126 results found
Vladescu S-C, Agurto MG, Myant C, et al., 2023, Protein-induced delubrication: How plant-based and dairy proteins affect mouthfeel, FOOD HYDROCOLLOIDS, Vol: 134, ISSN: 0268-005X
Zhang J, Yu M, Joedicke A, et al., 2022, Characterising the effects of simultaneous water and gasolinedilution on lubricant performance, Tribology International, ISSN: 0301-679X
Jia Y, Dou P, Zheng P, et al., 2022, High-accuracy ultrasonic method for in-situ monitoring of oil film thickness in a thrust bearing, Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, Vol: 180, Pages: 109453-109453, ISSN: 0888-3270
Dou P, Zou L, Wu T, et al., 2022, Simultaneous measurement of thickness and sound velocity of porous coatings based on the ultrasonic complex reflection coefficient, NDT & E International, Vol: 131, Pages: 102683-102683, ISSN: 0963-8695
Malik S, O'Sullivan C, Reddyhoff T, et al., 2022, An acoustic 3D positioning system for robots operating underground, IEEE Sensors Letters, Vol: 6, Pages: 1-4, ISSN: 2475-1472
Underground robots are potentially helpful in many application domains, including geotechnical engineering, agriculture, and archaeology. One of the critical challenges in developing underground robotics is the accurate estimation of the positions of the robots. Acoustic-based positioning systems have been explored for developing an underground 3D positioning system. However, the positioning range is limited due to attenuation in the medium. This letter proposes an underground positioning system that utilizes a novel and easy-to-implement electronic approach for measuringthe acoustic propagation times between multiple transmitters and a receiver. We demonstrate a prototype using four transmitters at the surface and a single buried acoustic sensor as a proof-of-concept. The times of arrival for signals emitted by the different sources are measured by correlating the transmitted and received signals. The distances between the multiple transmitters and a receiver are estimated, and a tri-linearization algorithm is used to estimate the position of the buried sensor in 3D with respect to reference coordinates. The system is tested in a soil tank. The experimental results show that the proposed system is able to estimate the 3D position of buried sensors with an error of less than ±2.5 cm within a measurement field of size 50 cm × 50 cm × 35 cm in X, Y, and Z (width × length × depth). The proposed electronic synchronization approach allows increasing the positioning range of the system by increasing the number of transmittersat the surface. This paves the way for the development of a positioning system for robots operating underground.
Hu S, Huang W, Li J, et al., 2022, Rigid-flexible hybrid surfaces for water-repelling and abrasion-resisting, FRICTION, ISSN: 2223-7690
Dou P, Wu T, Luo Z, et al., 2022, A finite-element-aided ultrasonic method for measuring central oil film thickness in a roller-raceway tribo-pair, Friction, Vol: 10, Pages: 944-962, ISSN: 2223-7690
Roller bearings support heavy loads by riding on an ultra-thin oil film (between the roller and theraceway), the thickness of which is critical as it reflects the lubrication performance. Ultrasonicinterfacial reflection, which facilitates a non-destructive measurement of oil film thickness, has beenwidely studied. However, insufficient spatial resolution around the rolling line contact zone remainsa barrier, despite the employment of miniature piezoelectric transducers. In this paper, a finiteelement-aided method is utilized to simulate wave propagation through a three-layered structureof roller-oil-raceway under elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL), with nonlinear characteristicsof i) the deformed curvature of the cylindrical roller and ii) the non-uniform distribution of fluid bulkmodulus along the circumference of the oil layer taken into account. A load- and speed-dependentlook-up table is then developed to establish an accurate relationship between the overall reflectioncoefficient (directly measured by an embedded ultrasonic transducer) and the objective variable ofcentral oil film thickness. Moreover, the proposed finite-element-aided method is verifiedexperimentally in a roller-raceway test rig, with the ultrasonic measured oil film thicknessessentially corresponding to the calculated values by EHL theory.
