Imperial College London

ProfessorTimothySumner

Faculty of Natural SciencesDepartment of Physics

Professor of Experimental Astrophysics
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 7594 7552t.sumner

 
 
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Location

 

1108Blackett LaboratorySouth Kensington Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

454 results found

Berge J, Baudis L, Brax P, Chiow S-W, Christophe B, Dore O, Fayet P, Hees A, Jetzer P, Laemmerzahl C, List M, Metris G, Pernot-Borras M, Read J, Reynaud S, Rhodes J, Rievers B, Rodrigues M, Sumner T, Uzan J-P, Yu Net al., 2021, The local dark sector Probing gravitation's low-acceleration frontier and dark matter in the Solar System neighborhood, EXPERIMENTAL ASTRONOMY, ISSN: 0922-6435

Journal article

Armano M, Audley H, Baird J, Binetruy P, Born M, Bortoluzzi D, Brandt N, Castelli E, Cavalleri A, Cesarini A, Cruise AM, Danzmann K, Silva MDD, Diepholz I, Dixon G, Dolesi R, Ferraioli L, Ferroni V, Fitzsimons ED, Flatscher R, Freschi M, Garcia A, Gerndt R, Gesa L, Giardini D, Gibert F, Giusteri R, Grimani C, Grzymisch J, Guzman F, Harrison I, Hartig M-S, Heinzel G, Hewitson M, Hollington D, Hoyland D, Hueller M, Inchauspe H, Jennrich O, Jetzer P, Johann U, Johlander B, Karnesis N, Kaune B, Killow CJ, Korsakova N, Lobo JA, Liu L, Lopez-Zaragoza JP, Maarschalkerweerd R, Mance D, Martin V, Martin-Polo L, Martin-Porqueras F, Martino J, McNamara PW, Mendes J, Mendes L, Meshksar N, Monsky A, Nofrarias M, Paczkowski S, Perreur-Lloyd M, Petiteau A, Pivato P, Plagnol E, Ramos-Castro J, Reiche J, Rivas F, Robertson D, Russano G, Sanjuan J, Slutsky J, Sopuerta CF, Steier F, Sumner T, Texier D, Thorpe J, Vetrugno D, Vitale S, Wand V, Wanner G, Ward H, Wass PJ, Weber WJ, Wissel L, Wittchen A, Zweifel Pet al., 2021, Sensor Noise in LISA Pathfinder: In-Flight Performance of the Optical Test Mass Readout, PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS, Vol: 126, ISSN: 0031-9007

Journal article

Bortoluzzi D, Vignotto D, Zambotti A, Armano M, Audley H, Baird J, Binetruy P, Born M, Castelli E, Cavalleri A, Cesarini A, Cruise AM, Danzmann K, de Deus Silva M, Diepholz I, Dixon G, Dolesi R, Ferraioli L, Ferroni V, Fitzsimons ED, Freschi M, Gesa L, Gibert F, Giardini D, Giusteri R, Grimani C, Grzymisch J, Harrison I, Hartig M-S, Heinzel G, Hewitson M, Hollington D, Hoyland D, Hueller M, Inchauspe H, Jennrich O, Jetzer P, Karnesis N, Kaune B, Korsakova N, Killow CJ, Lobo JA, Liu L, Lopez-Zaragoza JP, Maarschalkerweerd R, Mance D, Meshksar N, Martin V, Martin-Polo L, Martino J, Martin-Porqueras F, McNamara PW, Mendes J, Mendes L, Nofrarias M, Paczkowski S, Perreur-Lloyd M, Petiteau A, Pivato P, Plagnol E, Ramos-Castro J, Reiche J, Robertson D, Rivas F, Russano G, Slutsky J, Sopuerta CF, Sumner T, Texier D, Thorpe J, Vetrugno D, Vitale S, Wanner G, Ward H, Wass PJ, Weber WJ, Wissel L, Wittchen A, Zweifel P, Zanoni Cet al., 2021, In-flight testing of the injection of the LISA Pathfinder test mass into a geodesic, ADVANCES IN SPACE RESEARCH, Vol: 67, Pages: 504-520, ISSN: 0273-1177

Journal article

Akerib DS, Alsum S, Araujo HM, Bai X, Balajthy J, Baxter A, Bernard EP, Bernstein A, Biesiadzinski TP, Boulton EM, Boxer B, Bras P, Burdin S, Byram D, Carmona-Benitez MC, Chan C, Cutter JE, de Viveiros L, Druszkiewicz E, Fan A, Fiorucci S, Gaitskell RJ, Ghag C, Gilchriese MGD, Gwilliam C, Hall CR, Haselschwardt SJ, Hertel SA, Hogan DP, Horn M, Huang DQ, Ignarra CM, Jacobsen RG, Jahangir O, Ji W, Kamdin K, Kazkaz K, Khaitan D, Korolkova E, Kravitz S, Kudryavtsev VA, Leason E, Lenardo BG, Lesko KT, Liao J, Lin J, Lindote A, Lopes M, Manalaysay A, Mannino RL, Marangou N, McKinsey DN, Mei D-M, Moongweluwan M, Morad JA, Murphy ASJ, Naylor A, Nehrkorn C, Nelson HN, Neves F, Nilima A, Oliver-Mallory KC, Palladino KJ, Pease EK, Riffard Q, Rischbieter GRC, Rhyne C, Rossiter P, Shaw S, Shutt TA, Silva C, Solmaz M, Solovov VN, Sorensen P, Sumner TJ, Szydagis M, Taylor DJ, Taylor R, Taylor WC, Tennyson BP, Terman PA, Tiedt DR, To WH, Tvrznikova L, Utku U, Uvarov S, Vacheret A, Velan V, Webb RC, White JT, Whitis TJ, Witherell MS, Wolfs FLH, Woodward D, Xu J, Zhang Cet al., 2020, Discrimination of electronic recoils from nuclear recoils in two-phase xenon time projection chambers, Physical Review D: Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology, Vol: 102, Pages: 1-27, ISSN: 1550-2368

We present a comprehensive analysis of electronic recoil vs nuclear recoil discrimination in liquid/gas xenon time projection chambers, using calibration data from the 2013 and 2014–2016 runs of the Large Underground Xenon experiment. We observe strong charge-to-light discrimination enhancement with increased event energy. For events with S1=120 detected photons, i.e., equivalent to a nuclear recoil energy of ∼100  keV, we observe an electronic recoil background acceptance of <10−5 at a nuclear recoil signal acceptance of 50%. We also observe modest electric field dependence of the discrimination power, which peaks at a field of around 300  V/cm over the range of fields explored in this study (50–500  V/cm). In the weakly interacting massive particle search region of S1=1−80  phd, the minimum electronic recoil leakage we observe is (7.3±0.6)×10−4, which is obtained for a drift field of 240–290  V/cm. Pulse shape discrimination is utilized to improve our results, and we find that, at low energies and low fields, there is an additional reduction in background leakage by a factor of up to 3. We develop an empirical model for recombination fluctuations which, when used alongside the Noble Element Scintillation Technique simulation package, correctly reproduces the skewness of the electronic recoil data. We use this updated simulation to study the width of the electronic recoil band, finding that its dominant contribution comes from electron-ion recombination fluctuations, followed in magnitude of contribution by fluctuations in the S1 signal, fluctuations in the S2 signal, and fluctuations in the total number of quanta produced for a given energy deposition.

