721 results found
Barnett JL, Maher TM, Quint JK, et al., 2023, Combination of Bronchoalveolar Lavage and CT Differentiates Progressive and Non-Progressive Fibrotic Lung Diseases., Am J Respir Crit Care Med
RATIONALE: Identifying patients with pulmonary fibrosis (PF) at risk of progression can guide management. We explore the utility of combining baseline bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and CT in differentiating progressive and non-progressive PF. METHODS: The derivation cohort consisted of incident cases of PF, for whom BAL was performed as part of diagnostic work-up. A validation cohort were prospectively recruited with identical inclusion criteria. Baseline thoracic CTs were scored for fibrosis extent and UIP pattern. BAL lymphocyte proportion was recorded. Annualized forced vital capacity decline >10% or death within one year defined disease progression. Multivariable logistic regression identified determinants of outcome. Optimum binary thresholds (maximal Wilcoxon rank statistic) at which CT fibrosis extent and BAL lymphocyte proportion could distinguish disease progression were identified. RESULTS: BAL lymphocyte proportion, UIP pattern and fibrosis extent were significantly and independently associated with disease progression in the derivation cohort (n=240 individuals). Binary thresholds for raised BAL lymphocyte proportion and extensive fibrosis were identified as 25% and 20% respectively. Raised BAL lymphocyte proportion was rare in patients with a UIP pattern (8/135[5.9%]) or with extensive fibrosis (7/144[4.9%]). In the validation cohort (n=290 subjects), a raised BAL lymphocyte proportion was associated with a significantly lower probability of disease progression in patients with non-extensive fibrosis or a non-UIP pattern. CONCLUSIONS: BAL lymphocytosis is rare in patients with extensive fibrosis or a UIP pattern on CT. In patients without a UIP pattern or with limited fibrosis, a BAL lymphocyte proportion of ≥ 25% was associated with a lower likelihood of progression.
Maher TM, Assassi S, Azuma A, et al., 2023, Design of a phase III, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial of BI 1015550 in patients with progressive pulmonary fibrosis (FIBRONEER-ILD)., BMJ Open Respir Res, Vol: 10
INTRODUCTION: Progressive pulmonary fibrosis (PPF) includes any diagnosis of progressive fibrotic interstitial lung disease (ILD) other than idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, disease progression appears comparable between PPF and IPF, suggesting a similar underlying pathology relating to pulmonary fibrosis. Following positive results in a phase II study in IPF, this phase III study will investigate the efficacy and safety of BI 1015550 in patients with PPF (FIBRONEER-ILD). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: In this phase III, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, patients are being randomised 1:1:1 to receive BI 1015550 (9 mg or 18 mg) or placebo twice daily over at least 52 weeks, stratified by background nintedanib use. Patients must be diagnosed with pulmonary fibrosis other than IPF that is progressive, based on predefined criteria. Patients must have forced vital capacity (FVC) ≥45% predicted and haemoglobin-corrected diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide ≥25% predicted. Patients must be receiving nintedanib for at least 12 weeks, or not receiving nintedanib for at least 8 weeks, prior to screening. Patients on stable treatment with permitted immunosuppressives (eg, methotrexate, azathioprine) may continue their treatment throughout the trial. Patients with clinically significant airway obstruction or other pulmonary abnormalities, and those using immunosuppressives that may confound FVC results (cyclophosphamide, tocilizumab, mycophenolate, rituximab) or high-dose steroids will be excluded. The primary endpoint is absolute change from baseline in FVC (mL) at week 52. The key secondary endpoint is time to the first occurrence of any acute ILD exacerbation, hospitalisation for respiratory cause or death, over the duration of the trial. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The trial is being carried out in accordance with the ethical principles of the Declaration of Helsinki, the International Council on Harmonisation Guideline for Good Clinical P
Maher TM, Stowasser S, Voss F, et al., 2023, Decline in forced vital capacity as a surrogate for mortality in patients with pulmonary fibrosis., Respirology
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Surrogate endpoints enable determination of meaningful treatment effects more efficiently than applying the endpoint of ultimate interest. We used data from trials of nintedanib in subjects with pulmonary fibrosis to assess decline in forced vital capacity (FVC) as a surrogate for mortality. METHODS: Data from the nintedanib and placebo groups of trials in subjects with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, other forms of progressive pulmonary fibrosis, and pulmonary fibrosis due to systemic sclerosis (NCT00514683, NCT01335464, NCT01335477, NCT01979952, NCT02999178, NCT02597933) were pooled. Using joint models for longitudinal and time-to-event data, we assessed the association between decline in FVC % predicted and time to death over 52 weeks. The rate of change in FVC % predicted and the current value of FVC % predicted were modelled longitudinally and estimates applied as predictors in time-to-event models. RESULTS: Among 2583 subjects with pulmonary fibrosis, both a greater rate of decline in FVC % predicted and a lower current value of FVC % predicted were associated with an increased risk of death over 52 weeks (HR 1.79 [95% CI: 1.57, 2.03] and HR 1.24 [1.17, 1.32] per 5-percentage point decrease, respectively). Associations between the rate of change in FVC % predicted and the risk of death were consistent between patients with IPF and other ILDs. CONCLUSION: Data from clinical trials in subjects with pulmonary fibrosis of diverse aetiology demonstrate a strong association between decline in FVC % predicted and mortality over 52 weeks, supporting FVC decline as a surrogate for mortality in these patients.