Dou P, Zheng P, Jia Y, et al., 2022, Ultrasonic measurement of oil film thickness in a four-layer structure for applications including sliding bearings with a thin coating, NDT & E International, Pages: 102684-102684, ISSN: 0963-8695
Beamish S, Reddyhoff T, Hunter A, et al., 2022, A method to determine acoustic properties of solids and its application to measuring oil film thickness in bearing shells of unknown composition, MEASUREMENT, Vol: 195, ISSN: 0263-2241
Yu M, Zhang J, Kirkby T, et al., 2022, Electrical impedance spectroscopy enabled in-depth lubrication condition monitoring, The 2022 STLE Annual Meeting & Exhibition
Electrical contact resistance or capacitance as measured between twointerfaces of a lubricated contact has been used in tribometers, partiallyreflecting the lubrication condition. In contrast, the electrical impedancespectroscopy (EIS) provides rich information of magnitude/phase spectrum,which is thoroughly investigated using a combination of electrical circuitmodels (equivalent to the lubricated contact) and in-situ measurements with aball-on-disc contact. Results indicate a promising potential of EIS inlubrication condition monitoring, including the variation of lubricant filmthickness as estimated using high-frequency magnitude response; thetransition between full-film, mixed, and boundary lubrication regimes, asdifferentiated using extracted electrical resistance together with phasespectrum; the forming of anti-wear boundary film, where extraresistor/capacitor are added; and the degradation of lubricant, such as fueldilution, oil oxidization, and water emulsifying.
Vladescu S-C, Tadokoro C, Miyazaki M, et al., 2022, Exploiting the Synergy between Concentrated Polymer Brushes and Laser Surface Texturing to Achieve Durable Superlubricity, ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES, Vol: 14, Pages: 15818-15829, ISSN: 1944-8244
Yu M, Reddyhoff T, Dini D, et al., 2022, Acoustic emission enabled particle size estimation via low stress-varied axial interface shearing, IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol: 71, ISSN: 0018-9456
Acoustic emission (AE) refers to a rapid release of localized stress energy that propagates as a transient elastic wave and is typically used in geotechnical applications to study stick-slip during shearing, and breakage and fracture of particles. This article develops a novel method of estimating the particle size, an important characteristic of granular materials, using axial interface shearing-induced AE signals. Specifically, a test setup that enables axial interface shearing between a one-dimensional compression granular deposit and a smooth shaft surface is developed. The interface sliding speed (up to 3mm/s), the compression stress (0-135kPa), and the particle size (150μm-5mm) are varied to test the acoustic response. The start and end moments of a shearing motion, between which a burst of AE data is produced, are identified through the variation of the AE count rates, before key parameters can be extracted from the bursts of interests. Linear regression models are then built to correlate the AE parameters with particle size, where a comprehensive evaluation and comparison in terms of estimation errors is performed. For granular samples with a single size, it is found that both the AE energy related parameters and AE counts, obtained using an appropriate threshold voltage, are effective in differentiating the particle size, exhibiting low fitting errors. The value of this technique lies in its potential application to field testing, for example as an add-on to cone penetration test systems and to enable in-situ characterization of geological deposits.
Bahshwan M, Gee M, Nunn J, et al., 2022, In situ observation of anisotropic tribological contact evolution in 316L steel formed by selective laser melting, Wear, Vol: 490-491, Pages: 1-12, ISSN: 0043-1648
A consensus on the tribological performance of components by additive-versus conventional manufacturing has not been achieved; mainly because the tribological test set-ups thus far were not suited for investigating the underlying microstructure's influence on the tribological properties. As a result, utilization of additive manufacturing techniques, such as selective laser melting (SLM), for tribological applications remains questionable. Here, we investigate the anisotropic tribological response of SLM 316L stainless steel via in situ SEM reciprocating micro-scratch testing to highlight the microstructure's role. As-built 316L SLM specimens were compared against annealed wire-drawn 316L. We found that: (i) microgeometric conformity was the main driver for achieving steady-state friction, (ii) the anisotropic friction of the additively manufactured components is limited to the break-in and is caused by the lack of conformity, (iii) the cohesive bonds, whose strength is proportional to frictional forces, are stronger in the additively manufactured specimens likely due to the dislocation-dense, cellular structures, (iv) low Taylor-factor grains with large dimension stimulate microcutting in the form of long, thin sheets with serrated edges. These findings uncover some microstructurally driven tribological complexities when comparing additive to conventional manufacturing.