Journal article

Yang F, Bai Y, Hong W, Sumner TJ, Zhou Zet al., 2020, A charge control method for space-mission inertial sensor using differential UV LED emission, REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS, Vol: 91, ISSN: 0034-6748

Journal article

Akerib DS, Akerlof CW, Akimov DY, Alquahtani A, Alsum SK, Anderson TJ, Angelides N, Araujo HM, Arbuckle A, Armstrong JE, Arthurs M, Auyeung H, Aviles S, Bai X, Bailey AJ, Balajthy J, Balashov S, Bang J, Barry MJ, Bauer D, Bauer P, Baxter A, Belle J, Beltrame P, Bensinger J, Benson T, Bernard EP, Bernstein A, Bhatti A, Biekert A, Biesiadzinski TP, Birch HJ, Birrittella B, Boast KE, Bolozdynya AI, Boulton EM, Boxer B, Bramante R, Branson S, Bras P, Breidenbach M, Brew CAJ, Buckley JH, Bugaev VV, Bunker R, Burdin S, Busenitz JK, Cabrita R, Campbell JS, Carels C, Carlsmith DL, Carlson B, Carmona-Benitez MC, Cascella M, Chan C, Cherwinka JJ, Chiller AA, Chiller C, Chott NI, Cole A, Coleman J, Colling D, Conley RA, Cottle A, Coughlen R, Cox G, Craddock WW, Curran D, Currie A, Cutter JE, Da Cunha JP, Dahl CE, Dardin S, Dasu S, Davis J, Davison TJR, de Viveiros L, Decheine N, Dobi A, Dobson JEY, Druszkiewicz E, Dushkin A, Edberg TK, Edwards WR, Edwards BN, Edwards J, Elnimr MM, Emmet WT, Eriksen SR, Faham CH, Fan A, Fayer S, Fiorucci S, Flaecher H, Florang IMF, Ford P, Francis VB, Fraser ED, Froborg F, Fruth T, Gaitskell RJ, Gantos NJ, Garcia D, Gehman VM, Gelfand R, Genovesi J, Gerhard RM, Ghag C, Gibson E, Gilchriese MGD, Gokhale S, Gomber B, Gonda TG, Greenall A, Greenwood S, Gregerson G, van der Grinten MGD, Gwilliam CB, Hall CR, Hamilton D, Hans S, Hanzel K, Harrington T, Harrison A, Harrison J, Hasselkus C, Haselschwardt SJ, Hemer D, Hertel SA, Heise J, Hillbrand S, Hitchcock O, Hjemfelt C, Hoff MD, Holbrook B, Holtom E, Hor JY-K, Horn M, Huang DQ, Hurteau TW, Ignarra CM, Irving MN, Jacobsen RG, Jahangir O, Jeffery SN, Ji W, Johnson M, Johnson J, Johnson P, Jones WG, Kaboth AC, Kamaha A, Kamdin K, Kasey V, Kazkaz K, Keefner J, Khaitan D, Khaleeq M, Khazov A, Khromov AV, Khurana I, Kim YD, Kim WT, Kocher CD, Kodroff D, Konovalov AM, Korley L, Korolkova EV, Koyuncu M, Kras J, Kraus H, Kravitz SW, Krebs HJ, Kreczko L, Krikler B, Kudryavtsev VA, Kumpan AV, Kyre S, Lambertet al., 2020, The LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ) radioactivity and cleanliness control programs, European Physical Journal C: Particles and Fields, Vol: 80, Pages: 1-52, ISSN: 1124-1861

LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ) is a second-generation direct dark matter experiment with spin-independent WIMP-nucleon scattering sensitivity above 1.4×10−48cm2 for a WIMP mass of 40GeV/c2 and a 1000days exposure. LZ achieves this sensitivity through a combination of a large 5.6t fiducial volume, active inner and outer veto systems, and radio-pure construction using materials with inherently low radioactivity content. The LZ collaboration performed an extensive radioassay campaign over a period of six years to inform material selection for construction and provide an input to the experimental background model against which any possible signal excess may be evaluated. The campaign and its results are described in this paper. We present assays of dust and radon daughters depositing on the surface of components as well as cleanliness controls necessary to maintain background expectations through detector construction and assembly. Finally, examples from the campaign to highlight fixed contaminant radioassays for the LZ photomultiplier tubes, quality control and quality assurance procedures through fabrication, radon emanation measurements of major sub-systems, and bespoke detector systems to assay scintillator are presented.

Journal article

Akerib DS, Alsum S, Araujo HM, Bai X, Balajthy J, Baxter A, Bernard EP, Bernstein A, Biesiadzinski TP, Boulton EM, Boxer B, Bras P, Burdin S, Byram D, Carmona-Benitez MC, Chan C, Cutter JE, de Viveiros L, Druszkiewicz E, Fan A, Fiorucci S, Gaitskell RJ, Ghag C, Gilchriese MGD, Gwilliam C, Hall CR, Haselschwardt SJ, Hertel SA, Hogan DP, Horn M, Huang DQ, Ignarra CM, Jacobsen RG, Jahangir O, Ji W, Kamdin K, Kazkaz K, Khaitan D, Korolkova E, Kravitz S, Kudryavtsev VA, Leason E, Lenardo BG, Lesko KT, Liao J, Lin J, Lindote A, Lopes M, Manalaysay A, Mannino RL, Marangou N, McKinsey DN, Mei D-M, Moongweluwan M, Morad JA, Murphy ASJ, Naylor A, Nehrkorn C, Nelson HN, Neves F, Nilima A, Oliver-Mallory KC, Palladino KJ, Pease EK, Riffard Q, Rischbieter GRC, Rhyne C, Rossiter P, Shaw S, Shutt TA, Silva C, Solmaz M, Solovov VN, Sorensen P, Sumner TJ, Szydagis M, Taylor DJ, Taylor R, Taylor WC, Tennyson BP, Terman PA, Tiedt DR, To WH, Tvrznikova L, Utku U, Uvarov S, Vacheret A, Velan V, Webb RC, White JT, Whitis TJ, Witherell MS, Wolfs FLH, Woodward D, Xu J, Zhang Cet al., 2020, Investigation of background electron emission in the LUX detector, Physical Review D: Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology, Vol: 102, Pages: 1-17, ISSN: 1550-2368

Dual-phase xenon detectors, as currently used in direct detection dark matter experiments, have observed elevated rates of background electron events in the low energy region. While this background negatively impacts detector performance in various ways, its origins have only been partially studied. In this paper we report a systematic investigation of the electron pathologies observed in the LUX dark matter experiment. We characterize different electron populations based on their emission intensities and their correlations with preceding energy depositions in the detector. By studying the background under different experimental conditions, we identified the leading emission mechanisms, including photoionization and the photoelectric effect induced by the xenon luminescence, delayed emission of electrons trapped under the liquid surface, capture and release of drifting electrons by impurities, and grid electron emission. We discuss how these backgrounds can be mitigated in LUX and future xenon-based dark matter experiments.

Journal article

Akerib DS, Alsum S, Araujo HM, Bai X, Balajthy J, Baxter A, Bernard EP, Bernstein A, Biesiadzinski TP, Boulton EM, Boxer B, Bras P, Burdin S, Byram D, Carmona-Benitez MC, Chan C, Cutter JE, de Viveiros L, Druszkiewicz E, Fan A, Fiorucci S, Gaitskell RJ, Ghag C, Gilchriese MGD, Gwilliam C, Hall CR, Haselschwardt SJ, Hertel SA, Hogan DP, Horn M, Huang DQ, Ignarra CM, Jacobsen RG, Jahangir O, Ji W, Kamdin K, Kazkaz K, Khaitan D, Korolkova E, Kravitz S, Kudryavtsev VA, Leason E, Lenardo BG, Lesko KT, Liao J, Lin J, Lindote A, Lopes M, Manalaysay A, Mannino RL, Marangou N, Marzioni MF, McKinsey DN, Mei D-M, Moongweluwan M, Morad JA, Murphy AS, Naylor A, Nehrkorn C, Nelson HN, Neves F, Nilima A, Oliver-Mallory KC, Palladino KJ, Pease EK, Riffard Q, Rischbieter GRC, Rhyne C, Rossiter P, Shaw S, Shutt TA, Silva C, Solmaz M, Solovov VN, Sorensen P, Sumner TJ, Szydagis M, Taylor DJ, Taylor R, Taylor WC, Tennyson BP, Terman PA, Tiedt DR, To WH, Tripathi M, Tvrznikova L, Utku U, Uvarov S, Vacheret A, Velan V, Webb RC, White JT, Whitis TJ, Witherell MS, Wolfs FLH, Woodward D, Xu J, Zhang Cet al., 2020, Search for two neutrino double electron capture of(124)Xe and(126)Xe in the full exposure of the LUX detector, Journal of Physics G: Nuclear and Particle Physics, Vol: 47, Pages: 1-13, ISSN: 0954-3899

Two-neutrino double electron capture is a process allowed in the standard model of particle physics. This rare decay has been observed in 78Kr, 130Ba and more recently in 124Xe. In this publication we report on the search for this process in 124Xe and 126Xe using the full exposure of the large underground xenon (LUX) experiment, in a total of 27769.5 kg-days. No evidence of a signal was observed, allowing us to set 90% C.L. lower limits for the half-lives of these decays of 2.0 × 1021 years for 124Xe and 1.9 × 1021 years for 126Xe.