Richeldi L, Azuma A, Cottin V, et al., 2023, Design of a phase III, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial of BI 1015550 in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (FIBRONEER-IPF)., BMJ Open Respir Res, Vol: 10
UNLABELLED: IntroductionThere is an unmet need for new treatments for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The oral preferential phosphodiesterase 4B inhibitor, BI 1015550, prevented a decline in forced vital capacity (FVC) in a phase II study in patients with IPF. This study design describes the subsequent pivotal phase III study of BI 1015550 in patients with IPF (FIBRONEER-IPF). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: In this placebo-controlled, double-blind, phase III trial, patients are being randomised in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive 9 mg or 18 mg of BI 1015550 or placebo two times per day over at least 52 weeks, stratified by use of background antifibrotics (nintedanib/pirfenidone vs neither). The primary endpoint is the absolute change in FVC at week 52. The key secondary endpoint is a composite of time to first acute IPF exacerbation, hospitalisation due to respiratory cause or death over the duration of the trial. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The trial is being carried out in compliance with the ethical principles of the Declaration of Helsinki, in accordance with the International Council on Harmonisation Guideline for Good Clinical Practice and other local ethics committees. The results of the study will be disseminated at scientific congresses and in peer-reviewed publications. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT05321069.
Guillen-Guio B, Paynton ML, Allen RJ, et al., 2023, Association study of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) variants and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis., medRxiv
INTRODUCTION: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic interstitial pneumonia marked by progressive lung fibrosis and a poor prognosis. Recent studies have highlighted the potential role of infection in the pathogenesis of IPF and a prior association of the HLA-DQB1 gene with idiopathic fibrotic interstitial pneumonia (including IPF) has been reported. Due to the important role that the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) region plays in the immune response, here we evaluated if HLA genetic variation was associated specifically with IPF risk. METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis of associations of the HLA region with IPF risk in individuals of European ancestry from seven independent case-control studies of IPF (comprising a total of 5,159 cases and 27,459 controls, including the prior study of fibrotic interstitial pneumonia). Single nucleotide polymorphisms, classical HLA alleles and amino acids were analysed and signals meeting a region-wide association threshold p <4.5×10 -4 and a posterior probability of replication >90% were considered significant. We sought to replicate the previously reported HLA-DQB1 association in the subset of studies independent of the original report. RESULTS: The meta-analysis of all seven studies identified four significant independent single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with IPF risk. However, none met the posterior probability for replication criterion. The HLA-DQB1 association was not replicated in the independent IPF studies. CONCLUSION: Variation in the HLA region was not consistently associated with risk in studies of IPF. However, this does not preclude the possibility that other genomic regions linked to the immune response may be involved in the aetiology of IPF.
Nolan CM, Schofield SJ, Maddocks M, et al., 2023, Change in gait speed and adverse outcomes in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: a prospective cohort study, Respirology, Vol: 28, Pages: 649-658, ISSN: 1323-7799
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Gait speed is associated with survival in individuals with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The extent to which four-metre gait speed (4MGS) decline predicts adverse outcome in IPF remains unclear. We aimed to examine longitudinal 4MGS change and identify a cut-point associated with adverse outcome. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study, we recruited 132 individuals newly diagnosed with IPF and measured 4MGS change over 6 months. Death/first hospitalization at 6 months were composite outcome events. Complete data (paired 4MGS plus index event) were available in 85 participants; missing 4MGS data were addressed using multiple imputation. Receiver-Operating Curve plots identified a 4MGS change cut-point. Cox proportional-hazard regression assessed the relationship between 4MGS change and time to event. RESULTS: 4MGS declined over 6 months (mean [95% CI] change: -0.05 [-0.09 to -0.01] m/s; p = 0.02). A decline of 0.07 m/s or more in 4MGS over 6 months had better discrimination for the index event than change in 6-minute walk distance, forced vital capacity, Composite Physiologic Index or Gender Age Physiology index. Kaplan-Meier curves demonstrated a significant difference in time to event between 4MGS groups (substantial decline: >-0.07 m/s versus minor decline/improvers: ≤-0.07 m/s; p = 0.007). Those with substantial decline had an increased risk of hospitalization/death (adjusted hazard ratio [95% CI] 4.61 [1.23-15.83]). Similar results were observed in multiple imputation analysis. CONCLUSION: In newly diagnosed IPF, a substantial 4MGS decline over 6 months is associated with shorter time to hospitalization/death at 6 months. 4MGS change has potential as a surrogate endpoint for interventions aimed at modifying hospitalization/death.
Oldham JM, Johnson KW, Albers GJ, et al., 2023, Airway soluble CSF1R predicts progression in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis., ERJ Open Res, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2312-0541
This study provides the first evidence for a role of airway sCSF1R in IPF https://bit.ly/3KTBrCA.