Dou P, Jia Y, Zheng P, et al., 2022, Review of ultrasonic-based technology for oil film thickness measurement in lubrication, Tribology International, Vol: 165, ISSN: 0301-679X
Lubricant film thickness is the most informative variable that reflects lubrication conditions and transmission efficiency in the mechanical equipment, therefore its measurement is highly important. Despite a large number of theoretical models that have been developed to describe the lubricant film, complexities and uncertainties in a real tribo-pair contact still hinder the implementation of accurate and robust methods of in-situ film thickness measurements. Recently, ultrasonic-based measurement has been widely studied, showing promising potential owing to its non-destructive characteristics, high sensitivity, and limited physical modifications. This paper comprehensively reviews basic principles of ultrasonic-based oil film measurement; summarizes progress on calculation models and associated signal processing methods; exhibits in-lab demonstrations and in-situ applications; and discusses key technical issues and possible solutions.
Yu M, Reddyhoff T, Dini D, et al., 2021, Using ultrasonic reflection resonance to probe stress wave velocity in assemblies of spherical particles, IEEE Sensors Journal, Vol: 21, Pages: 22489-22498, ISSN: 1530-437X
A high-sensitivity method to measure acousticwave speed in soils by analyzing the reflected ultrasonic signalfrom a resonating layered interface is proposed here.Specifically, an ultrasonic transducer which can be used to bothtransmit and receive signals is installed on a low-high acousticimpedance layered structure of hard PVC and steel, which in turnis placed in contact with the soil deposit of interest. The acousticimpedance of the soil (the product of density and wave velocity)is deduced from analysis of the waves reflected back to thetransducer. A system configuration design is enabled bydeveloping an analytical model that correlates the objectivewave speed with the measurable reflection coefficient spectrum.The physical viability of this testing approach is demonstratedby means of a one-dimensional compression device that probesthe stress-dependence of compression wave velocity of differentsizes of glass ballotini particles. Provided the ratio of thewavelength of the generated wave to the soil particle size issufficiently large the data generated are in agreement with dataobtained using conventional time-of-flight measurements. Inprinciple, this high-sensitivity approach avoids the need for thewave to travel a long distance between multiple transmitterreceiver sensors as is typically the case in geophysical testingof soil. Therefore it is particularly suited to in-situ observation ofsoil properties in a highly compact setup, where only a single transducer is required. Furthermore, high spatialresolution of local measurements can be achieved, and the data are unaffected by wave attenuation as transmitted insoil.
Hu S, Reddyhoff T, Li J, et al., 2021, Biomimetic water-repelling surfaces with robustly flexible structures, ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, Vol: 13, Pages: 31310-31319, ISSN: 1944-8244
Biomimetic liquid-repelling surfaces have been the subject of considerable scientific research and technological application. To design such surfaces, a flexibility-based oscillation strategy has been shown to resolve the problem of liquid-surface positioning encountered by the previous, rigidity-based asymmetry strategy; however, its usage is limited by weak mechanical robustness and confined repellency enhancement. Here, we design a flexible surface comprising mesoscale heads and microscale spring sets, in analogy to the mushroomlike geometry discovered on springtail cuticles, and then realize this through three-dimensional projection microstereolithography. Such a surface exhibits strong mechanical robustness against ubiquitous normal and shear compression and even endures tribological friction. Simultaneously, the surface elevates water repellency for impacting droplets by enhancing impalement resistance and reducing contact time, partially reaching an improvement of ∼80% via structural tilting movements. This is the first demonstration of flexible interfacial structures to robustly endure tribological friction as well as to promote water repellency, approaching real-world applications of water repelling. Also, a flexibility gradient is created on the surface to directionally manipulate droplets, paving the way for droplet transport.
