomes. Little evidence is available for non-pharmacological treatment and supportive care specifically for SSc-ILD patients, including pulmonary rehabilitation, supplemental oxygen, symptom relief and adequate information. Improved management of SSc-ILD patients based on a holistic approach is necessary to support patients in maintaining as much quality of life as possible throughout the disease course and to improve long-term outcomes.

Journal article

Invernizzi R, Wu BG, Barnett J, Ghai P, Kingston S, Hewitt RJ, Feary J, Li Y, Chua F, Wu Z, Wells AU, Renzoni EA, Nicholson AG, Rice A, Devaraj A, Segal LN, Byrne AJ, Maher TM, Lloyd CM, Molyneaux PLet al., 2020, The respiratory microbiome in chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis is distinct from that of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis., American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, ISSN: 1073-449X

RATIONALE: Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (CHP) is a condition that arises following repeated exposure and sensitisation to inhaled antigens. The lung microbiome is increasingly implicated in respiratory disease but to date, no study has investigated the composition of microbial communities in the lower airways in CHP. OBJECTIVE: To characterise and compare the airway microbiome in subjects with CHP, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and controls. METHODS: We prospectively recruited individuals diagnosed with CHP (n=110), IPF (n=45) and controls (n=28). Subjects underwent bronchoalveolar lavage and bacterial DNA was isolated, quantified by qPCR and the 16S rRNA gene was sequenced to characterise the bacterial communities in the lower airways. MAIN MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Distinct differences in the microbial profiles were evident in the lower airways of subjects with CHP and IPF. At the phylum level, the prevailing microbiota of both IPF and CHP subjects included Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria. However, in IPF, Firmicutes dominated while the percentage of reads assigned to Proteobacteria in the same group was significantly lower compared to CHP subjects. At the genus level, Staphylococcus was increased in CHP and Actinomyces and Veillonella in IPF. The lower airway bacterial burden in CHP subjects was higher than controls but lower than those with IPF. In contrast to IPF, there was no association between bacterial burden and survival in CHP. CONCLUSIONS: The microbial profile of the lower airways in subjects with CHP is distinct from that of IPF and, notably, bacterial burden in individuals with CHP fails to predict survival.

Journal article

Bonifazi M, Sverzellati N, Negri E, Jacob J, Egashira R, Moser J, Piciucchi S, Mei F, De Lauretis A, Visca D, Goh N, Bonini M, Cirilli L, La Vecchia C, Chua F, Kouranos V, Margaritopoulos G, Kokosi M, Maher TM, Gasparini S, Gabrielli A, Wells AU, Renzoni EAet al., 2020, Pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis in systemic sclerosis: prevalence and prognostic impact., Eur Respir J, Vol: 56

Interstitial lung disease (ILD) in systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, mostly presenting as non-specific interstitial pneumonia. Little is known about the prevalence of pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE), a specific entity affecting the visceral pleura and subpleural parenchyma. We set out to estimate PPFE prevalence in two large cohorts of SSc patients and to assess its impact on survival and functional decline.A total of 359 SSc patients, derived from two referral centres in two different countries (UK and Italy), were included. The first available high-resolution computed tomography scan was independently evaluated by two radiologists blind to clinical information, to quantify ILD extent, freestanding bronchial abnormalities, and lobar percentage involvement of PPFE on a four-point categorical scale. Discordant scores were adjudicated by a third scorer. PPFE extent was further classified as limited (≤2/18) or extensive (>2/18). Results were evaluated against functional decline and mortality.The overall prevalence of PPFE in the combined SSc population was 18% (11% with extensive PPFE), with no substantial difference between the two cohorts. PPFE was significantly linked to free-standing bronchial abnormalities (61% versus 25% in PPFE versus no PPFE; p<0.0001) and to worse survival, independently of ILD severity or short-term lung function changes (HR 1.89, 95% CI 1.10-3.25; p=0.005).In the current study, we provide an exhaustive description of PPFE prevalence and clinical impact in the largest cohort of SSc subjects published so far. PPFE presence should be carefully considered, due to its significant prognostic implications.

Journal article

Spagnolo P, Bonella F, Ryerson CJ, Tzouvelekis A, Maher TMet al., 2020, Shedding light on developmental drugs for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis., Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs, Pages: 1-12, ISSN: 1354-3784

INTRODUCTION: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is an age-related disease of unknown cause. The disease is characterized by relentless scarring of the lung parenchyma resulting in respiratory failure and death. Two antifibrotic drugs (pirfenidone and nintedanib) are approved for the treatment of IPF worldwide, but they do not offer a cure and are associated with tolerability issues. Owing to its high unmet medical need, IPF is an area of dynamic research activity. AREAS COVERED: There is a growing portfolio of novel therapies that target different pathways involved in the complex pathogenesis of IPF. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms of action and available data for compounds in the most advanced stages of clinical development. We searched PubMed for articles on this topic published from 1 January 2000, to 6 June 2020. EXPERT OPINION: The approval of pirfenidone and nintedanib has fueled IPF drug discovery and development. New drugs are likely to reach the clinic in the near future. However, numerous challenges remain; the lack of animal models that reproduce the complexity of human disease and the poor translation of preclinical and early-phase positive effects to late stage clinical trials must be tackled.