Journal article

Akerib DS, Akerlof CW, Alqahtani A, Alsum SK, Anderson TJ, Angelides N, Araújo HM, Armstrong JE, Arthurs M, Bai X, Balajthy J, Balashov S, Bang J, Baxter A, Bensinger J, Bernard EP, Bernstein A, Bhatti A, Biekert A, Biesiadzinski TP, Birch HJ, Boast KE, Boxer B, Brás P, Buckley JH, Bugaev VV, Burdin S, Busenitz JK, Cabrita R, Carels C, Carlsmith DL, Carmona-Benitez MC, Cascella M, Chan C, Chott NI, Cole A, Cottle A, Cutter JE, Dahl CE, de Viveiros L, Dobson JEY, Druszkiewicz E, Edberg TK, Eriksen SR, Fan A, Fiorucci S, Flaecher H, Fraser ED, Fruth T, Gaitskell RJ, Genovesi J, Ghag C, Gibson E, Gilchriese MGD, Gokhale S, van der Grinten MGD, Hall CR, Harrison A, Haselschwardt SJ, Hertel SA, Hor JY-K, Horn M, Huang DQ, Ignarra CM, Jahangir O, Ji W, Johnson J, Kaboth AC, Kamaha AC, Kamdin K, Kazkaz K, Khaitan D, Khazov A, Khurana I, Kocher CD, Korley L, Korolkova EV, Kras J, Kraus H, Kravitz S, Kreczko L, Krikler B, Kudryavtsev VA, Leason EA, Lee J, Leonard DS, Lesko KT, Levy C, Li J, Liao J, Liao F-T, Lin J, Lindote A, Linehan R, Lippincott WH, Liu R, Liu X, Loniewski C, Lopes MI, López Paredes B, Lorenzon W, Luitz S, Lyle JM, Majewski PA, Manalaysay A, Manenti L, Mannino RL, Marangou N, Marzioni MF, McKinsey DN, McLaughlin J, Meng Y, Miller EH, Mizrachi E, Monte A, Monzani ME, Morad JA, Morrison E, Mount BJ, Murphy ASJ, Naim D, Naylor A, Nedlik C, Nehrkorn C, Nelson HN, Neves F, Nikoleyczik JA, Nilima A, O'Sullivan K, Olcina I, Oliver-Mallory KC, Pal S, Palladino KJ, Palmer J, Parveen N, Pease EK, Penning B, Pereira G, Pushkin K, Reichenbacher J, Rhyne CA, Riffard Q, Rischbieter GRC, Rosero R, Rossiter P, Rutherford G, Santone D, Sazzad ABMR, Schnee RW, Schubnell M, Seymour D, Shaw S, Shutt TA, Silk JJ, Silva C, Smith R, Solmaz M, Solovov VN, Sorensen P, Stancu I, Stevens A, Stifter K, Sumner TJ, Swanson N, Szydagis M, Tan M, Taylor WC, Taylor R, Temples DJ, Terman PA, Tiedt DR, Timalsina M, Tomás A, Tripathi M, Tronstad DR, Turner W, Tvrznikova L, Utku U, Vacheret Aet al., 2020, Projected sensitivity of the LUX-ZEPLIN experiment to the 0νββ decay of 136Xe, Physical Review C, Vol: 102, Pages: 014602 – 1-014602 – 13, ISSN: 2469-9985

The LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ) experiment will enable a neutrinoless double β decay search in parallel to the main science goal of discovering dark matter particle interactions. We report the expected LZ sensitivity to 136Xe neutrinoless double β decay, taking advantage of the significant (>600 kg) 136Xe mass contained within the active volume of LZ without isotopic enrichment. After 1000 live-days, the median exclusion sensitivity to the half-life of 136Xe is projected to be 1.06×1026 years (90% confidence level), similar to existing constraints. We also report the expected sensitivity of a possible subsequent dedicated exposure using 90% enrichment with 136Xe at 1.06×1027 years.

Journal article

Collaboration TLUX-ZEPLIN, Akerib DS, Akerlof CW, Alquahtani A, Alsum SK, Anderson TJ, Angelides N, Araújo HM, Armstrong JE, Arthurs M, Bai X, Balajthy J, Balashov S, Bang J, Bauer D, Baxter A, Bensinger J, Bernard EP, Bernstein A, Bhatti A, Biekert A, Biesiadzinski TP, Birch HJ, Boast KE, Boxer B, Brás P, Buckley JH, Bugaev VV, Burdin S, Busenitz JK, Cabrita R, Carels C, Carlsmith DL, Carmona-Benitez MC, Cascella M, Chan C, Chott NI, Cole A, Cottle A, Cutter JE, Dahl CE, Viveiros LD, Dobson JEY, Druszkiewicz E, Edberg TK, Eriksen SR, Fan A, Fayer S, Fiorucci S, Flaecher H, Fraser ED, Fruth T, Gaitskell RJ, Genovesi J, Ghag C, Gibson E, Gilchriese MGD, Gokhale S, Grinten MGDVD, Hall CR, Harrison A, Haselschwardt SJ, Hertel SA, Hor JY-K, Horn M, Huang DQ, Ignarra CM, Jahangir O, Ji W, Johnson J, Kaboth AC, Kamaha AC, Kamdin K, Kazkaz K, Khaitan D, Khazov A, Khurana I, Kocher CD, Korley L, Korolkova EV, Kras J, Kraus H, Kravitz S, Kreczko L, Krikler B, Kudryavtsev VA, Leason EA, Lee J, Leonard DS, Lesko KT, Levy C, Li J, Liao J, Liao F-T, Lin J, Lindote A, Linehan R, Lippincott WH, Liu R, Liu X, Loniewski C, Lopes MI, Paredes BL, Lorenzon W, Luitz S, Lyle JM, Majewski PA, Manalaysay A, Manenti L, Mannino RL, Marangou N, Marzioni MF, McKinsey DN, McLaughlin J, Meng Y, Miller EH, Mizrachi E, Monte A, Monzani ME, Morad JA, Morrison E, Mount BJ, Murphy ASJ, Naim D, Naylor A, Nedlik C, Nehrkorn C, Nelson HN, Neves F, Nikoleyczik JA, Nilima A, Olcina I, Oliver-Mallory KC, Pal S, Palladino KJ, Palmer J, Parveen N, Pease EK, Penning B, Pereira G, Piepke A, Pushkin K, Reichenbacher J, Rhyne CA, Richards A, Riffard Q, Rischbieter GRC, Rosero R, Rossiter P, Rutherford G, Santone D, Sazzad ABMR, Schnee RW, Schubnell M, Seymour D, Shaw S, Shutt TA, Silk JJ, Silva C, Smith R, Solmaz M, Solovov VN, Sorensen P, Stancu I, Stevens A, Stifter K, Sumner TJ, Swanson N, Szydagis M, Tan M, Taylor WC, Taylor R, Temples DJ, Terman PA, Tiedt DR, Timalsina M, Tomás A, Tripathi M, Tronstad DR Tet al., 2020, Simulations of Events for the LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ) Dark Matter Experiment, Astroparticle Physics, ISSN: 0927-6505

The LUX-ZEPLIN dark matter search aims to achieve a sensitivity to theWIMP-nucleon spin-independent cross-section down to (1-2) $\times$ $10^{-12}$pb at a WIMP mass of 40 GeV/$c^2$. This paper describes the simulationsframework that, along with radioactivity measurements, was used to support thisprojection, and also to provide mock data for validating reconstruction andanalysis software. Of particular note are the event generators, which allow usto model the background radiation, and the detector response physics used inthe production of raw signals, which can be converted into digitized waveformssimilar to data from the operational detector. Inclusion of the detectorresponse allows us to process simulated data using the same analysis routinesas developed to process the experimental data.