Miyazaki M, Nakano K, Tadokoro C, et al., 2021, Enhancing durability of concentrated polymer brushes using microgrooved substrates, WEAR, Vol: 482, ISSN: 0043-1648
Droplets impacting solid surfaces is ubiquitous in nature and of practical importance in numerous industrial applications. For liquid-repelling applications, rigidity-based asymmetric redistribution and flexibility-based structural oscillation strategies have been proven on artificial surfaces; however, these are limited by strict impacting positioning. Here, we show that the gap between these two strategies can be bridged by a flexibility-patterned design similar to a trampoline park. Such a flexibility-patterned design is realized by three-dimensional projection micro-stereolithography and is shown to enhance liquid repellency in terms of droplet impalement resistance and contact time reduction. This is the first demonstration of the synergistic effect obtained by a hybrid solution that exploits asymmetric redistribution and structural oscillation in liquid-repelling applications, paving the rigidity-flexibility cooperative way of wettability tuning. Also, the flexibility-patterned surface is applied to accelerate liquid evaporation.
Haimov E, Chapman A, Bresme F, et al., 2021, Theoretical demonstration of a capacitive rotor for generation of alternating current from mechanical motion, Nature Communications, Vol: 12, Pages: 3678-3678, ISSN: 2041-1723
Innovative concepts and materials are enabling energy harvesters for slower motion, particularly for personal wearables or portable small-scale applications, hence contributing to a future sustainable economy. Here we propose a principle for a capacitive rotor device and analyze its operation. This device is based on a rotor containing many capacitors in parallel. The rotation of the rotor causes periodic capacitance changes and, when connected to a reservoir-of-charge capacitor, induces alternating current. The properties of this device depend on the lubricating liquid situated between the capacitor’s electrodes, be it a highly polar liquid, organic electrolyte, or ionic liquid – we consider all these scenarios. An advantage of the capacitive rotor is its scalability. Such a lightweight device, weighing tens of grams, can be implemented in a shoe sole, generating a significant power output of the order of Watts. Scaled up, such systems can be used in portable wind or water turbines.
Zimmer M, Vladescu S-C, Mattsson L, et al., 2021, Shear-Area Variation: A Mechanism that Reduces Hydrodynamic Friction in Macro-Textured Piston Ring Liner Contacts, Tribology International, ISSN: 0301-679X
Yu M, Zhang J, Joedicke A, et al., 2021, Experimental investigation into the effects of diesel dilution on engine lubrication, Tribology International, Vol: 156, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 0301-679X
The dilution of lubricant due to contamination with diesel fuel is an increasingly prevalent, potentially importantand poorly understood issue. Thisstudy addressestwo fundamental questions: 1) How doesthe change in lubricantrheology due to diesel dilution affect engine lubrication? 2) How is the chemical performance of lubricantcomponents (base oil and performance additives) impacted by diesel dilution under different lubrication regimes(boundary/full film, hydrodynamic/elastohydrodynamic). This is achieved by testing three lubricant samples: 1)neat fully formulated 0W-30 engine oil, 2) fully formulated 0W-30 oil diluted with diesel at a concentration of15%, denoted “0W-30D”, and 3) neat, fully-formulated 0W-16, with the same base oil components andperformance additives as the 0W-30, but blended to give a viscosity equal to that of the diluted an equivalent“0W-30D”. Tribometer tests, including 1) low pressure, low shear viscosity, 2) Ultra-high Shear Viscosity (USV),3) elastohydrodynamic film thickness, 4) Stribeck friction and 5) boundary friction and wear, are then conducted.To further emulate engine lubrication conditions, Stribeck curve measurements are performed on the threelubricants using a journal bearing test rig, fitted with a connecting-rod and commercial diesel engine shells.Results suggest that diesel dilution only slightly affects chemical additive performance (with friction modifiersbeing more inhibited than anti-wear additives) but does reduce both viscosity and film thickness. However, caremust be taken in using viscometrics to predict dilution behaviour because 1) the pressure viscosity coefficient isalso affected by diesel dilution which has implications for elastohydrodynamically lubrication contacts, 2) shearthinning means that viscosity modifier additives effects lose their functions at high shear rates; whereas dieselcontamination affects viscosity behaviour throughout the whole shear rate range.