Journal article

Stock CJ, Conti C, Montero-Fernandez Á, Caramori G, Molyneaux PL, George PM, Kokosi M, Kouranos V, Maher TM, Chua F, Rice A, Denton CP, Nicholson AG, Wells A, Sestini P, Renzoni EAet al., 2020, Interaction between the promoter MUC5B polymorphism and mucin expression: is there a difference according to ILD subtype?, Thorax

The MUC5B promoter variant rs35705950 is associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). MUC5B glycoprotein is overexpressed in IPF lungs. We examined immunohistochemical expression of MUC5B in different interstitial lung disease patterns according to rs35705950 T-allele carriage. We observed increased expression of MUC5B in T-allele carriers in both distal airways and honeycomb cysts in patients with IPF (n=23), but no difference in MUC5B expression according to T-carrier status in the distal airways of patients with idiopathic non-specific interstitial pneumonitis (n=17), in scleroderma-associated non-specific interstitial pneumonitis (n=15) or in control lungs (n=20), suggesting that tissue overexpression in MUC5B rs35705950 T-carriers is specific to IPF.

Journal article

Kouranos V, Ward S, Kokosi MA, Castillo D, Chua F, Judge EP, Thomas S, Van Tonder F, Devaraj A, Nicholson AG, Maher TM, Renzoni EA, Wells AUet al., 2020, Mixed ventilatory defects in pulmonary sarcoidosis: prevalence and clinical features., Chest, ISSN: 0012-3692

BACKGROUND: In cohort studies of pulmonary sarcoidosis, abnormal ventilatory patterns have generally been sub-divided into restrictive and obstructive defects. Mixed ventilatory defects have been largely overlooked in pulmonary sarcoidosis as total lung capacity (TLC) has seldom been taken into account in historical series. RESEARCH QUESTION: We evaluated the prevalence of mixed disease in pulmonary sarcoidosis and its clinical associations. STUDY DESIGN: and Methods: In patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis (n=1110), mixed defects were defined using ATS/ERS criteria. Clinical data, pulmonary function variables and vital status were abstracted from clinical records. Chest radiographs were evaluated independently by two experienced radiologists. RESULTS: The prevalence of a mixed ventilatory defect was 10.4% in the whole cohort, rising to 25.9% in patients with airflow obstruction. When compared to isolated airflow obstruction, mixed defects were associated with lower DLco levels (50.7 ± 16.3 versus 70.8 ± 18.1, p<0.0001), a higher prevalence of chest radiographic stage IV disease (63.5% versus 38.3%, p<0.0001), and higher mortality (HR 2.36; 95% CI 1.34, 4.15; p=0.003). These findings were reproduced in all patient sub-group analyses, including patients with a histologic diagnosis, a clinical diagnosis, incident disease and prevalent disease. INTERPRETATION: Mixed disease is present in approximately 25% of pulmonary sarcoidosis patients with airflow obstruction and is associated with lower DLco levels, a higher prevalence of stage IV disease and higher mortality than seen in a pure obstructive defect. These observations identify a distinct phenotype associated with a mixed ventilatory defect, justifying future studies of its clinical and pathogenetic significance.

Journal article

Barnes H, Morisset J, Molyneaux P, Westall G, Glaspole I, Collard HR, CHP Exposure Assessment Collaboratorset al., 2020, A systematically derived exposure assessment instrument for Chronic Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis, Chest, Vol: 157, Pages: 1506-1512, ISSN: 0012-3692

BACKGROUND: Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis (CHP) is an immune mediated interstitial lung disease, caused by inhalational exposure to environmental antigens, resulting in parenchymal fibrosis. By definition, a diagnosis of CHP assumes a history of antigen exposure, but only half of all patients eventually diagnosed with CHP will have a causative antigen identified. Individual clinician variation in eliciting a history of antigen exposure may affect the frequency and confidence of CHP diagnosis. METHODS: A list of potential causative exposures were derived from a systematic review of the literature. A Delphi method was applied to an international panel of ILD experts, to obtain consensus regarding technique for the elicitation of exposure to antigens relevant to a diagnosis of CHP. The consensus threshold was set at 80% agreement, and median ≤ 2, IQR = 0 on a five-point Likert scale (1: strongly agree, 2: tend to agree, 3: neither agree nor disagree, 4: disagree, 5: strongly disagree). RESULTS: In two rounds, 36/40 experts participated. Experts agreed on 18 exposure items to ask every patient with suspected CHP. Themes included CHP inducing exposures, features that contribute to an exposure's relevance, and quantification of a relevant exposure. Based on the results from the literature review and Delphi process, a CHP exposure assessment instrument was derived. Using cognitive interviews, the instrument was revised by ILD patients for readability and usability. CONCLUSIONS: This Delphi survey provides items that ILD experts agree are important to ask in all patients presenting with suspected CHP and provides basis for a systematically derived CHP exposure assessment instrument. Clinical utility of this exposure assessment instrument may be affected by different local prevalence patterns of exposures. Ongoing research is required to clinically validate these items and consider their impact in more geographically diverse settings.