Oldham JM, Allen RJ, Lorenzo-Salazar JM, et al., 2023, PCSK6 and survival in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Vol: 207, Pages: 1515-1524, ISSN: 1073-449X
RATIONALE: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a devastating disease characterized by limited treatment options and high mortality. A better understanding of the molecular drivers of IPF progression is needed. OBJECTIVE: To identify and validate molecular determinants of IPF survival. METHODS: A staged genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed using paired genomic and survival data. Stage I cases were drawn from centers across the US and Europe and stage II cases from Vanderbilt University. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to identify gene variants associated with differential transplant-free survival (TFS). Stage I variants with nominal significance (p<5x10-5) were advanced for stage II testing and meta-analyzed to identify those reaching genome-wide significance (p<5x10-8). Downstream analyses were performed for genes and proteins associated with variants reaching genome-wide significance. MAIN RESULTS: After quality controls, 1481 stage I cases and 397 stage II cases were included in the analysis. After filtering, 9,075,629 variants were tested in stage I, with 158 meeting advancement criteria. Four variants associated with TFS with consistent effect direction were identified in stage II, including one in an intron of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 6 (PCSK6) reaching genome-wide significance (HR 4.11; 95%CI 2.54-6.67; p=9.45x10-9). PCSK6 protein was highly expressed in IPF lung parenchyma. PCSK6 lung staining intensity, peripheral blood gene expression and plasma concentration were associated with reduced transplant-free survival. CONCLUSIONS: We identified four novel variants associated with IPF survival, including one in PCSK6 that reached genome-wide significance. Downstream analyses suggested that PCSK6 protein plays a potentially important role in IPF progression. This article is open access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/lic
Chua F, Low S, Chai GT, et al., 2023, Knowledge gaps in fibrotic interstitial lung disease in pan-Asian populations: data not missing at random?, The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, Vol: 11, Pages: 502-504, ISSN: 2213-2600
Myall KJ, West AG, Martinovic JL, et al., 2023, Nocturnal hypoxemia associates with symptom progression and mortality in patients with progressive fibrotic interstitial lung disease., Chest, Pages: 1-34, ISSN: 0012-3692
BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and nocturnal hypoxemia (NH) are common in patients with fibrotic interstitial lung disease (F-ILD), but their relationship with disease outcomes remains unclear. RESEARCH QUESTIONS: What is the relationship between NH and OSA and clinical outcomes in patients with F-ILD? STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Prospective observational cohort study of patients with F-ILD and without daytime hypoxemia. Subjects underwent home sleep study at baseline and were followed up for at least one year or until death. NH was defined as ≥ 10% of sleep with SpO2 <90%. OSA was defined as an apnea-hypopnea index of ≥ 15/hour. RESULTS: Among 102 (male 74.5%; age 73.0 ± 8.7 years; FVC 2.74 ± 0.78L; 91.1% idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis) participants, 20 (19.6%) demonstrated prolonged nocturnal hypoxemia (NH), and 32 (31.4%) had obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). There were no significant differences between those with and without NH or OSA at baseline. Despite this, nocturnal hypoxemia was associated with a more rapid decline in both quality of life as measured by the King's Brief Interstitial Lung Disease questionnaire (change -11.3 ± 5.3 points in the NH group vs -6.7 ± 6.5 in those without NH, p=0.005) and higher all-cause mortality at one year (HR 8.21; 95% CI 2.40-28.1, p<0.001). No statistically significant difference was seen between the groups in annualised change in measures of pulmonary function testing. INTERPRETATION: Prolonged NH but not OSA is associated with worsening disease-related quality of life and increased mortality in patients with F-ILD.
Maher TM, Ford P, Brown KK, et al., 2023, Ziritaxestat, a novel autotaxin inhibitor, and lung function in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol: 329, Pages: 1567-1578, ISSN: 0098-7484
Importance There is a major need for effective, well-tolerated treatments for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF).Objective To assess the efficacy and safety of the autotaxin inhibitor ziritaxestat in patients with IPF.Design, Setting, and Participants The 2 identically designed, phase 3, randomized clinical trials, ISABELA 1 and ISABELA 2, were conducted in Africa, Asia-Pacific region, Europe, Latin America, the Middle East, and North America (26 countries). A total of 1306 patients with IPF were randomized (525 patients at 106 sites in ISABELA 1 and 781 patients at 121 sites in ISABELA 2). Enrollment began in November 2018 in both trials and follow-up was completed early due to study termination on April 12, 2021, for ISABELA 1 and on March 30, 2021, for ISABELA 2.Interventions Patients were randomized 1:1:1 to receive 600 mg of oral ziritaxestat, 200 mg of ziritaxestat, or placebo once daily in addition to local standard of care (pirfenidone, nintedanib, or neither) for at least 52 weeks.Main Outcomes and Measures The primary outcome was the annual rate of decline for forced vital capacity (FVC) at week 52. The key secondary outcomes were disease progression, time to first respiratory-related hospitalization, and change from baseline in St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire total score (range, 0 to 100; higher scores indicate poorer health-related quality of life).Results At the time of study termination, 525 patients were randomized in ISABELA 1 and 781 patients in ISABELA 2 (mean age: 70.0 [SD, 7.2] years in ISABELA 1 and 69.8 [SD, 7.1] years in ISABELA 2; male: 82.4% and 81.2%, respectively). The trials were terminated early after an independent data and safety monitoring committee concluded that the benefit to risk profile of ziritaxestat no longer supported their continuation. Ziritaxestat did not improve the annual rate of FVC decline vs placebo in either study. In ISABELA 1, the least-squares mean annual rate of FVC decline was –124.6 mL
Saunders P, Wu Z, Fahy WA, et al., 2023, The burden and impact of cough in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: an analysis of the prospective observational PROFILE study., Annals of the American Thoracic Society, ISSN: 1546-3222
RATIONALE: Cough is a commonly reported symptom in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) that negatively impacts patient-reported quality of life. However, both the burden of cough at diagnosis and the behaviour of cough over time have not been systematically described in patients with IPF. OBJECTIVES: By utilising data prospectively collected as part of the PROFILE study we sought to assess cough burden and the impact that this has on quality of life within a cohort of patients with newly diagnosed IPF. We also re-examined the previously described relationship between cough and mortality and the association of cough with the MUC5B promoter polymorphism. METHODS: The PROFILE study is a multicentre, prospective, observational, longitudinal cohort study of incident IPF. Leicester cough questionnaire (LCQ) scores were recorded at baseline in 632 subjects and then repeated 6 monthly in a subset (n=216) of the cohort. RESULTS: The median LCQ at diagnosis was 16.1 (inter-quartile range 6.5). LCQ scores remained stable over the subsequent year in the majority of patients. There was a weak association between LCQ score and baseline lung function with worse cough related quality of life associating with more severe physiological impairment. Cough scores were not associated with subsequent mortality after correcting for baseline lung function. Furthermore, there was no relationship between LCQ score and MUC5B promotor polymorphism status. CONCLUSION: The burden of cough in IPF is high. Although cough is weakly associated with disease severity at baseline, cough-specific QoL as measured by the LCQ, confers no prognostic value. Cough-specific QoL burden remains relatively stable over time and does not associate with MUC5B promotor polymorphism.