Vlădescu S-C, Bozorgi S, Hu S, et al., 2021, Effects of beverage carbonation on lubrication mechanisms and mouthfeel, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, Vol: 586, Pages: 142-151, ISSN: 0021-9797
The perception of carbonation is an important factor in beverage consumption which must be understood in order to develop healthier products. Herein, we study the effects of carbonated water on oral lubrication mechanisms involved in beverage mouthfeel and hence taste perception. Friction was measured in a compliant PDMS-glass contact simulating the tongue-palate interface (under representative speeds and loads), while fluorescence microscopy was used to visualise both the flow of liquid and oral mucosal pellicle coverage.When carbonated water is entrained into the contact, CO2 cavities form at the inlet, which limit flow and thus reduce the hydrodynamic pressure. Under mixed lubrication conditions, when the fluid film thickness is comparable to the surface roughness, this pressure reduction results in significant increases in friction (>300% greater than under non-carbonated water conditions). Carbonated water is also shown to be more effective than non-carbonated water at debonding the highly lubricious, oral mucosal pellicle, which again results in a significant increase in friction. Both these transient mechanisms of starvation and salivary pellicle removal will modulate the flow of tastants to taste buds and are suggested to be important in the experience of taste and refreshment. For example this may be one reason why flat colas taste sweeter.
Reddyhoff T, Ewen J, Deshpande P, et al., 2021, Macroscale superlubricity and polymorphism of long-chain n-alcohols, ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, Vol: 13, Pages: 9239-9251, ISSN: 1944-8244
Simple n-alcohols, such as 1-dodecanol, show anomalous film-forming and friction behaviors under elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) conditions, as found inside bearings and gears. Using tribometer, diamond anvil cell (DAC), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) experiments, we show that liquid 1-dodecanol undergoes a pressure-induced solidification when entrained into EHL contacts. Different solid polymorphs are formed inside the contact depending on the temperature and pressure conditions. Surprisingly, at a moderate temperature and pressure, 1-dodecanol forms a polymorph that exhibits robust macroscale superlubricity. The DAC and DSC experiments show that superlubricity is facilitated by the formation of lamellar, hydrogen-bonded structures of hexagonally close-packed molecules, which promote interlayer sliding. This novel superlubricity mechanism is similar to that proposed for the two-dimensional materials commonly employed as solid lubricants, but it also enables the practical advantages of liquid lubricants to be maintained. When the pressure is increased, 1-dodecanol undergoes a polymorphic transformation into a phase that gives a higher friction. The DAC and DSC experiments indicate that the high-friction polymorph is an orthorhombic crystal. The polymorphic transformation pressure coincides with the onset of a dimple formation in the EHL films, revealing that the anomalous film shapes are caused by the formation of rigid orthorhombic crystals inside the contact. This is the first demonstration of a macroscale superlubricity in an EHL contact lubricated by a nonaqueous liquid that arises from bulk effects rather than tribochemical transformations at the surfaces. Since the superlubricity observed here results from phase transformations, it is continuously self-replenishing and is insensitive to surface chemistry and topology. This discovery creates the possibility of implementing superlubricity in a wide range of machine components, which would resul
Dou P, Wu T, Jia Y, et al., 2021, High-accuracy incident signal reconstruction for in-situ ultrasonic measurement of oil film thickness, Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, Vol: 156, Pages: 107669-107669, ISSN: 0888-3270