Journal article

Yang F, Bai Y, Hong W, Li H, Liu L, Sumner TJ, Yang Q, Zhao Y, Zhou Zet al., 2020, Investigation of charge management using UV LED device with a torsion pendulum for TianQin, CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM GRAVITY, Vol: 37, ISSN: 0264-9381

Journal article

Armano M, Audley H, Baird J, Binetruy P, Born M, Bortoluzzi D, Castelli E, Cavalleri A, Cesarini A, Cruise AM, Danzmann K, de Deus Silva M, Diepholz I, Dixon G, Dolesi R, Ferraioli L, Ferroni V, Fitzsimons ED, Freschi M, Gesa L, Gibert F, Giardini D, Giusteri R, Grimani C, Grzymisch J, Harrison I, Hartig M-S, Heinzel G, Hewitson M, Hollington D, Hoyland D, Hueller M, Inchauspe H, Jennrich O, Jetzer P, Karnesis N, Kaune B, Korsakova N, Killow CJ, Lobo JA, Liu L, Lopez-Zaragoza JP, Maarschalkerweerd R, Mance D, Martin V, Martin-Polo L, Martino J, Martin-Porqueras F, Mateos I, McNamara PW, Mendes J, Mendes L, Meshksar N, Nofrarias M, Paczkowski S, Perreur-Lloyd M, Petiteau A, Pivato P, Plagnol E, Ramos-Castro J, Reiche J, Rivas F, Robertson D, Roma-Dollase D, Russano G, Slutsky J, Sopuerta CF, Sumner T, Telloni D, Texier D, Thorpe J, Trenkel C, Vetrugno D, Vitale S, Wanner G, Ward H, Wass PJ, Wealthy D, Weber WJ, Wissel L, Wittchen A, Zweifel Pet al., 2020, Spacecraft and interplanetary contributions to the magnetic environment on-board LISA Pathfinder, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Vol: 494, Pages: 3014-3027, ISSN: 0035-8711

LISA Pathfinder (LPF) has been a space-based mission designed to test new technologies that will be required for a gravitational wave observatory in space. Magnetically driven forces play a key role in the instrument sensitivity in the low-frequency regime (mHz and below), the measurement band of interest for a space-based observatory. The magnetic field can couple to the magnetic susceptibility and remanent magnetic moment from the test masses and disturb them from their geodesic movement. LPF carried on-board a dedicated magnetic measurement subsystem with noise levels of 10 nT Hz−1/2 from 1 Hz down to 1 mHz. In this paper we report on the magnetic measurements throughout LPF operations. We characterize the magnetic environment within the spacecraft, study the time evolution of the magnetic field and its stability down to 20 μHz, where we measure values around 200 nT Hz−1/2⁠, and identify two different frequency regimes, one related to the interplanetary magnetic field and the other to the magnetic field originating inside the spacecraft. Finally, we characterize the non-stationary component of the fluctuations of the magnetic field below the mHz and relate them to the dynamics of the solar wind.

Journal article

Armano M, Audley H, Baird J, Born M, Bortoluzzi D, Cardines N, Castelli E, Cavalleri A, Cesarini A, Cruise AM, Danzmann K, de Deus Silva M, Dixon G, Dolesi R, Ferraioli L, Ferroni V, Fitzsimons ED, Freschi M, Gesa L, Giardini D, Gibert F, Giusteri R, Grimani C, Grzymisch J, Harrison I, Hartig M-S, Heinzel G, Hewitson M, Hollington D, Hoyland D, Hueller M, Inchauspe H, Jennrich O, Jetzer P, Karnesis N, Kaune B, Killow CJ, Korsakova N, Lopez-Zaragoza JP, Maarschalkerweerd R, Mance D, Martin V, Martin-Polo L, Martino J, Martin-Porqueras F, Mateos I, McNamara PW, Mendes J, Mendes L, Meshksar N, Nofrarias M, Paczkowski S, Perreur-Lloyd M, Petiteau A, Pivato P, Plagnol E, Ramos-Castro J, Reiche J, Rivas F, Robertson D, Russano G, Slutsky J, Sopuerta CF, Sumner T, Texier D, ten Pierick J, Thorpe J, Vetrugno D, Vitale S, Wanner G, Ward H, Wass PJ, Weber WJ, Wissel L, Wittchen A, Zweifel Pet al., 2020, Analysis of the accuracy of actuation electronics in the laser interferometer space antenna pathfinder, REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS, Vol: 91, ISSN: 0034-6748

Journal article

Akerib DS, Alsum S, Araújo HM, Bai X, Balajthy J, Baxter A, Bernard EP, Bernstein A, Biesiadzinski TP, Boulton EM, Boxer B, Brás P, Burdin S, Byram D, Carmona-Benitez MC, Chan C, Cutter JE, Viveiros LD, Druszkiewicz E, Fan A, Fiorucci S, Gaitskell RJ, Ghag C, Gilchriese MGD, Gwilliam C, Hall CR, Haselschwardt SJ, Hertel SA, Hogan DP, Horn M, Huang DQ, Ignarra CM, Jacobsen RG, Jahangir O, Ji W, Kamdin K, Kazkaz K, Khaitan D, Korolkova EV, Kravitz S, Kudryavtsev VA, Larsen NA, Leason E, Lenardo BG, Lesko KT, Liao J, Lin J, Lindote A, Lopes MI, Manalaysay A, Mannino RL, Marangou N, McKinsey DN, Mei D-M, Moongweluwan M, Morad JA, Murphy ASJ, Naylor A, Nehrkorn C, Nelson HN, Neves F, Nilima A, Oliver-Mallory KC, Palladino KJ, Pease EK, Riffard Q, Rischbieter GRC, Rhyne C, Rossiter P, Shaw S, Shutt TA, Silva C, Solmaz M, Solovov VN, Sorensen P, Sumner TJ, Szydagis M, Taylor DJ, Taylor R, Taylor WC, Tennyson BP, Terman PA, Tiedt DR, To WH, Tvrznikova L, Utku U, Uvarov S, Vacheret A, Velan V, Webb RC, White JT, Whitis TJ, Witherell MS, Wolfs FLH, Woodward D, Xu J, Zhang Cet al., 2020, An effective field theory analysis of the first LUX dark matter search, Publisher: arXiv

The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) dark matter search was a 250-kg active massdual-phase time projection chamber that operated by detecting light andionization signals from particles incident on a xenon target. In December 2015,LUX reported a minimum 90% upper C.L. of 6e-46 cm^2 on the spin-independentWIMP-nucleon elastic scattering cross section based on a 1.4e4 kg*day exposurein its first science run. Tension between experiments and the absence of adefinitive positive detection suggest it would be prudent to search for WIMPsoutside the standard spin-independent/spin-dependent paradigm. Recenttheoretical work has identified a complete basis of 14 independent effectivefield theory (EFT) operators to describe WIMP-nucleon interactions. In additionto spin-independent and spin-dependent nuclear responses, these operators canproduce novel responses such as angular-momentum-dependent and spin-orbitcouplings. Here we report on a search for all 14 of these EFT couplings withdata from LUX's first science run. Limits are placed on each coupling as afunction of WIMP mass.

Working paper

El-Neaj YA, Alpigiani C, Amairi-Pyka S, Araujo H, Balaz A, Bassi A, Bathe-Peters L, Battelier B, Belic A, Bentine E, Bernabeu J, Bertoldi A, Bingham R, Blas D, Bolpasi V, Bongs K, Bose S, Bouyer P, Bowcock T, Bowden W, Buchmueller O, Burrage C, Calmet X, Canuel B, Caramete L-I, Carroll A, Cella G, Charmandaris V, Chattopadhyay S, Chen X, Chiofalo ML, Coleman J, Cotter J, Cui Y, Derevianko A, De Roeck A, Djordjevic GS, Dornan P, Doser M, Drougkakis I, Dunningham J, Dutan I, Easo S, Elertas G, Ellis J, El Sawy M, Fassi F, Felea D, Feng C-H, Flack R, Foot C, Fuentes I, Gaaloul N, Gauguet A, Geiger R, Gibson V, Giudice G, Goldwin J, Grachov O, Graham PW, Grasso D, Van der Grinten M, Guendogan M, Haehnelt MG, Harte T, Hees A, Hobson R, Hogan J, Holst B, Holynski M, Kasevich M, Kavanagh BJ, Von Klitzing W, Kovachy T, Krikler B, Krutzik M, Lewicki M, Lien Y-H, Liu M, Luciano GG, Magnon A, Mahmoud MA, Malik S, McCabe C, Mitchell J, Pahl J, Pal D, Pandey S, Papazoglou D, Paternostro M, Penning B, Peters A, Prevedelli M, Puthiya-Veettil V, Quenby J, Rasel E, Ravenhall S, Ringwood J, Roura A, Sabulsky D, Sameed M, Sauer B, Schaffer SA, Schiller S, Schkolnik V, Schlippert D, Schubert C, Sfar HR, Shayeghi A, Shipsey I, Signorini C, Singh Y, Soares-Santos M, Sorrentino F, Sumner T, Tassis K, Tentindo S, Tino GM, Tinsley JN, Unwin J, Valenzuela T, Vasilakis G, Vaskonen V, Vogt C, Webber-Date A, Wenzlawski A, Windpassinger P, Woltmann M, Yazgan E, Zhan M-S, Zou X, Zupan Jet al., 2020, AEDGE: Atomic Experiment for Dark Matter and Gravity Exploration in Space, EPJ QUANTUM TECHNOLOGY, Vol: 7, ISSN: 2662-4400