Journal article

Hoffmann-Vold A-M, Maher TM, Distler O, 2020, European consensus statements for interstitial lung disease in systemic sclerosis – Authors' reply, The Lancet Rheumatology, Vol: 2, Pages: e319-e320, ISSN: 2665-9913

Journal article

Olson AL, Maher TM, Acciai V, Mounir B, Quaresma M, Zouad-Lejour L, Wells CD, De Loureiro Let al., 2020, Healthcare Resources Utilization and Costs of Patients with Non-IPF Progressive Fibrosing Interstitial Lung Disease Based on Insurance Claims in the USA, ADVANCES IN THERAPY, Vol: 37, Pages: 3292-3298, ISSN: 0741-238X

Journal article

Spagnolo P, Balestro E, Aliberti S, Cocconcelli E, Biondini D, Casa GD, Sverzellati N, Maher TMet al., 2020, Pulmonary fibrosis secondary to COVID-19: a call to arms?, The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, ISSN: 2213-2600

Journal article

Jones MG, Hillyar CRT, Nibber A, Chisholm A, Wilson A, Maher TM, Kaplan A, Price D, Walsh S, Richeldi Let al., 2020, Opportunities to diagnose fibrotic lung diseases in routine care: A primary care cohort study, RESPIROLOGY, ISSN: 1323-7799

Journal article

Kreuter M, Maher TM, 2020, Treatment of acute exacerbation of IPF - A call to arms., American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Vol: 201, Pages: 1030-1031, ISSN: 1073-449X

Journal article

Wells AU, Flaherty KR, Brown KK, Inoue Y, Devaraj A, Richeldi L, Moua T, Crestani B, Wuyts WA, Stowasser S, Quaresma M, Goeldner R-G, Schlenker-Herceg R, Kolb Met al., 2020, Nintedanib in patients with progressive fibrosing interstitial lung diseases-subgroup analyses by interstitial lung disease diagnosis in the INBUILD trial: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial, LANCET RESPIRATORY MEDICINE, Vol: 8, Pages: 453-460, ISSN: 2213-2600

Journal article

Gayle A, Schoof N, Alves M, Clarke D, Raabe C, Das P, Del Galdo F, Maher TMet al., 2020, Healthcare resource utilization among patients in England with systemic sclerosis-associated interstitial lung disease: a retrospective database analysis., Advances in Therapy, Vol: 37, Pages: 2460-2476, ISSN: 0741-238X

INTRODUCTION: Systemic sclerosis-associated interstitial lung disease (SSc-ILD) places a substantial burden on patients and healthcare systems. The objectives of this study were to describe clinical characteristics and assess healthcare resource utilization and costs of patients with SSc-ILD in England, compared with patients with non-pulmonary organ involvement related to SSc (SSc-OOI). METHODS: This population-based retrospective study used data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink linked to Hospital Episode Statistics. Data were extracted from medical records dated January 1, 2005 to March 31, 2016. Patients with SSc were identified and placed in subgroups based on organ involvement: SSc-ILD, SSc-OOI, and both (SSc-ILD-OOI). Patients with SSc-ILD-OOI were included in both the SSc-ILD and SSc-OOI subgroups. All-cause healthcare costs, excluding medication costs, were calculated to 2016 British pounds sterling (£). RESULTS: This study included 675 patients with SSc: 174 (26%) had neither ILD nor other organ involvement (OOI); 127 (19%) had SSc-ILD; 477 (71%) had SSc-OOI; 103 (15%) had SSc-ILD-OOI. Age-weighted median [interquartile range (IQR)] annual healthcare costs per patient were: £1496 (£664-£2817) in SSc only; £6375 (£3451-£15,041) in SSc-ILD; £4084 (£1454-£10,105) in SSc-OOI; £6632 (£4023-£17,009) in SSc-ILD-OOI. In multivariate analysis, older age at diagnosis, diagnosis of anemia, and number of comorbid diseases were associated with higher yearly healthcare costs. CONCLUSION: The annual healthcare cost for patients with SSc-ILD is substantial, and higher than that of patients with SSc-OOI or SSc only. These results quantify the economic burden of SSc-ILD in a real-world setting, and highlight the need for treatment of this disease.

Journal article

Inoue Y, Kaner RJ, Guiot J, Maher TM, Tomassetti S, Moiseev S, Kuwana M, Brown KKet al., 2020, Diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for chronic fibrosing interstitial lung diseases with a progressive phenotype, Chest, ISSN: 0012-3692

Biomarkers have the potential to become central to the clinical evaluation and monitoring of patients with chronic fibrosing interstitial lung diseases with a progressive phenotype. Here we summarize the current understanding of putative serum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and genetic biomarkers in this setting, according to their hypothesized pathobiologic mechanisms: evidence of epithelial cell dysfunction (eg, Krebs von den Lungen-6 antigen), fibroblast proliferation and extracellular matrix production/turnover (eg, matrix metalloproteinase-1), or immune dysregulation (eg, CC chemokine ligand 18). While most of the available data comes from idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, the prototypic progressive fibrosing interstitial lung disease, there are data available in the broader patient population of chronic fibrosing interstitial lung diseases. While a number of these biomarkers show promise, none have been validated. In this review article, we assess both the status of proposed biomarkers for chronic fibrosing lung diseases with a progressive phenotype in predicting disease risk or predisposition, diagnosis, prognosis and treatment response, and provide a direct comparison between idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and other chronic fibrotic interstitial lung diseases. We also reflect on the current clinical usefulness and future direction of research for biomarkers in the setting of chronic fibrosing interstitial lung diseases with a progressive phenotype.