Yu M, Zhang J, Reddyhoff T, 2021, Characterizing Fuel Dilution Effects on Rheological and Tribological Behavior of Engine Lubricant, the 7th World Tribology Congress (WTC2021)
Bahshwan M, Myant CW, Reddyhoff T, et al., 2020, The role of microstructure on wear mechanisms and anisotropy of additively manufactured 316L stainless steel in dry sliding, Materials and Design, Vol: 196, ISSN: 0264-1275
Wear control, which relies on understanding the mechanisms of wear, is crucial in preserving the life of mechanical components and reducing costs. Additive manufacturing (AM) techniques can produce parts with tailored microstructure, however, little has been done to understand how this impacts the mechanisms of wear. Here we study the impact of initial grain arrangement and crystal orientation on the wear mechanisms of austenitic stainless steel (SS) in dry sliding contact. Specifically, the anisotropic sliding wear behavior of as-built, AM-ed 316L SS is compared against annealed, wire-drawn counterparts. We describe, in-detail, how the sliding wear mechanisms of delamination, abrasion, oxidation, and plastic deformation are attributed to the initial surface microstructure under different loading conditions using a number of techniques. This new understanding sheds light on how different AM-induced microstructures affect wear, thereby allowing for better utilization of this technology to develop components with enhanced wear properties.
Yu M, Shen L, Mutasa T, et al., 2020, Exact analytical solution to ultrasonic interfacial reflection enabling optimal oil film thickness measurement, Tribology International, Vol: 151, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 0301-679X
The ultrasonic reflection from a lubricated interface has been widely analyzed to measure fluid film thickness, with different algorithms being applied to overcome measurement accuracy and resolution issues. Existing algorithms use either the amplitude or the phase angle of the ultrasonic interfacial reflection. In this paper, a new algorithm (named the “exact model – complex”) that simultaneously utilizes both the amplitude and the phase of the complex ultrasonic reflection coefficient is proposed and mathematically derived. General procedures for theoretical analysis in terms of measurement accuracy and uncertainty are proposed and applied to the new algorithm, the beneficial features of which (as compared to other existing algorithms) can be summarized as: 1) a direct calculation, instead of an iterative approximation, 2) guaranteed maximum measurement accuracy, and 3) acceptable measurement uncertainty. None of the existing methods have showed this combination of benefits. Moreover, two groups of raw data from previous experimental studies are utilized to further validate the practical feasibility of the new algorithm. Overall, the proposed “exact model – complex” algorithm fully exploits the potential of ultrasonic reflection for oil film thickness measurement, with an accurate and a convenient calculation suited to practical implementation.
Wen J, Dini D, Reddyhoff T, 2020, Design and optimization of a liquid ring thrust bearing, Tribology International, Vol: 149, ISSN: 0301-679X
Liquid menisci at millimeter length scales and smaller exhibit large Laplace pressures. To utilise these effects, liquid ring bearings have recently been developed, which consist of liquid rings confined between alternate superhydrophobic and hydrophilic patterns. We present a detailed experimental and theoretical performance analysis of such bearings. For a single, 100 μm thickness, liquid ring, the maximum supporting force is 0.13 N, which decreases with increasing the ring misalignment. The frictional torque increases linearly with rotational speed until a critical Reynolds number is reached. Above this, an instability occurs due the concave liquid ring meniscus, which further increases friction. These results show how liquid ring bearings can be optimised.
Hu S, Reddyhoff T, Puhan D, et al., 2020, Droplet manipulation of hierarchical steel surfaces using femtosecond laser fabrication, Applied Surface Science, Vol: 521, Pages: 146474-146474, ISSN: 0169-4332
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