Journal article

Collaboration TLUX, Akerib DS, Alsum S, Araújo HM, Bai X, Balajthy J, Baxter A, Bernard EP, Bernstein A, Biesiadzinski TP, Boulton EM, Boxer B, Brás P, Burdin S, Byram D, Carmona-Benitez MC, Chan C, Cutter JE, Viveiros LD, Druszkiewicz E, Fan A, Fiorucci S, Gaitskell RJ, Ghag C, Gilchriese MGD, Gwilliam C, Hall CR, Haselschwardt SJ, Hertel SA, Hogan DP, Horn M, Huang DQ, Ignarra CM, Jacobsen RG, Jahangir O, Ji W, Kamdin K, Kazkaz K, Khaitan D, Korolkova EV, Kravits S, Kudryavtsev VA, Leason E, Lenardo BG, Lesko KT, Liao J, Lin J, Lindote A, Lopes MI, Manalaysay A, Mannino RL, Marangou N, Marzioni MF, McKinsey DN, Mei DM, Moongweluwan M, Morad JA, Murphy ASJ, Naylor A, Nehrkorn C, Nelson HN, Neves F, Nilima A, Oliver-Mallory KC, Palladino KJ, Pease EK, Riffard Q, Rischbieter GRC, Rhyne C, Rossiter P, Shaw S, Shutt TA, Silva C, Solmaz M, Solovov VN, Sorensen P, Sumner TJ, Szydagis M, Taylor DJ, Taylor R, Taylor WC, Tennyson BP, Terman PA, Tiedt DR, To WH, Tripathi M, Tvrznikova L, Utku U, Uvarov S, Vacheret A, Velan V, Webb RC, White JT, Whitis TJ, Witherell MS, Wolfs FLH, Woodward D, Xu J, Zhang Cet al., 2020, Improved modeling of $β$ electronic recoils in liquid xenon using LUX calibration data, Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN: 1748-0221

We report here methods and techniques for creating and improving a model thatreproduces the scintillation and ionization response of a dual-phase liquid andgaseous xenon time-projection chamber. Starting with the recent release of theNoble Element Simulation Technique (NEST v2.0), electronic recoil data from the$\beta$ decays of ${}^3$H and ${}^{14}$C in the Large Underground Xenon (LUX)detector were used to tune the model, in addition to external data sets thatallow for extrapolation beyond the LUX data-taking conditions. This paper alsopresents techniques used for modeling complicated temporal and spatial detectorpathologies that can adversely affect data using a simplified model framework.The methods outlined in this report show an example of the robust applicationspossible with NEST v2.0, while also providing the final electronic recoil modeland detector parameters that will used in the new analysis package, the LUXLegacy Analysis Monte Carlo Application (LLAMA), for accurate reproduction ofthe LUX data. As accurate background reproduction is crucial for the success ofrare-event searches, such as dark matter direct detection experiments, thetechniques outlined here can be used in other single-phase and dual-phase xenondetectors to assist with accurate ER background reproduction.

Journal article

Sumner TJ, Mueller G, Conklin JW, Wass PJ, Hollington Det al., 2020, Charge induced acceleration noise in the LISA gravitational reference sensor, CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM GRAVITY, Vol: 37, ISSN: 0264-9381

Journal article

Akerib DS, Akerlof CW, Akimov DY, Alquahtani A, Alsum SK, Anderson TJ, Angelides N, Araujo HM, Arbuckle A, Armstrong JE, Arthurs M, Auyeung H, Bai X, Bailey AJ, Balajthy J, Balashov S, Bang J, Barry MJ, Barthel J, Bauer D, Bauer P, Baxter A, Belle J, Beltrame P, Bensinger J, Benson T, Bernard EP, Bernstein A, Bhatti A, Biekert A, Biesiadzinski TP, Birrittella B, Boast KE, Bolozdynya A, Boulton EM, Boxer B, Bramante R, Branson S, Bras P, Breidenbach M, Buckley JH, Bugaev VV, Bunker R, Burdin S, Busenitz JK, Campbell JS, Carels C, Carlsmith DL, Carlson B, Carmona-Benitez MC, Cascella M, Chan C, Cherwinka JJ, Chiller AA, Chiller C, Chott N, Cole A, Coleman J, Colling D, Conley RA, Cottle A, Coughlen R, Craddock WW, Curran D, Currie A, Cutter JE, da Cunha JP, Dahl CE, Dardin S, Dasu S, Davis J, Davison TJR, de Viveiros L, Decheine N, Dobi A, Dobson JEY, Druszkiewicz E, Dushkin A, Edberg TK, Edwards WR, Edwards BN, Edwards J, Elnimr MM, Emmet WT, Eriksen SR, Faham CH, Fan A, Fayer S, Fiorucci S, Flaecher H, Florang IMF, Ford P, Francis VB, Froborg F, Fruth T, Gaitskell RJ, Gantos NJ, Garcia D, Geffre A, Gehman VM, Gelfand R, Genovesi J, Gerhard RM, Ghag C, Gibson E, Gilchriese MGD, Gokhale S, Gomber B, Gonda TG, Greenall A, Greenwood S, Gregerson G, van der Grinten MGD, Gwilliam CB, Hall CR, Hamilton D, Hans S, Hanzel K, Harrington T, Harrison A, Hasselkus C, Haselschwardt SJ, Hemer D, Hertel SA, Heise J, Hillbrand S, Hitchcock O, Hjemfelt C, Hoff MD, Holbrook B, Holtom E, Hor JY-K, Horn M, Huang DQ, Hurteau TW, Ignarra CM, Irving MN, Jacobsen RG, Jahangir O, Jeffery SN, Ji W, Johnson M, Johnson J, Johnson P, Jones WG, Kaboth AC, Kamaha A, Kamdin K, Kasey V, Kazkaz K, Keefner J, Khaitan D, Khaleeq M, Khazov A, Khromov A, Khurana I, Kim YD, Kim WT, Kocher CD, Konovalov AM, Korley L, Korolkova E, Koyuncu M, Kras J, Kraus H, Kravitz SW, Krebs HJ, Kreczko L, Krikler B, Kudryavtsev VA, Kumpan A, Kyre S, Lambert AR, Landerud B, Larsen NA, Laundrie A, Leason EA, Lee HS, Lee Jet al., 2020, The LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ) experiment, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors, and Associated Equipment, Vol: 953, Pages: 1-22, ISSN: 0168-9002

We describe the design and assembly of the LUX-ZEPLIN experiment, a direct detection search for cosmic WIMP dark matter particles. The centerpiece of the experiment is a large liquid xenon time projection chamber sensitive to low energy nuclear recoils. Rejection of backgrounds is enhanced by a Xe skin veto detector and by a liquid scintillator Outer Detector loaded with gadolinium for efficient neutron capture and tagging. LZ is located in the Davis Cavern at the 4850’ level of the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, South Dakota, USA. We describe the major subsystems of the experiment and its key design features and requirements.