Journal article

Invernizzi R, Barnett J, Rawal B, Nair A, Ghai P, Kingston S, Chua F, Wu Z, Wells A, Renzoni E, Nicholson A, Rice A, Lloyd C, Byrne A, Maher T, Devaraj A, Molyneaux Pet al., 2020, Bacterial burden in the lower airways predicts disease progression in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and is independent of radiological disease extent, European Respiratory Journal, Vol: 55, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 0903-1936

Increasing bacterial burden in the lower airways of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis confers an increased risk of disease progression and mortality. However, it remains unclear whether this increased bacterial burden directly influences progression of fibrosis or simply reflects the magnitude of the underlying disease extent or severity.We prospectively recruited 193 patients who underwent bronchoscopy and received a multidisciplinary diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Quantification of the total bacterial burden in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was performed by 16S rRNA gene qPCR. Imaging was independently evaluated by two readers assigning quantitative scores for extent, severity and topography of radiographic changes and relationship of these features with bacterial burden was assessed.Increased bacterial burden significantly associated with disease progression (hazard ratio 2.1; 95% confidence interval 1.287–3.474; p=0.0028). Multivariate stepwise regression demonstrated no relationship between bacterial burden and radiological features or extent of disease. When specifically considering patients with definite or probable usual interstitial pneumonia there was no difference in bacterial burden between these two groups. Despite a postulated association between pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis and clinical infection, there was no relationship between either the presence or extent of pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis and bacterial burden.We demonstrate that bacterial burden in the lower airways is not simply secondary to the extent of the underlying architectural destruction of the lung parenchyma seen in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The independent nature of this association supports a relationship with the underlying pathogenic mechanisms and highlights the urgent need for functional studies.

Journal article

Kreuter M, Polke M, Walsh SLF, Krisam J, Collard HR, Chaudhuri N, Avdeev S, Behr J, Calligaro G, Corte T, Flaherty K, Funke-Chambour M, Kolb M, Kondoh Y, Maher TM, Molina M, Morais A, Moor CC, Morisset J, Pereira C, Quadrelli S, Selman M, Tzouvelekis A, Valenzuela C, Vancheri C, Vicens-Zygmunt V, Waelscher J, Wuyts W, Wijsenbeek M, Cottin V, Bendstrup Eet al., 2020, Acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: international survey and call for harmonisation, EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY JOURNAL, Vol: 55, ISSN: 0903-1936

Journal article

Stock CJW, De Lauretis A, Visca D, Daccord C, Kokosi M, Kouranos V, Margaritopoulos G, George PM, Molyneaux PL, Nihtyanova S, Chua F, Maher TM, Ong V, Abraham DJ, Denton CP, Wells AU, Wain LV, Renzoni EAet al., 2020, Defining genetic risk factors for scleroderma-associated interstitial lung disease : IRF5 and STAT4 gene variants are associated with scleroderma while STAT4 is protective against scleroderma-associated interstitial lung disease, Clinical Rheumatology, Vol: 39, Pages: 1173-1179, ISSN: 0770-3198

Although several genetic associations with scleroderma (SSc) are defined, very little is known on genetic susceptibility to SSc-associated interstitial lung disease (SSc-ILD). A number of common polymorphisms have been associated with SSc-ILD, but most have not been replicated in separate populations. Four SNPs in IRF5, and one in each of STAT4, CD226 and IRAK1, selected as having been previously the most consistently associated with SSc-ILD, were genotyped in 612 SSc patients, of European descent, of whom 394 had ILD. The control population (n = 503) comprised individuals of European descent from the 1000 Genomes Project. After Bonferroni correction, two of the IRF5 SNPs, rs2004640 (OR (95% CI)1.30 (1.10-1.54), pcorr = 0.015) and rs10488631 (OR 1.48 (1.14-1.92), pcorr = 0.022), and the STAT4 SNP rs7574865 (OR 1.43 (1.18-1.73), pcorr = 0.0015) were significantly associated with SSc compared with controls. However, none of the SNPs were significantly different between patients with SSc-ILD and controls. Two SNPs in IRF5, rs10488631 (OR 1.72 (1.24-2.39), pcorr = 0.0098), and rs2004640 (OR 1.39 (1.11-1.75), pcorr = 0.03), showed a significant difference in allele frequency between controls and patients without ILD, as did STAT4 rs7574865 (OR 1.86 (1.45-2.38), pcorr = 6.6 × 10-6). A significant difference between SSc with and without ILD was only observed for STAT4 rs7574865, being less frequent in patients with ILD (OR 0.66 (0.51-0.85), pcorr = 0.0084). In conclusion, IRF5 rs2004640 and rs10488631, and STAT4 rs7574865 were significantly associated with SSc as a whole. Only STAT4 rs7574865 showed a significant difference in allele frequency in SSc-ILD, with the T allele being protective against ILD.Key points• We confirm the associations of the IRF5 SNPs rs2004640 and rs10488631, and the STAT4 SNP rs7574865, with SSc as a whole.&b

Journal article

Lukey PT, Coello C, Gunn R, Parker C, Wilson FJ, Saleem A, Garman N, Costa M, Kendrick S, Onega M, Kang'ombe AR, Listanco A, Davies J, Ramada-Magalhaes J, Moz S, Fahy WA, Maher TM, Jenkins G, Passchier J, Marshall RPet al., 2020, Clinical quantification of the integrin αvβ6 by [18F]FB-A20FMDV2 positron emission tomography in healthy and fibrotic human lung (PETAL Study), European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Vol: 47, Pages: 967-979, ISSN: 0340-6997