Jones S, Flewett M, Flewett R, et al., 2023, Clinical trial simulations in pulmonary fibrosis: patient-focused insights and adaptations., ERJ Open Res, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2312-0541
BACKGROUND: Patient recruitment and retention are a challenge when conducting clinical trials in patients with pulmonary fibrosis, including idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and other interstitial lung diseases. This study aimed to understand and address the barriers associated with trial participation for these populations. METHODS: Nine patients, nine caregivers and three healthcare professionals participated in virtual simulations of planned phase III trials. During the simulations, participants received information about the trials and either tested a home spirometry device or watched a home spirometry demonstration, before providing their insights in debriefs. The findings were interpreted in advisory boards with representatives from patient organisations and expert investigators. RESULTS: Regarding barriers to participation, patient fatigue and breathlessness were emphasised as posing challenges for travel, visit length and completion of onsite assessments. Lack of information, support and appreciation were also identified as factors that may exacerbate anxiety and negatively affect participant retention rates. Feedback on the home spirometry was mixed, with participants appreciating being able to complete the test at home but worrying about device handling. Based on the insights gained, patient-friendly adaptations were made to the trial protocol and conduct, including remote assessment of patient-reported outcomes, increased visit flexibility, travel support services, patient and caregiver information campaigns, and training of investigators on patients' needs. CONCLUSIONS: Participants identified important barriers to participation, which led to patient-friendly changes being made to the planned trials. As a result, participation in the planned trials should be less burdensome, with improved recruitment and retention rates, and ultimately, improved data quality.
van der Vis JJ, Prasse A, Renzoni EA, et al., 2023, MUC5B rs35705950 minor allele associates with older age and better survival in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, Respirology, Vol: 28, Pages: 455-464, ISSN: 1323-7799
Background and Objective:The minor T-allele of the MUC5B promoter polymorphism rs35705950 is strongly associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, conflicting results have been reported on the relationship between the MUC5B minor allele and survival and it is unknown whether a specific subgroup of IPF patients might benefit from MUC5B minor allele carriage. We investigated the association between MUC5B rs35705950, survival and patient characteristics in a real-world population of European IPF patients.Methods:In this retrospective study, 1751 patients with IPF from 8 European centres were included. MUC5B rs35705950 genotype, demographics, clinical characteristics at diagnosis and survival data were analysed.Results:In a multi-variate Cox proportional hazard model the MUC5B minor allele was a significant independent predictor of survival when adjusted for age, sex, high resolution computed tomography pattern, smoking behaviour and pulmonary function tests in IPF. MUC5B minor allele carriers were significantly older at diagnosis (p = 0.001). The percentage of MUC5B minor allele carriers increased significantly with age from 44% in patients aged <56 year, to 63% in patients aged >75. In IPF patients aged <56, the MUC5B minor allele was not associated with survival. In IPF patients aged ≥56, survival was significantly better for MUC5B minor allele carriers (45 months [CI: 42–49]) compared to non-carriers (29 months [CI: 26–33]; p = 4 × 10−12).Conclusion:MUC5B minor allele carriage associates with a better median transplant-free survival of 16 months in the European IPF population aged over 56 years. MUC5B genotype status might aid disease prognostication in clinical management of IPF patients.