Journal article

Akerib DS, Alsum S, Araujo HM, Bai X, Balajthy J, Baxter A, Beltrame P, Bernard EP, Bernstein A, Biesiadzinski TP, Boulton EM, Boxer B, Bras P, Burdin S, Byram D, Carmona-Benitez MC, Chan C, Cutter JE, de Viveiros L, Druszkiewicz E, Fallon SR, Fan A, Fiorucci S, Gaitskell RJ, Genovesi J, Ghag C, Gilchriese MGD, Gwilliam C, Hall CR, Haselschwardt SJ, Hertel SA, Hogan DP, Horn M, Huang DQ, Ignarra CM, Jacobsen RG, Jahangir O, Ji W, Kamdin K, Kazkaz K, Khaitan D, Korolkova EV, Kravitz S, Kudryavtsev VA, Leason E, Lenardo BG, Lesko KT, Lin JLJ, Lindote A, Lopes MI, Paredes BL, Manalaysay A, Mannino RL, Marangou N, Marzioni MF, McKinsey DN, Mei DM, Moongweluwan M, Morad JA, Murphy ASJ, Naylor A, Nehrkorn C, Nelson HN, Neves F, Nilima A, Oliver-Mallory KC, Palladino KJ, Pease EK, Riffard Q, Rischbieter GRC, Rhyne C, Rossiter P, Shaw S, Shutt TA, Silva C, Solmaz M, Solovov VN, Sorensen P, Sumner TJ, Szydagis M, Taylor DJ, Taylor R, Taylor WC, Tennyson BP, Terman PA, Tiedt DR, To WH, Tripathi M, Tvrznikova L, Utku U, Uvarov S, Vacheret A, Velan V, Webb RC, White JT, Whitis TJ, Witherell MS, Wolfs FLH, Woodward D, Xu J, Zhang Cet al., 2020, Extending light WIMP searches to single scintillation photons in LUX, Physical Review D: Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology, Vol: 101, Pages: 1-11, ISSN: 1550-2368

We present a novel analysis technique for liquid xenon time projection chambers that allows for a lower threshold by relying on events with a prompt scintillation signal consisting of single detected photons. The energy threshold of the LUX dark matter experiment is primarily determined by the smallest scintillation response detectable, which previously required a twofold coincidence signal in its photomultiplier arrays, enforced in data analysis. The technique presented here exploits the double photoelectron emission effect observed in some photomultiplier models at vacuum ultraviolet wavelengths. We demonstrate this analysis using an electron recoil calibration dataset and place new constraints on the spin-independent scattering cross section of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) down to 2.5  GeV/c2 WIMP mass using the 2013 LUX dataset. This new technique is promising to enhance light WIMP and astrophysical neutrino searches in next-generation liquid xenon experiments.

Journal article

Akerib DS, Alsum S, Araujo HM, Bai X, Balajthy J, Baxter A, Bernard EP, Bernstein A, Biesiadzinski TP, Boulton EM, Boxer B, Bras P, Burdin S, Byram D, Carmona-Benitez MC, Chan C, Cutter JE, de Viveiros L, Druszkiewicz E, Fan A, Fiorucci S, Gaitskell RJ, Ghag C, Gilchriese MGD, Gwilliam C, Hall CR, Haselschwardt SJ, Hertel SA, Hogan DP, Horn M, Huang DQ, Ignarra CM, Jacobsen RG, Jahangir O, Ji W, Kamdin K, Kazkaz K, Khaitan D, Korolkova EV, Kravitz S, Kudryavtsev VA, Leason E, Lenardo BG, Lesko KT, Liao J, Lin J, Lindote A, Lopes MI, Manalaysay A, Mannino RL, Marangou N, Marzioni MF, McKinsey DN, Mei D-M, Moongweluwan M, Morad JA, Murphy ASJ, Naylor A, Nehrkorn C, Nelson HN, Neves F, Nilima A, Oliver-Mallory KC, Palladino KJ, Pease EK, Riffard Q, Rischbieter GRC, Rhyne C, Rossiter P, Shaw S, Shutt TA, Silva C, Solmaz M, Solovov VN, Sorensen P, Sumner TJ, Szydagis M, Taylor DJ, Taylor R, Taylor WC, Tennyson BP, Terman PA, Tiedt DR, To WH, Tripathi M, Tvrznikova L, Utku U, Uvarov S, Vacheret A, Velan V, Webb RC, White JT, Whitis TJ, Witherell MS, Wolfs FLH, Woodward D, Xu J, Zhang Cet al., 2020, First direct detection constraint on mirror dark matter kinetic mixing using LUX 2013 data, Physical Review D: Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology, Vol: 101, Pages: 012003 – 1-012003 – 8, ISSN: 1550-2368

We present the results of a direct detection search for mirror dark matter interactions, using data collected from the Large Underground Xenon experiment during 2013, with an exposure of 95 live−days×118  kg. Here, the calculations of the mirror electron scattering rate in liquid xenon take into account the shielding effects from mirror dark matter captured within the Earth. Annual and diurnal modulation of the dark matter flux and atomic shell effects in xenon are also accounted for. Having found no evidence for an electron recoil signal induced by mirror dark matter interactions we place an upper limit on the kinetic mixing parameter over a range of local mirror electron temperatures between 0.1 and 0.9 keV. This limit shows significant improvement over the previous experimental constraint from orthopositronium decays and significantly reduces the allowed parameter space for the model. We exclude mirror electron temperatures above 0.3 keV at a 90% confidence level, for this model, and constrain the kinetic mixing below this temperature.

Journal article

Touboul P, Metris G, Rodrigues M, Andre Y, Baghi Q, Berge J, Boulanger D, Bremer S, Chhun R, Christophe B, Cipolla V, Damour T, Danto P, Dittus H, Fayet P, Foulon B, Guidotti P-Y, Hardy E, Phuong-Anh H, Laemmerzahl C, Lebat V, Liorzou F, List M, Panet I, Pires S, Pouilloux B, Prieur P, Reynaud S, Rievers B, Robert A, Selig H, Serron L, Sumner T, Visser Pet al., 2019, Space test of the equivalence principle: first results of the MICROSCOPE mission, Classical and Quantum Gravity, Vol: 36, Pages: 1-34, ISSN: 0264-9381

The weak equivalence principle (WEP), stating that two bodies of different compositions and/or mass fall at the same rate in a gravitational field (universality of free fall), is at the very foundation of general relativity. The MICROSCOPE mission aims to test its validity to a precision of 10−15, two orders of magnitude better than current on-ground tests, by using two masses of different compositions (titanium and platinum alloys) on a quasi-circular trajectory around the Earth. This is realised by measuring the accelerations inferred from the forces required to maintain the two masses exactly in the same orbit. Any significant difference between the measured accelerations, occurring at a defined frequency, would correspond to the detection of a violation of the WEP, or to the discovery of a tiny new type of force added to gravity. MICROSCOPE's first results show no hint for such a difference, expressed in terms of Eötvös parameter (both 1 uncertainties) for a titanium and platinum pair of materials. This result was obtained on a session with 120 orbital revolutions representing 7% of the current available data acquired during the whole mission. The quadratic combination of 1 uncertainties leads to a current limit on of about .

Journal article

Armano M, Audley H, Baird J, Binetruy P, Born M, Bortoluzzi D, Castelli E, Cavalleri A, Cesarini A, Cruise AM, Danzmann K, de Deus Silva M, Diepholz I, Dixon G, Dolesi R, Ferraioli L, Ferroni V, Fitzsimons ED, Freschi M, Gesa L, Gibert F, Giardini D, Giusteri R, Grimani C, Grzymisch J, Harrison I, Hartig M-S, Heinzel G, Hewitson M, Hollington D, Hoyland D, Hueller M, Inchauspe H, Jennrich O, Jetzer P, Karnesis N, Kaune B, Korsakova N, Killow CJ, Lobo JA, Liu L, Lopez-Zaragoza JP, Maarschalkerweerd R, Mance D, Meshksar N, Martin V, Martin-Polo L, Martino J, Martin-Porqueras F, McNamara PW, Mendes J, Mendes L, Nofrarias M, Paczkowski S, Perreur-Lloyd M, Petiteau A, Pivato P, Plagnol E, Ramos-Castro J, Reiche J, Robertson D, Rivas F, Russano G, Slutsky J, Sopuerta CF, Sumner T, Texier D, Thorpe J, Trenkel C, Vetrugno D, Vitale S, Wanner G, Ward H, Wass PJ, Weber WJ, Wissel L, Wittchen A, Zweifel Pet al., 2019, Novel methods to measure the gravitational constant in space, PHYSICAL REVIEW D, Vol: 100, ISSN: 2470-0010