PURPOSE: The RGD-integrin, αvβ6, plays a role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis through activation of transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ). This study sought to quantify expression of αvβ6 in the lungs of healthy humans and subjects with pulmonary fibrosis using the αvβ6-selective [18F]FB-A20FMDV2 PET ligand. METHODS: [18F]FB-A20FMDV2 PET/CT scans were performed in healthy subjects and those with fibrotic lung disease. Standard uptake values (SUV) and volume of distribution (VT) were used to quantify αvβ6 expression. In subjects with fibrotic lung disease, qualitative assessment of the relationship between αvβ6 expression and the distribution of fibrosis on high resolution computed tomography was conducted. RESULTS: A total of 15 participants (6 healthy, 7 with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and 2 with connective tissue disease (CTD) associated PF) were enrolled. VT and SUV of [18F]FB-A20FMDV2 were increased in the lungs of subjects with pulmonary fibrosis (PF) compared with healthy subjects. Geometric mean VT (95% CI) was 0.88 (0.60, 1.29) mL/cm3 for healthy subjects, and 1.40 (1.22, 1.61) mL/cm3 for subjects with IPF; and SUV was 0.54 (0.36, 0.81) g/mL for healthy subjects and 1.03 (0.86, 1.22) g/mL for subjects with IPF. The IPF/healthy VT ratio (geometric mean, (95% CI of ratio)) was 1.59 (1.09, 2.32) (probability ratio > 1 = 0.988)) and the SUV ratio was 1.91 (1.27, 2.87) (probability ratio > 1 = 0.996). Increased uptake of [18F]FB-A20FMDV2 in PF was predominantly confined to fibrotic areas. [18F]FB-A20FMDV2 measurements were reproducible at an interval of 2 weeks. [18F]FB-A20FMDV2 was safe and well tolerated. CONCLUSIONS: Lung uptake of [18F]FB-A20FMDV2, a measure of expression of the integrin αvβ6, was markedly increased in subjects with PF compared with healthy subjects.

Journal article

Maher TM, Simpson JK, Porter JC, Wilson FJ, Chan R, Eames R, Cui Y, Siederer S, Parry S, Kenny J, Slack RJ, Sahota J, Paul L, Saunders P, Molyneaux PL, Lukey PT, Rizzo G, Searle GE, Marshall RP, Saleem A, Kang'ombe AR, Fairman D, Fahy WA, Vahdati-Bolouri Met al., 2020, A positron emission tomography imaging study to confirm target engagement in the lungs of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis following a single dose of a novel inhaled αvβ6 integrin inhibitor, Respiratory Research, Vol: 21, ISSN: 1465-9921

BackgroundIdiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, progressive lung disease with poor prognosis and a significant unmet medical need. This study evaluated the safety, pharmacokinetics (PK) and target engagement in the lungs, of GSK3008348, a novel inhaled alpha-v beta-6 (αvβ6) integrin inhibitor, in participants with IPF.MethodsThis was a phase 1b, randomised, double-blind (sponsor unblind) study, conducted in the UK (two clinical sites, one imaging unit) between June 2017 and July 2018 (NCT03069989). Participants with a definite or probable diagnosis of IPF received a single nebulised dose of 1000 mcg GSK3008348 or placebo (ratio 5:2) in two dosing periods. In period 1, safety and PK assessments were performed up to 24 h post-dose; in period 2, after a 7-day to 28-day washout, participants underwent a total of three positron emission tomography (PET) scans: baseline, Day 1 (~ 30 min post-dosing) and Day 2 (~ 24 h post-dosing), using a radiolabelled αvβ6-specific ligand, [18F]FB-A20FMDV2. The primary endpoint was whole lung volume of distribution (VT), not corrected for air volume, at ~ 30 min post-dose compared with pre-dose. The study success criterion, determined using Bayesian analysis, was a posterior probability (true % reduction in VT > 0%) of ≥80%.ResultsEight participants with IPF were enrolled and seven completed the study. Adjusted posterior median reduction in uncorrected VT at ~ 30 min after GSK3008348 inhalation was 20% (95% CrI: − 9 to 42%). The posterior probability that the true % reduction in VT > 0% was 93%. GSK3008348 was well tolerated with no reports of serious adverse events or clinically significant abnormalities that were attributable to study treatment. PK was successfully characterised showing rapid absorption followed by a multiphasic elimination.ConclusionsThis study demonstrated engagement of th

Journal article

Distler O, Assassi S, Cottin V, Cutolo M, Danoff SK, Denton CP, Distler JHW, Hoffmann-Vold A-M, Johnson SR, Müller Ladner U, Smith V, Volkmann ER, Maher TMet al., 2020, Predictors of progression in systemic sclerosis patients with interstitial lung disease, European Respiratory Journal, Vol: 55, ISSN: 0903-1936

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a systemic autoimmune disease affecting multiple organ systems, including the lungs. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is the leading cause of death in SSc.There are no valid biomarkers to predict the occurrence of SSc-ILD, although auto-antibodies against anti-topoisomerase I and several inflammatory markers are candidate biomarkers that need further evaluation. Chest auscultation, presence of shortness of breath and pulmonary function testing are important diagnostic tools, but lack sensitivity to detect early ILD. Baseline screening with high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is therefore necessary to confirm an SSc-ILD diagnosis. Once diagnosed with SSc-ILD, patients' clinical courses are variable and difficult to predict, though certain patient characteristics and biomarkers are associated with disease progression. It is important to monitor patients with SSc-ILD for signs of disease progression, though there is no consensus about which diagnostic tools to use or how often monitoring should occur. In this article, we review methods used to define and predict disease progression in SSc-ILD.There is no valid definition of SSc-ILD disease progression, but we suggest that either a decline in forced vital capacity (FVC) from baseline of ≥10%, or an FVC decline of 5-9% in association with a decline in diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide of ≥15% represents progression. An increase in the radiographic extent of ILD on HRCT imaging would also signify progression. A time period of 1-2 years is generally used for this definition, but a decline over a longer time period may also reflect clinically relevant disease progression.