Denton CP, Goh NS, Humphries SM, et al., 2023, Extent of fibrosis and lung function decline in patients with systemic sclerosis and interstitial lung disease: data from the SENSCIS trial, Rheumatology, Vol: 62, Pages: 1870-1876, ISSN: 1462-0324
OBJECTIVE: To assess associations between the extent of fibrotic interstitial lung disease (ILD) and forced vital capacity (FVC) at baseline and change in FVC over 52 weeks in patients with systemic sclerosis-associated ILD (SSc-ILD) in the SENSCIS trial. METHODS: We used generalised additive models, which involve few assumptions and allow for interaction between non-linear effects, to assess associations between the extent of fibrotic ILD on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), and the interplay of extent of fibrotic ILD on HRCT and FVC % predicted, at baseline and FVC decline over 52 weeks. RESULTS: In the placebo group (n = 288), there was weak evidence of a modest association between a greater extent of fibrotic ILD at baseline and a greater decline in FVC % predicted at week 52 (r: -0.09 [95% CI -0.2, 0.03]). Higher values of both the extent of fibrotic ILD and FVC % predicted at baseline tended to be associated with greater decline in FVC % predicted at week 52. In the nintedanib group (n = 288), there was no evidence of an association between the extent of fibrotic ILD at baseline and decline in FVC % predicted at week 52 (r: 0.01 [95% CI: -0.11, 0.12]) or between the interplay of extent of fibrotic ILD and FVC % predicted at baseline and decline in FVC % predicted at week 52. CONCLUSION: Data from the SENSCIS trial suggest that patients with SSc-ILD are at risk of ILD progression and benefit from nintedanib largely irrespective of their extent of fibrotic ILD at baseline. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, https://clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02597933.
Reynolds CJ, Del Greco M F, Allen RJ, et al., 2023, The causal relationship between gastro-esophageal reflux disease and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: A bidirectional two-sample Mendelian randomization study., Eur Respir J
BACKGROUND: Gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) is associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) in observational studies. It is not known if this association arises because GERD causes IPF, or IPF causes GERD, or because of confounding by factors, such as smoking, associated with both GERD and IPF. We used bidirectional Mendelian randomisation (MR), where genetic variants are used as instrumental variables to address issues of confounding and reverse causation, to examine how, if at all, GERD and IPF are causally related. METHODS AND RESULTS: A bidirectional two-sample MR was performed to estimate the causal effect of GERD on IPF risk, and of IPF on GERD risk, using genetic data from the largest GERD (78 707 cases and 288 734 controls) and IPF (4125 cases and 20 464 controls) genome-wide association meta-analyses currently available. GERD increased the risk of IPF, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.6 (95% Confidence Interval, CI: 1.04-2.49; p=0.032). There was no evidence of a causal effect of IPF on the risk of GERD, with an OR of 0.999 (95%CI: 0.997-1.000; p=0.245). CONCLUSION: We found that GERD increases the risk of IPF, but found no evidence that IPF increases the risk of GERD. GERD should be considered in future studies of IPF risk, and interest in it as a potential therapeutic target should be renewed. The mechanisms underlying the effect of GERD on IPF should also be investigated.
Kolb M, Crestani B, Maher TM, 2023, Phosphodiesterase 4B inhibition: a potential novel strategy for treating pulmonary fibrosis, European Respiratory Review, Vol: 32, Pages: 1-13, ISSN: 0905-9180
Patients with interstitial lung disease can develop a progressive fibrosing phenotype characterised by an irreversible, progressive decline in lung function despite treatment. Current therapies slow, but do not reverse or stop, disease progression and are associated with side-effects that can cause treatment delay or discontinuation. Most crucially, mortality remains high. There is an unmet need for more efficacious and better-tolerated and -targeted treatments for pulmonary fibrosis. Pan-phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) inhibitors have been investigated in respiratory conditions. However, the use of oral inhibitors can be complicated due to class-related systemic adverse events, including diarrhoea and headaches. The PDE4B subtype, which has an important role in inflammation and fibrosis, has been identified in the lungs. Preferentially targeting PDE4B has the potential to drive anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects via a subsequent increase in cAMP, but with improved tolerability. Phase I and II trials of a novel PDE4B inhibitor in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis have shown promising results, stabilising pulmonary function measured by change in forced vital capacity from baseline, while maintaining an acceptable safety profile. Further research into the efficacy and safety of PDE4B inhibitors in larger patient populations and for a longer treatment period is needed.
Kreuter M, Bendstrup E, Jouneau S, et al., 2023, Weight loss and outcomes in subjects with progressive pulmonary fibrosis: data from the INBUILD trial, Respiratory Research, Vol: 24, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 1465-9921