Journal article

Thorpe J, Slutsky J, Baker JG, Littenberg TB, Hourihane S, Pagane N, Pokorny P, Janches D, Armano M, Audley H, Auger G, Baird J, Bassan M, Binetruy P, Born M, Bortoluzzi D, Brandt N, Caleno M, Cavalleri A, Cesarini A, Cruise AM, Danzmann K, de Deus Silva M, De Rosa R, Di Fiore L, Diepholz I, Dixon G, Dolesi R, Dunbar N, Ferraioli L, Ferroni V, Fitzsimons ED, Flatscher R, Freschi M, Marirrodriga CG, Gerndt R, Gesa L, Gibert F, Giardini D, Giusteri R, Grado A, Grimani C, Grzymisch J, Harrison I, Heinzel G, Hewitson M, Hollington D, Hoyland D, Hueller M, Inchauspe H, Jennrich O, Jetzer P, Johlander B, Karnesis N, Kaune B, Korsakova N, Killow CJ, Lobo JA, Lloro I, Liu L, Lopez-Zaragoza JP, Maarschalkerweerd R, Mance D, Martin V, Martin-Polo L, Martino J, Martin-Porqueras F, Madden S, Mateos I, McNamara PW, Mendes J, Mendes L, Nofrarias M, Paczkowski S, Perreur-Lloyd M, Petiteau A, Pivato P, Plagnol E, Prat P, Ragnit U, Ramos-Castro J, Reiche J, Robertson D, Rozemeijer H, Rivas F, Russano G, Sarra P, Schleicher A, Shaul D, Sopuerta CF, Stanga R, Sumner T, Texier D, Trenkel C, Troebs M, Vetrugno D, Vitale S, Wanner G, Ward H, Wass P, Wealthy D, Weber WJ, Wissel L, Wittchen A, Zambotti A, Zanoni C, Ziegler T, Zweifel P, Barela P, Cutler C, Demmons N, Dunn C, Girard M, Hsu O, Javidnia S, Li I, Maghami P, Marrese-Reading C, Mehta J, O'Donnell J, Romero-Wolf A, Ziemer Jet al., 2019, Micrometeoroid events in LISA pathfinder, The Astrophysical Journal: an international review of astronomy and astronomical physics, Vol: 883, Pages: 1-15, ISSN: 0004-637X

The zodiacal dust complex, a population of dust and small particles that pervades the solar system, provides important insight into the formation and dynamics of planets, comets, asteroids, and other bodies. We present a new set of data obtained from direct measurements of momentum transfer to a spacecraft from individual particle impacts. This technique is made possible by the extreme precision of the instruments flown on the LISA Pathfinder spacecraft, a technology demonstrator for a future space-based gravitational wave observatory. Pathfinder employed a technique known as drag-free control that achieved rejection of external disturbances, including particle impacts, using a micropropulsion system. Using a simple model of the impacts and knowledge of the control system, we show that it is possible to detect impacts and measure properties such as the transferred momentum, direction of travel, and location of impact on the spacecraft. In this paper, we present the results of a systematic search for impacts during 4348 hr of Pathfinder data. We report a total of 54 candidates with transferred momenta ranging from 0.2 to 230 μNs. We furthermore make a comparison of these candidates with models of micrometeoroid populations in the inner solar system, including those resulting from Jupiter-family comets (JFCs), Oort Cloud comets, Halley-type comets, and asteroids. We find that our measured population is consistent with a population dominated by JFCs, with some evidence for a smaller contribution from Halley-type comets, in agreement with consensus models of the zodiacal dust complex in the momentum range sampled by LISA Pathfinder.

Journal article

Armano M, Audley H, Baird J, Binetruy P, Born M, Bortoluzzi D, Castelli E, Cavalleri A, Cesarini A, Cruise AM, Danzmann K, Silva MDD, Diepholz I, Dixon G, Dolesi R, Ferraioli L, Ferroni V, Fitzsimons ED, Freschi M, Gesa L, Gibert F, Giardini D, Giusteri R, Grimani C, Grzymisch J, Harrison I, Hartig M-S, Heinzel G, Hewitson M, Hollington D, Hoyland D, Hueller M, Inchauspe H, Jennrich O, Jetzer P, Karnesis N, Kaune B, Korsakova N, Killow CJ, Lobo JA, Liu L, Lopez-Zaragoza JP, Maarschalkerweerd R, Mance D, Meshksar N, Martin V, Martin-Polo L, Martino J, Martin-Porqueras F, Mateos I, McNamara PW, Mendes J, Mendes L, Nofrarias M, Paczkowski S, Perreur-Lloyd M, Petiteau A, Pivato P, Plagnol E, Ramos-Castro J, Reiche J, Robertson DI, Rivas F, Russano G, Slutsky J, Sopuerta CF, Sumner T, Texier D, Thorpe JI, Vetrugno D, Vitale S, Wanner G, Ward H, Wass PJ, Weber WJ, Wissel L, Wittchen A, Zweifel Pet al., 2019, LISA pathfinder performance confirmed in an open-loop configuration: results from the free-fall actuation mode, Physical Review Letters, Vol: 123, Pages: 111101-1-111101-7, ISSN: 0031-9007

We report on the results of the LISA Pathfinder (LPF) free-fall mode experiment, in which the control force needed to compensate the quasistatic differential force acting on two test masses is applied intermittently as a series of “impulse” forces lasting a few seconds and separated by roughly 350 s periods of true free fall. This represents an alternative to the normal LPF mode of operation in which this balancing force is applied continuously, with the advantage that the acceleration noise during free fall is measured in the absence of the actuation force, thus eliminating associated noise and force calibration errors. The differential acceleration noise measurement presented here with the free-fall mode agrees with noise measured with the continuous actuation scheme, representing an important and independent confirmation of the LPF result. An additional measurement with larger actuation forces also shows that the technique can be used to eliminate actuation noise when this is a dominant factor.

Journal article

Akerib DS, Alsum S, Araujo HM, Bai X, Balajthy J, Baxter A, Beltrame P, Bernard EP, Bernstein A, Biesiadzinski TP, Boulton EM, Boxer B, Bras P, Burdin S, Byram D, Carmona-Benitez MC, Chan C, Cutter JE, de Viveiros L, Druszkiewicz E, Fallon SR, Fan A, Fiorucci S, Gaitskell RJ, Genovesi J, Ghag C, Gilchriese MGD, Gwilliam C, Hall CR, Haselschwardt SJ, Hertel SA, Hogan DP, Horn M, Huang DQ, Ignarra CM, Jacobsen RG, Jahangir O, Ji W, Kamdin K, Kazkaz K, Khaitan D, Korolkova E, Kravitz S, Kudryavtsev VA, Leason E, Lenardo BG, Lesko KT, Liao J, Lin J, Lindote A, Lopes M, Manalaysay A, Mannino RL, Marangou N, Marzioni MF, McKinsey DN, Mei D-M, Moongweluwan M, Morad JA, Murphy ASJ, Naylor A, Nehrkorn C, Nelson HN, Neves F, Nilima A, Oliver-Mallory KC, Palladino KJ, Pease EK, Riffard Q, Rischbieter GRC, Rhyne C, Rossiter P, Shaw S, Shutt TA, Silva C, Solmaz M, Solovov VN, Sorensen P, Sumner TJ, Szydagis M, Taylor DJ, Taylor R, Taylor WC, Tennyson BP, Terman PA, Tiedt DR, To WH, Tripathi M, Tvrznikova L, Utku U, Uvarov S, Vacheret A, Velan V, Webb RC, White JT, Whitis TJ, Witherell MS, Wolfs FLH, Woodward D, Xu J, Zhang Cet al., 2019, Improved measurements of the beta-decay response of liquid xenon with the LUX detector, Physical Review D: Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology, Vol: 100, ISSN: 1550-2368

We report results from an extensive set of measurements of the β-decay response in liquid xenon. These measurements are derived from high-statistics calibration data from injected sources of both 3H and 14C in the LUX detector. The mean light-to-charge ratio is reported for 13 electric field values ranging from 43 to 491  V/cm, and for energies ranging from 1.5 to 145 keV.