Journal article

Allen RJ, Guillen-Guio B, Oldham JM, Ma S-F, Dressen A, Paynton ML, Kraven LM, Obeidat M, Li X, Ng M, Braybrooke R, Molina-Molina M, Hobbs BD, Putman RK, Sakornsakolpat P, Booth HL, Fahy WA, Hart SP, Hill MR, Hirani N, Hubbard RB, McAnulty RJ, Millar AB, Navaratnam V, Oballa E, Parfrey H, Saini G, Whyte MKB, Zhang Y, Kaminski N, Adegunsoye A, Strek ME, Neighbors M, Sheng XR, Gudmundsson G, Gudnason V, Hatabu H, Lederer DJ, Manichaikul A, Newell Jr JD, O'Connor GT, Ortega VE, Xu H, Fingerlin TE, Bossé Y, Hao K, Joubert P, Nickle DC, Sin DD, Timens W, Furniss D, Morris AP, Zondervan K, Hall IP, Sayers I, Tobin MD, Maher TM, Cho MH, Hunninghake GM, Schwartz DA, Yaspan BL, Molyneaux PL, Flores C, Noth I, Jenkins RG, Wain LVet al., 2020, Genome-wide association study of susceptibility to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Vol: 201, Pages: 564-574, ISSN: 1073-449X

Rationale: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a complex lung disease characterised by scarring of the lung that is believed to result from an atypical response to injury of the epithelium. Genome-wide association studies have reported signals of association implicating multiple pathways including host defence, telomere maintenance, signalling and cell-cell adhesion. Objectives: To improve our understanding of factors that increase IPF susceptibility by identifying previously unreported genetic associations. Methods and measurements: We conducted genome-wide analyses across three independent studies and meta-analysed these results to generate the largest genome-wide association study of IPF to date (2,668 IPF cases and 8,591 controls). We performed replication in two independent studies (1,456 IPF cases and 11,874 controls) and functional analyses (including statistical fine-mapping, investigations into gene expression and testing for enrichment of IPF susceptibility signals in regulatory regions) to determine putatively causal genes. Polygenic risk scores were used to assess the collective effect of variants not reported as associated with IPF. Main results: We identified and replicated three new genome-wide significant (P<5×10−8) signals of association with IPF susceptibility (associated with altered gene expression of KIF15, MAD1L1 and DEPTOR) and confirmed associations at 11 previously reported loci. Polygenic risk score analyses showed that the combined effect of many thousands of as-yet unreported IPF susceptibility variants contribute to IPF susceptibility. Conclusions: The observation that decreased DEPTOR expression associates with increased susceptibility to IPF, supports recent studies demonstrating the importance of mTOR signalling in lung fibrosis. New signals of association implicating KIF15 and MAD1L1 suggest a possible role of mitotic spindle-assembly genes in IPF susceptibility.

Journal article

Whitty JA, Rankin J, Visca D, Tsipouri V, Mori L, Spencer L, Adamali H, Maher TM, Hopkinson NS, Birring SS, Farquhar M, Wells AU, Sestini P, Renzoni EAet al., 2020, Cost-effectiveness of Ambulatory Oxygen in improving quality of life in fibrotic lung disease: Preliminary evidence from the AmbOx Trial., European Respiratory Journal, Vol: 55, ISSN: 0903-1936

Ambulatory oxygen may be cost-effective in improving quality of life in fibrotic lung disease. To be more conclusive, we need to understand societal willingness to pay for quality of life improvements and whether improvements are sustained. http://bit.ly/2pAiBJi

Journal article

Hoffmann-Vold A-M, Maher TM, Philpot EE, Ashrafzadeh A, Barake R, Barsotti S, Bruni C, Carducci P, Carreira PE, Castellví I, Del Galdo F, Distler JHW, Foeldvari I, Fraticelli P, George PM, Griffiths B, Guillén-Del-Castillo A, Hamid AM, Horváth R, Hughes M, Kreuter M, Moazedi-Fuerst F, Olas J, Paul S, Rotondo C, Rubio-Rivas M, Seferian A, Tomčík M, Uzunhan Y, Walker UA, Więsik-Szewczyk E, Distler Oet al., 2020, The identification and management of interstitial lung disease in systemic sclerosis: evidence-based European consensus statements, The Lancet Rheumatology, Vol: 2, Pages: e71-e83, ISSN: 2665-9913

BackgroundSystemic sclerosis-associated interstitial lung disease (ILD) carries a high mortality risk; expert guidance is required to aid early recognition and treatment. We aimed to develop the first expert consensus and define an algorithm for the identification and management of the condition through application of well established methods.MethodsEvidence-based consensus statements for systemic sclerosis-associated ILD management were established for six domains (ie, risk factors, screening, diagnosis and severity assessment, treatment initiation and options, disease progression, and treatment escalation) using a modified Delphi process based on a systematic literature analysis. A panel of 27 Europe-based pulmonologists, rheumatologists, and internists with expertise in systemic sclerosis-associated ILD participated in three rounds of online surveys, a face-to-face discussion, and a WebEx meeting, followed by two supplemental Delphi rounds, to establish consensus and define a management algorithm. Consensus was considered achieved if at least 80% of panellists indicated agreement or disagreement.FindingsBetween July 1, 2018, and Aug 27, 2019, consensus agreement was reached for 52 primary statements and six supplemental statements across six domains of management, and an algorithm was defined for clinical practice use. The agreed statements most important for clinical use included: all patients with systemic sclerosis should be screened for systemic sclerosis-associated ILD using high-resolution CT; high-resolution CT is the primary tool for diagnosing ILD in systemic sclerosis; pulmonary function tests support screening and diagnosis; systemic sclerosis-associated ILD severity should be measured with more than one indicator; it is appropriate to treat all severe cases; no pharmacological treatment is an option for some patients; follow-up assessments enable identification of disease progression; progression pace, alongside disease severity, drives decisions to e