BACKGROUND: Lower body mass index (BMI) and weight loss have been associated with worse outcomes in some studies in patients with pulmonary fibrosis. We analyzed outcomes in subgroups by BMI at baseline and associations between weight change and outcomes in subjects with progressive pulmonary fibrosis (PPF) in the INBUILD trial. METHODS: Subjects with PPF other than idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis were randomized to receive nintedanib or placebo. In subgroups by BMI at baseline (< 25, ≥ 25 to < 30, ≥ 30 kg/m2), we analyzed the rate of decline in FVC (mL/year) over 52 weeks and time-to-event endpoints indicating disease progression over the whole trial. We used a joint modelling approach to assess associations between change in weight and the time-to-event endpoints. RESULTS: Among 662 subjects, 28.4%, 36.6% and 35.0% had BMI < 25, ≥ 25 to < 30 and ≥ 30 kg/m2, respectively. The rate of decline in FVC over 52 weeks was numerically greater in subjects with baseline BMI < 25 than ≥ 25 to < 30 or ≥ 30 kg/m2 (nintedanib: - 123.4, - 83.3, - 46.9 mL/year, respectively; placebo: - 229.5; - 176.9; - 171.2 mL/year, respectively). No heterogeneity was detected in the effect of nintedanib on reducing the rate of FVC decline among these subgroups (interaction p = 0.83). In the placebo group, in subjects with baseline BMI < 25, ≥ 25 to < 30 and ≥ 30 kg/m2, respectively, 24.5%, 21.4% and 14.0% of subjects had an acute exacerbation or died, and 60.2%, 54.5% and 50.4% of subjects had ILD progression (absolute decline in FVC % predicted ≥ 10%) or died over the whole trial. The proportions of subjects with these events were simi
Strambu IR, Seemayer CA, Fagard LM-CA, et al., 2023, GLPG1205 for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: a phase 2 randomised placebo-controlled trial, EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY JOURNAL, Vol: 61, ISSN: 0903-1936
Kreuter M, Hoffmann-Vold A-M, Matucci-Cerinic M, et al., 2023, Impact of lung function and baseline clinical characteristics on patient-reported outcome measures in systemic sclerosis-associated interstitial lung disease, Rheumatology, Vol: 62, Pages: S143-S153, ISSN: 1462-0324
OBJECTIVE: The SENSCIS® trial demonstrated a significant reduction of lung function decline in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc)-associated interstitial lung disease (SSc-ILD) treated with nintedanib, but no significant effect on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). To assess whether SSc/SSc-ILD severity and large changes in lung function correlate with HRQoL, a post-hoc analysis of SENSCIS®, aggregating treatment arms, was undertaken. METHODS: Patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures (St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire [SGRQ], Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy [FACIT]-Dyspnoea, and Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index [HAQ-DI], incorporating the Scleroderma Health Assessment Questionnaire visual analogue scale [SHAQ VAS]) at baseline and week 52 were assessed for associations to SSc-ILD severity. RESULTS: At baseline and at week 52, forced vital capacity (FVC) <70% predicted was associated with worse PRO measure scores compared with FVC ≥70% predicted (week 52: SGRQ 45.1 vs 34.0 [p< 0.0001]; FACIT-Dyspnoea 48.9 vs 44.5 [p< 0.0001]; HAQ-DI 0.7 vs 0.6 [p< 0.0228]; SHAQ VAS breathing problems 3.6 vs 2.6 [p< 0.0001]). Patients with diffuse cutaneous SSc and other characteristics associated with SSc-ILD severity had worse PRO measure scores. Patients requiring oxygen or with >30% fibrosis on high-resolution computed tomography at baseline demonstrated worse PRO measure scores at week 52. After 1 year, patients with a major (>10%) improvement/worsening in FVC demonstrated corresponding improvement/worsening in SGRQ and other PRO measures, significant for the SGRQ symptom domain (p< 0.001). CONCLUSION: Severe SSc-ILD and major deteriorations in lung function have important impacts on HRQoL. Treatments that slow lung function decline and prevent severe SSc-ILD are important to preserve HRQoL. TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02597933.
Khanna D, Maher TM, Volkmann ER, et al., 2023, Effect of nintedanib in patients with systemic sclerosis-associated interstitial lung disease and risk factors for rapid progression, RMD OPEN, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2056-5933
Peljto AL, Blumhagen RZ, Walts AD, et al., 2023, Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is associated with common genetic variants and limited rare variants, American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Vol: 207, Pages: 1194-1202, ISSN: 1073-449X
Rationale: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a rare, irreversible, and progressive disease of the lungs. Common genetic variants, in addition to non-genetic factors, have been consistently associated with IPF. Rare variants identified by candidate gene, family-based, and exome studies have also been reported to associate with IPF. However, the extent to which rare variants genome-wide may contribute to the risk of IPF remains unknown. Objectives: We used whole-genome sequencing to investigate the role of rare variants, genome-wide, on IPF risk. Methods: As part of the Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine Program, we sequenced 2,180 cases of IPF. Association testing focused on the aggregated effect of rare variants (minor allele frequency ≤0.01) within genes or regions. We also identified individual variants that are influential within genes and estimated the heritability of IPF based on rare and common variants. Measurements and Main Results: Rare variants in both TERT and RTEL1 were significantly associated with IPF. A single rare variant in each of the TERT and RTEL1 genes was found to consistently influence the aggregated test statistics. There was no significant evidence of association with other previously reported rare variants. The SNP-heritability of IPF was estimated to be 32% (s.e. 3%). Conclusions: Rare variants within the TERT and RTEL1 genes and well-established common variants have the largest contribution to IPF risk overall. Efforts in risk profiling or development of therapies for IPF that focus on TERT, RTEL1, common variants, and environmental risk factors are likely to have the largest impact on this complex disease.
