Imperial College London


Faculty of Natural SciencesDepartment of Physics

Professor of Experimental Astrophysics



+44 (0)20 7594 7552t.sumner




1108Blackett LaboratorySouth Kensington Campus






BibTex format

author = {Appourchaux, T and Burston, R and Chen, Y and Cruise, M and Dittus, H and Foulon, B and Gill, P and Gizon, L and Klein, H and Klioner, S and Kopeikin, S and Krueger, H and Laemmerzahl, C and Lobo, A and Luo, X and Margolis, H and Ni, W-T and Paton, AP and Peng, Q and Peters, A and Rasel, E and Ruediger, A and Samain, E and Selig, H and Shaul, D and Sumner, T and Theil, S and Touboul, P and Turyshev, S and Wang, H and Wang, L and Wen, L and Wicht, A and Wu, J and Zhang, X and Zhao, C},
doi = {10.1007/s10686-008-9131-8},
journal = {Experimental Astronomy},
pages = {491--527},
title = {Astrodynamical Space Test of Relativity Using Optical Devices I (ASTROD I) - A class-M fundamental physics mission proposal for Cosmic Vision 2015-2025},
url = {},
volume = {23},
year = {2009}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - ASTROD I is a planned interplanetary space mission with multiple goals. The primary aims are: to test general relativity with an improvement in sensitivity of over three orders of magnitude, improving our understanding of gravity and aiding the development of a new quantum gravity theory; to measure key solar system parameters with increased accuracy, advancing solar physics and our knowledge of the solar system; and to measure the time rate of change of the gravitational constant with an order of magnitude improvement and the anomalous Pioneer acceleration, thereby probing dark matter and dark energy gravitationally. It is an international project, with major contributions from Europe and China and is envisaged as the first in a series of ASTROD missions. ASTROD I will consist of one spacecraft carrying a telescope, four lasers, two event timers and a clock. Two-way, two-wavelength laser pulse ranging will be used between the spacecraft in a solar orbit and deep space laser stations on Earth, to achieve the ASTROD I goals. A second mission, ASTROD (ASTROD II) is envisaged as a three-spacecraft mission which would test General Relativity to 1 ppb, enable detection of solar g-modes, measure the solar Lense–Thirring effect to 10 ppm, and probe gravitational waves at frequencies below the LISA bandwidth. In the third phase (ASTROD III or Super-ASTROD), larger orbits could be implemented to map the outer solar system and to probe primordial gravitational-waves at frequencies below the ASTROD II bandwidth.
AU - Appourchaux,T
AU - Burston,R
AU - Chen,Y
AU - Cruise,M
AU - Dittus,H
AU - Foulon,B
AU - Gill,P
AU - Gizon,L
AU - Klein,H
AU - Klioner,S
AU - Kopeikin,S
AU - Krueger,H
AU - Laemmerzahl,C
AU - Lobo,A
AU - Luo,X
AU - Margolis,H
AU - Ni,W-T
AU - Paton,AP
AU - Peng,Q
AU - Peters,A
AU - Rasel,E
AU - Ruediger,A
AU - Samain,E
AU - Selig,H
AU - Shaul,D
AU - Sumner,T
AU - Theil,S
AU - Touboul,P
AU - Turyshev,S
AU - Wang,H
AU - Wang,L
AU - Wen,L
AU - Wicht,A
AU - Wu,J
AU - Zhang,X
AU - Zhao,C
DO - 10.1007/s10686-008-9131-8
EP - 527
PY - 2009///
SN - 1572-9508
SP - 491
TI - Astrodynamical Space Test of Relativity Using Optical Devices I (ASTROD I) - A class-M fundamental physics mission proposal for Cosmic Vision 2015-2025
T2 - Experimental Astronomy
UR -
UR -
VL - 23
ER -