Journal article

Maher TM, Corte TJ, Fischer A, Kreuter M, Lederer DJ, Molina-Molina M, Axmann J, Kirchgaessler K-U, Samara K, Gilberg F, Cottin Vet al., 2020, Pirfenidone in patients with unclassifiable progressive fibrosing interstitial lung disease: a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial, The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, Vol: 8, Pages: 147-157, ISSN: 2213-2600

BACKGROUND: At present, no approved pharmacotherapies are available for unclassifiable interstitial lung disease (ILD), which is characterised by progressive fibrosis of the lung. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of pirfenidone in patients with progressive fibrosing unclassifiable ILD. METHODS: We did a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled phase 2 trial at 70 centres in Australia, Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Spain, and the UK. Eligible patients (aged ≥18-85 years) had progressive fibrosing unclassifiable ILD, a percent predicted forced vital capacity (FVC) of 45% or higher and percent predicted carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLco) of 30% or higher, more than 10% fibrosis on high-resolution CT, and a high-resolution CT from the previous 12 months. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to 2403 mg oral pirfenidone daily or placebo using a central validated interactive voice or web-based response system, stratified by concomitant mycophenolate mofetil use and presence or absence of interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features. Investigators, site personnel, and patients were masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was mean predicted change in FVC from baseline over 24 weeks, measured by daily home spirometry. Secondary endpoints were change in FVC measured by site spirometry, proportion of patients who had a more than 5% or more than 10% absolute or relative decline in percent predicted FVC measured by clinic-based spirometry, change in percent predicted DLco, change in 6-min walk distance (6MWD), change in University of California San Diego-Shortness of Breath Questionnaire (UCSD-SOBQ) score, change in Leicester Cough Questionnaire score, change in cough visual analogue scale, and changes in total and subscores of the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), all of which were compared with baseline. Additional secondary endpoints included

Journal article

Kreuter M, Wuyts WA, Wijsenbeek M, Bajwah S, Maher TM, Stowasser S, Male N, Stansen W, Schoof N, Orsatti L, Swigris Jet al., 2020, Health-related quality of life and symptoms in patients with IPF treated with nintedanib: analyses of patient-reported outcomes from the INPULSIS® trials, Respiratory Research, Vol: 21, ISSN: 1465-9921

BACKGROUND: In the Phase III INPULSIS® trials, treatment of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) with nintedanib significantly reduced the annual rate of decline in forced vital capacity (FVC) versus placebo, consistent with slowing disease progression. However, nintedanib was not associated with a benefit in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) assessed using the St George's respiratory questionnaire (SGRQ). We aimed to further examine the impact of IPF progression on HRQoL and symptoms, and to explore the effect of nintedanib on HRQoL in patients from the INPULSIS® trials stratified by clinical factors associated with disease progression. METHODS: Patient-reported outcome (PRO) data from the INPULSIS® trials were included in three post hoc analyses. Two analyses used the pooled data set to examine PRO changes from baseline to week 52 according to 1) decline in FVC and 2) occurrence of acute exacerbations. In the third analysis, patients were stratified based on clinical indicators of disease progression (gender, age and physiology [GAP] stage; FVC % predicted; diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide [DLCO] % predicted; composite physiologic index [CPI]; and SGRQ total score) at baseline; median change from baseline was measured at 52 weeks and treatment groups were compared using the Wilcoxon two-sample test. RESULTS: Data from 1061 patients (638 nintedanib, 423 placebo) were analyzed. Greater categorical decline from baseline in FVC % predicted over 52 weeks was associated with significant worsening of HRQoL and symptoms across all PRO measures. Acute exacerbations were associated with deterioration in HRQoL and worsened symptoms. In general, patients with advanced disease at baseline (defined as GAP II/III, FVC ≤ 80%, DLCO ≤ 40%, CPI >  45, or SGRQ > 40) experienced greater deterioration in PROs than patients with less-advanced disease. A

Journal article

Byrne A, powell J, O'Sullivan B, Ogger P, Hoffland A, Cook J, Bonner K, Hewitt R, Simone W, Ghai P, Walker S, Lukowski S, Molyneaux P, Saglani S, Chambers D, Maher T, Lloyd Cet al., 2020, Dynamics of human monocytes and airway macrophages during healthy aging and post-transplant, Journal of Experimental Medicine, Vol: 217, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 0022-1007

The ontogeny of airway macrophages (AMs) in human lung and their contribution to disease are poorly mapped out. In mice, aging is associated with an increasing proportion of peripherally, as opposed to perinatally derived AMs. We sought to understand AM ontogeny in human lung during healthy aging and after transplant. We characterized monocyte/macrophage populations from the peripheral blood and airways of healthy volunteers across infancy/childhood (2–12 yr), maturity (20–50 yr), and older adulthood (>50 yr). Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) was performed on airway inflammatory cells isolated from sex-mismatched lung transplant recipients. During healthy aging, the proportions of blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) classical monocytes peak in adulthood and decline in older adults. scRNA-seq of BAL cells from lung transplant recipients indicates that after transplant, the majority of AMs are recipient derived. These data show that during aging, the peripheral monocyte phenotype is consistent with that found in the airways and, furthermore, that the majority of human AMs after transplant are derived from circulating monocytes.