Solomon JJ, Danoff SK, Woodhead FA, et al., 2023, Safety, tolerability, and efficacy of pirfenidone in patients with rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 study., Lancet Respir Med, Vol: 11, Pages: 87-96
BACKGROUND: Interstitial lung disease is a known complication of rheumatoid arthritis, with a lifetime risk of developing the disease in any individual of 7·7%. We aimed to assess the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of pirfenidone for the treatment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD). METHODS: TRAIL1 was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial done in 34 academic centres specialising in interstitial lung disease in four countries (the UK, the USA, Australia, and Canada). Adults aged 18-85 years were eligible for inclusion if they met the 2010 American College of Rheumatology and European Alliance of Associations for Rheumatology criteria for rheumatoid arthritis and had interstitial lung disease on a high-resolution CT scan imaging and, when available, lung biopsy. Exclusion criteria include smoking, clinical history of other known causes of interstitial lung disease, and coexistant clinically significant COPD or asthma. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive 2403 mg oral pirfenidone (pirfenidone group) or placebo (placebo group) daily. The primary endpoint was the incidence of the composite endpoint of a decline from baseline in percent predicted forced vital capacity (FVC%) of 10% or more or death during the 52-week treatment period assessed in the intention-to-treat population. Key secondary endpoints included change in absolute and FVC% over 52 weeks, the proportion of patients with a decline in FVC% of 10% or more, and the frequency of progression as defined by Outcome Measures in Rheumatoid Arthritis Clinical Trials (OMERACT) in the intention-to-treat population. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02808871. FINDINGS: From May 15, 2017, to March 31, 2020, 231 patients were assessed for inclusion, of whom 123 patients were randomly assigned (63 [51%] to the pirfenidone group and 60 [49%] to the placebo group). The trial was stopped early (March 31, 2020) d
Maher TM, Tudor VA, Saunders P, et al., 2023, Rituximab versus intravenous cyclophosphamide in patients with connective tissue disease-associated interstitial lung disease in the UK (RECITAL): a double-blind, double-dummy, randomised, controlled, phase 2b trial, The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, Vol: 11, Pages: 45-54, ISSN: 2213-2600
BACKGROUND: Rituximab is often used as rescue therapy in interstitial lung disease (ILD) associated with connective tissue disease (CTD), but has not been studied in clinical trials. This study aimed to assess whether rituximab is superior to cyclophosphamide as a treatment for severe or progressive CTD associated ILD. METHODS: We conducted a randomised, double-blind, double-dummy, phase 2b trial to assess the superiority of rituximab compared with cyclophosphamide. Patients aged 18-80 years with severe or progressive ILD related to scleroderma, idiopathic inflammatory myositis, or mixed CTD, recruited across 11 specialist ILD or rheumatology centres in the UK, were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive rituximab (1000 mg at weeks 0 and 2 intravenously) or cyclophosphamide (600 mg/m2 body surface area every 4 weeks intravenously for six doses). The primary endpoint was rate of change in forced vital capacity (FVC) at 24 weeks compared with baseline, analysed using a mixed-effects model with random intercepts, adjusted for baseline FVC and CTD type. Prespecified secondary endpoints reported in this Article were change in FVC at 48 weeks versus baseline; changes from baseline in 6 min walk distance, diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO), physician-assessed global disease activity (GDA) score, and quality-of-life scores on the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), King's Brief Interstitial Lung Disease (KBILD) questionnaire, and European Quality of Life Five-Dimension (EQ-5D) questionnaire at 24 and 48 weeks; overall survival, progression-free survival, and time to treatment failure; and corticosteroid use. All endpoints were analysed in the modified intention-to-treat population, which comprised all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01862926). FINDINGS: Between Dec 1, 2014, and March 31, 2020, we screened 145 participants, of whom 101 participants were randomly allocated
The widespread use of smartphones and the internet has enabled self-monitoring and more hybrid-care models. The COVID-19 pandemic has further accelerated remote monitoring, including in the heterogenous and often vulnerable group of patients with interstitial lung diseases (ILDs). Home monitoring in ILD has the potential to improve access to specialist care, reduce the burden on health-care systems, improve quality of life for patients, identify acute and chronic disease worsening, guide treatment decisions, and simplify clinical trials. Home spirometry has been used in ILD for several years and studies with other devices (such as pulse oximeters, activity trackers, and cough monitors) have emerged. At the same time, challenges have surfaced, including technical, analytical, and implementational issues. In this Series paper, we provide an overview of experiences with home monitoring in ILD, address the challenges and limitations for both care and research, and provide future perspectives. VIDEO ABSTRACT.
Allen RJ, Oldham JM, Jenkins DA, et al., 2023, Longitudinal lung function and gas transfer in individuals with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: a genome-wide association study, The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, Vol: 11, Pages: 65-73, ISSN: 2213-2600
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is an incurable lung disease characterised by progressive scarring leading to alveolar stiffness, reduced lung capacity, and impeded gas transfer. We aimed to identify genetic variants associated with declining lung capacity or declining gas transfer after diagnosis of IPF. METHODS: We did a genome-wide meta-analysis of longitudinal measures of forced vital capacity (FVC) and diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) in individuals diagnosed with IPF. Individuals were recruited to three studies between June, 1996, and August, 2017, from across centres in the US, UK, and Spain. Suggestively significant variants were investigated further in an additional independent study (CleanUP-IPF). All four studies diagnosed cases following American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society guidelines. Variants were defined as significantly associated if they had a meta-analysis p<5 × 10-8 when meta-analysing across all discovery and follow-up studies, had consistent direction of effects across all four studies, and were nominally significant (p<0·05) in each study. FINDINGS: 1329 individuals with a total of 5216 measures were included in the FVC analysis. 975 individuals with a total of 3361 measures were included in the DLCO analysis. For the discovery genome-wide analyses, 7 611 174 genetic variants were included in the FVC analysis and 7 536 843 in the DLCO analysis. One variant (rs115982800) located in an antisense RNA gene for protein kinase N2 (PKN2) showed a genome-wide significant association with FVC decline (-140 mL/year per risk allele [95% CI -180 to -100]; p=9·14 × 10-12). INTERPRETATION: Our analysis identifies a genetic variant associated with disease progression, which might highlight a new biological mechanism for IPF. We found that PKN2, a Rho and Rac effector protein, is the most likely gene of interest fro