Journal article

Barber CM, Burge PS, Feary JR, Parfrey H, Renzoni EA, Spencer LG, Walters GI, Wiggans RE, Adamali H, Babu S, Barrat S, Basran A, Beirne P, Bianchi S, Chalmers G, Chaudhuri N, Davies S, Dempsey O, Eccles S, Fiddler C, Foley N, Forrest I, Fletcher S, George P, Ghani S, Gibbons M, Greenstone M, Hart S, Hirani N, Hoyle J, Hoyles R, Hutchinson J, Jenkins G, Judge E, Kamath A, Kokosi M, Lee C, Maher T, Marshall B, McAndrew N, Molyneux P, Morrison D, O'Hickey S, Porter J, Renshaw S, Sharp C, Simler N, Spears M, Spiers A, Spinks K, Spiteri M, Stenton C, Sturney S, Warburton C, Wiscombe S, Woodhead Fet al., 2019, Identifying causation in hypersensitivity pneumonitis: a British perspective, BMJ Open Respiratory Research, Vol: 6, Pages: 1-6, ISSN: 2052-4439

Background Establishing whether patients are exposed to a ‘known cause’ is a key element in both the diagnostic assessment and the subsequent management of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP).Objective This study surveyed British interstitial lung disease (ILD) specialists to document current practice and opinion in relation to establishing causation in HP.Methods British ILD consultants (pulmonologists) were invited by email to take part in a structured questionnaire survey, to provide estimates of demographic data relating to their service and to rate their level of agreement with a series of statements. A priori ‘consensus agreement’ was defined as at least 70% of participants replying that they ‘Strongly agree’ or ‘Tend to agree’.Results 54 consultants took part in the survey from 27 ILD multidisciplinary teams. Participants estimated that 20% of the patients in their ILD service have HP, and of these, a cause is identifiable in 32% of cases. For patients with confirmed HP, an estimated 40% have had a bronchoalveolar lavage for differential cell counts, and 10% a surgical biopsy. Consensus agreement was reached for 25 of 33 statements relating to causation and either the assessment of unexplained ILD or management of confirmed HP.Conclusions This survey has demonstrated that although there is a degree of variation in the diagnostic approach for patients with suspected HP in Britain, there is consensus opinion for some key areas of practice. There are several factors in clinical practice that currently act as potential barriers to identifying the cause for British HP patients.

Journal article

Hobbs BD, Putman RK, Araki T, Nishino M, Gudmundsson G, Gudnason V, Eiriksdottir G, Zilhao Nogueira NR, Dupuis J, Xu H, O'Connor GT, Manichaikul A, Nguyen J, Podolanczuk AJ, Madahar P, Rotter JI, Lederer DJ, Barr RG, Rich SS, Ampleford EJ, Ortega VE, Peters SP, O'Neal WK, Newell JD, Bleecker ER, Meyers DA, Allen RJ, Oldham JM, Ma S-F, Noth I, Jenkins RG, Maher TM, Hubbard RB, Wain LV, Fingerlin TE, Schwartz DA, Washko GR, Rosas IO, Silverman EK, Hatabu H, Cho MH, Hunninghake GM, COPDGene Investigators, ECLIPSE Investigators, SPIROMICS Research Group, and UK ILD Consortiumet al., 2019, Overlap of genetic risk between interstitial lung abnormalities and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis., American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Vol: 200, Pages: 1402-1413, ISSN: 1073-449X

Rationale Interstitial lung abnormalities (ILA) are associated with the highest genetic risk locus for IPF; however, the extent to which there is additional overlap with IPF, or unique associations among those with ILA is not known. Objectives To perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of ILA. Methods: ILA and the subpleural-predominant subtype were assessed on chest computed tomography (CT) scans in the AGES, COPDGene, Framingham Heart, ECLIPSE, MESA, and SPIROMICS studies. We performed a GWAS of ILA in each cohort and combined the results using a meta-analysis. We assessed for overlapping associations in independent GWASs of IPF. Measurements and Main Results Genome-wide genotyping data were available in 1,699 ILA cases and 10,274 controls. The MUC5B promoter variant rs35705950 was significantly associated with both ILA (p=2.6x10-27) and subpleural ILA (p=1.6x10-29). We discovered novel genome-wide associations near IPO11 (rs6886640, p=3.8x10-8) and FCF1P3 (rs73199442, p=4.8x10-8) with ILA, and HTRE1 (rs7744971, p=4.2x10-8) with subpleural-predominant ILA. These novel associations were not associated with IPF. Of 12 previously reported IPF GWAS loci, 5 (DPP9, DSP, FAM13A, IVD, and MUC5B) were significantly associated (p<0.05/12) with ILA. Conclusions In a GWAS of ILA in six studies, we confirmed the association with a MUC5B promoter variant and found strong evidence for an effect of previously described IPF loci; however, novel ILA associations were not associated with IPF. These findings highlight common and suggest distinct genetically-driven biologic pathways between ILA and IPF.

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