Richeldi L, Azuma A, Cottin V, et al., 2022, Plain language summary: Clinical study of BI 1015550 as a potential treatment for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, JOURNAL OF COMPARATIVE EFFECTIVENESS RESEARCH, ISSN: 2042-6305
Podolanczuk AJ, Kim JS, Cooper CB, et al., 2022, Design and rationale for the prospective treatment efficacy in IPF using genotype for NAC selection (PRECISIONS) clinical trial, BMC Pulmonary Medicine, Vol: 22, ISSN: 1471-2466
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive lung disease with few treatment options. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a well-tolerated, inexpensive treatment with antioxidant and anti-fibrotic properties. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)-sponsored PANTHER (Prednisone Azathioprine and NAC therapy in IPF) trial confirmed the harmful effects of immunosuppression in IPF, and did not show a benefit to treatment with NAC. However, a post hoc analysis revealed a potential beneficial effect of NAC in a subgroup of individuals carrying a specific genetic variant, TOLLIP rs3750920 TT genotype, present in about 25% of patients with IPF. Here, we present the design and rationale for the Phase III, multi-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Prospective Treatment Efficacy in IPF Using Genotype for NAC Selection (PRECISIONS) clinical trial. METHODS: The PRECISIONS trial will randomize 200 patients with IPF and the TOLLIP rs3750920 TT genotype 1:1 to oral N-acetylcysteine (600 mg tablets taken three times a day) or placebo for a 24-month duration. The primary endpoint is the composite of time to 10% relative decline in forced vital capacity (FVC), first respiratory hospitalization, lung transplantation, or death from any cause. Secondary endpoints include change in patient-reported outcome scores and proportion of participants with treatment-emergent adverse events. Biospecimens, including blood, buccal, and fecal will be collected longitudinally for future research purposes. Study participants will be offered enrollment in a home spirometry substudy, which explores time to 10% relative FVC decline measured at home, and its comparison with study visit FVC. DISCUSSION: The sentinel observation of a potential pharmacogenetic interaction between NAC and TOLLIP polymorphism highlights the urgent, unmet need for better, molecularly focused, and precise therapeutic strategies in IPF. The PRECISIONS clinical trial is the first study
Fainberg HP, Oldham JM, Molyneau PL, et al., 2022, Forced vital capacity trajectories in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: a secondary analysis of a multicentre, prospective, observational cohort, The Lancet Digital Health, Vol: 4, Pages: e862-e872, ISSN: 2589-7500
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive fibrotic lung disease with a variable clinical trajectory. Decline in forced vital capacity (FVC) is the main indicator of progression; however, missingness prevents long-term analysis of patterns in lung function. We aimed to identify distinct clusters of lung function trajectory among patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis using machine learning techniques. METHODS: We did a secondary analysis of longitudinal data on FVC collected from a cohort of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis from the PROFILE study; a multicentre, prospective, observational cohort study. We evaluated the imputation performance of conventional and machine learning techniques to impute missing data and then analysed the fully imputed dataset by unsupervised clustering using self-organising maps. We compared anthropometric features, genomic associations, serum biomarkers, and clinical outcomes between clusters. We also performed a replication of the analysis on data from a cohort of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis from an independent dataset, obtained from the Chicago Consortium. FINDINGS: 415 (71%) of 581 participants recruited into the PROFILE study were eligible for further analysis. An unsupervised machine learning algorithm had the lowest imputation error among tested methods, and self-organising maps identified four distinct clusters (1-4), which was confirmed by sensitivity analysis. Cluster 1 comprised 140 (34%) participants and was associated with a disease trajectory showing a linear decline in FVC over 3 years. Cluster 2 comprised 100 (24%) participants and was associated with a trajectory showing an initial improvement in FVC before subsequently decreasing. Cluster 3 comprised 113 (27%) participants and was associated with a trajectory showing an initial decline in FVC before subsequent stabilisation. Cluster 4 comprised 62 (15%) participants and was associated with a trajectory showing stable lung
De Zorzi E, Spagnolo P, Cocconcelli E, et al., 2022, Thoracic involvement in systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases: pathogenesis and management, Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology, Vol: 63, Pages: 472-489, ISSN: 1080-0549
Thoracic involvement is one of the main determinants of morbidity and mortality in patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARDs), with different prevalence and manifestations according to the underlying disease. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is the most common pulmonary complication, particularly in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc), idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Other thoracic manifestations include pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), mostly in patients with SSc, airway disease, mainly in RA, and pleural involvement, which is common in systemic lupus erythematosus and RA, but rare in other ARDs.In this review, we summarize and critically discuss the current knowledge on thoracic involvement in ARDs, with emphasis on disease pathogenesis and management. Immunosuppression is the mainstay of therapy, particularly for ARDs-ILD, but it should be reserved to patients with clinically significant disease or at risk of progressive disease. Therefore, a thorough, multidisciplinary assessment to determine disease activity and degree of impairment is required to optimize patient management. Nevertheless, the management of thoracic involvement-particularly ILD-is challenging due to the heterogeneity of disease pathogenesis, the variety of patterns of interstitial pneumonia and the paucity of randomized controlled clinical trials of pharmacological intervention. Further studies are needed to better understand the pathogenesis of these conditions, which in turn is instrumental to the development of more efficacious therapies.
This data is extracted from the Web of Science and reproduced under a licence from Thomson Reuters. You may not copy or re-distribute this data in whole or in part without the written consent of the Science business of Thomson Reuters.