Journal article

Armano M, Audley H, Baird J, Binetruy P, Born M, Bortoluzzi D, Castelli E, Cavalleri A, Cesarini A, Cruise AM, Danzmann K, de Deus Silva M, Diepholz I, Dixon G, Dolesi R, Ferraioli L, Ferroni V, Fitzsimons ED, Freschi M, Gesa L, Gibert F, Giardini D, Giusteri R, Grimani C, Grzymisch J, Harrison I, Heinzel G, Hewitson M, Hollington D, Hoyland D, Hueller M, Inchauspe H, Jennrich O, Jetzer P, Karnesis N, Kaune B, Korsakova N, Killow CJ, Lobo JA, Lloro I, Liu L, Lopez-Zaragoza JP, Maarschalkerweerd R, Mance D, Mansanet C, Martin V, Martin-Polo L, Martino J, Martin-Porqueras F, Mateos I, McNamara PW, Mendes J, Mendes L, Meshksar N, Nofrarias M, Paczkowski S, Perreur-Lloyd M, Petiteau A, Pivato P, Plagnol E, Ramos-Castro J, Reiche J, Robertson DI, Rivas F, Russano G, Sanjuan J, Slutsky J, Sopuerta CF, Sumner T, Texier D, Thorpe JI, Trenkel C, Vetrugno D, Vitale S, Wanner G, Ward H, Wass PJ, Wealthy D, Weber WJ, Wissel L, Wittchen A, Zweifel Pet al., 2019, Temperature stability in the sub-milliHertz band with LISA Pathfinder, MONTHLY NOTICES OF THE ROYAL ASTRONOMICAL SOCIETY, Vol: 486, Pages: 3368-3379, ISSN: 0035-8711

Journal article

Armano M, Audley H, Baird J, Binetruy P, Born M, Bortoluzzi D, Castelli E, Cavalleri A, Cesarini A, Cruise AM, Danzmann K, de Deus Silva M, Diepholz I, Dixon G, Dolesi R, Ferraioli L, Ferroni V, Fitzsimons ED, Freschi M, Gesa L, Gibert F, Giardini D, Giusteri R, Grimani C, Grzymisch J, Harrison I, Heinzel G, Hewitson M, Hollington D, Hoyland D, Hueller M, Inchauspe H, Jennrich O, Jetzer P, Karnesis N, Kaune B, Korsakova N, Killow CJ, Lobo JA, Lloro I, Liu L, Lopez-Zaragoza JP, Maarschalkerweerd R, Mance D, Meshksar N, Martin V, Martin-Polo L, Martino J, Martin-Porqueras F, Mateos I, McNamara PW, Mendes J, Mendes L, Nofrarias M, Paczkowski S, Perreur-Lloyd M, Petiteau A, Pivato P, Plagnol E, Ramos-Castro J, Reiche J, Robertson DI, Rivas F, Russano G, Slutsky J, Sopuerta CF, Sumner T, Texier D, Thorpe JI, Vetrugno D, Vitale S, Wanner G, Ward H, Wass PJ, Weber WJ, Wissel L, Wittchen A, Zweifel Pet al., 2019, LISA Pathfinder micronewton cold gas thrusters: In-flight characterization, PHYSICAL REVIEW D, Vol: 99, ISSN: 2470-0010

Journal article

Wass PJ, Hollington D, Sumner TJ, Yang F, Pfeil Met al., 2019, Effective decrease of photoelectric emission threshold from gold plated surfaces, Review of Scientific Instruments, Vol: 90, ISSN: 0034-6748

Many applications require charge neutralization of isolated test bodies, and this has been successfully done using photoelectric emission from surfaces which are electrically benign (gold) or superconducting (niobium). Gold surfaces nominally have a high work function (∼5.1 eV) which should require deep UV photons for photoemission. In practice, it has been found that it can be achieved with somewhat lower energy photons with indicative work functions of (4.1–4.3 eV). A detailed working understanding of the process is lacking, and this work reports on a study of the photoelectric emission properties of 4.6 × 4.6 cm2 gold plated surfaces, representative of those used in typical satellite applications with a film thickness of 800 nm, and measured surface roughnesses between 7 and 340 nm. Various UV sources with photon energies from 4.8 to 6.2 eV and power outputs from 1 nW to 1000 nW illuminated ∼0.3 cm2 of the central surface region at angles of incidence from 0° to 60°. Final extrinsic quantum yields in the range 10 ppm–44 ppm were reliably obtained during 8 campaigns, covering a period of ∼3 years but with intermediate long-term variations lasting several weeks and, in some cases, bake-out procedures at up to 200 °C. Experimental results were obtained in a vacuum system with a baseline pressure of ∼10−7 mbar at room temperature. A working model, designed to allow accurate simulation of any experimental configuration, is proposed.

Journal article

Armano M, Audley H, Baird J, Binetruy P, Born M, Bortoluzzi D, Castelli E, Cavalleri A, Cesarini A, Cruise AM, Danzmann K, de Deus Silva M, Diepholz I, Dixon G, Dolesi R, Ferraioli L, Ferroni V, Fitzsimons ED, Freschi M, Gesa L, Gibert F, Giardini D, Giusteri R, Grimani C, Grzymisch J, Harrison I, Heinzel G, Hewitson M, Hollington D, Hoyland D, Hueller M, Inchauspe H, Jennrich O, Jetzer P, Karnesis N, Kaune B, Korsakova N, Killow CJ, Lobo JA, Lloro I, Liu L, Lopez-Zaragoza JP, Maarschalkerweerd R, Mance D, Meshksar N, Martin V, Martin-Polo L, Martino J, Martin-Porqueras F, Mateos I, McNamara PW, Mendes J, Mendes L, Nofrarias M, Paczkowski S, Perreur-Lloyd M, Petiteau A, Pivato P, Plagnol E, Ramos-Castro J, Reiche J, Robertson DI, Rivas F, Russano G, Slutsky J, Sopuerta CF, Sumner T, Texier D, Thorpe JI, Vetrugno D, Vitale S, Wanner G, Ward H, Wass PJ, Weber WJ, Wissel L, Wittchen A, Zweifel Pet al., 2019, LISA Pathfinder platform stability and drag-free performance, Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology, Vol: 99, ISSN: 1550-2368

The science operations of the LISA Pathfinder mission have demonstrated the feasibility of sub-femto-g free fall of macroscopic test masses necessary to build a gravitational wave observatory in space such as LISA. While the main focus of interest, i.e., the optical axis or the x-axis, has been extensively studied, it is also of great importance to evaluate the stability of the spacecraft with respect to all the other degrees of freedom (d.o.f.). The current paper is dedicated to such a study: the exhaustive and quantitative evaluation of the imperfections and dynamical effects that impact the stability with respect to its local geodesic. A model of the complete closed-loop system provides a comprehensive understanding of each component of the in-loop coordinates spectral density. As will be presented, this model gives very good agreement with LISA Pathfinder flight data. It allows one to identify the noise source at the origin and the physical phenomena underlying the couplings. From this, the stability performance of the spacecraft with respect to its geodesic is extracted as a function of frequency. Close to 1 mHz, the stability of the spacecraft on the XSC, YSC and ZSC d.o.f. is shown to be of the order of 5.0×10−15  m s−2 Hz−1/2 for X, 6.0×10−14  m s−2 Hz−1/2 for Y, and 4.0×10−14  m s−2 Hz−1/2 for Z. For the angular d.o.f., the values are of the order of 3×10−12  rad s−2  Hz−1/2 for ΘSC, 5×10−13  rad s−2  Hz−1/2 for HSC, and 3×10−13  rad s−2  Hz−1/2 for ΦSC. Below 1 mHz, however, the stability performances are worsened significantly by the effect of the star tracker noise on the closed-loop system. It is worth noting that LI

Journal article

Akerib DS, Alsum S, Araujo HM, Bai X, Balajthy J, Beltrame P, Bernard EP, Bernstein A, Biesiadzinski TP, Boulton EM, Boxer B, Bras P, Burdin S, Byram D, Carmona-Benitez MC, Chan C, Cutter JE, Davison TJR, Druszkiewicz E, Fallon SR, Fan A, Fiorucci S, Gaitskell RJ, Genovesi J, Ghag C, Gilchriese MGD, Gwilliam C, Hall CR, Haselschwardt SJ, Hertel SA, Hogan DP, Horn M, Huang DQ, Ignarra CM, Jacobsen RG, Jahangir O, Ji W, Kamdin K, Kazkaz K, Khaitan D, Knoche R, Korolkova E, Kravitz S, Kudryavtsev VA, Lenardo BG, Lesko KT, Liao J, Lin J, Lindote A, Lopes M, Manalaysay A, Mannino RL, Marangou N, Marzioni MF, McKinsey DN, Mei D-M, Moongweluwan M, Morad JA, Murphy ASJ, Naylor A, Nehrkorn C, Nelson HN, Neves F, Oliver-Mallory KC, Palladino KJ, Pease EK, Riffard Q, Rischbieter GRC, Rhyne C, Rossiter P, Shaw S, Shutt TA, Silva C, Solmaz M, Solovov VN, Sorensen P, Sumner TJ, Szydagis M, Taylor DJ, Taylor WC, Tennyson BP, Terman PA, Tiedt DR, To WH, Tripathi M, Tvrznikova L, Utku U, Uvarov S, Velan V, Webb RC, White JT, Whitis TJ, Witherell MS, Wolfs FLH, Woodward D, Xu J, Yazdani K, Zhang Cet al., 2019, Results of a search for sub-GeV Dark Matter using 2013 LUX data, Physical Review Letters, Vol: 122, ISSN: 0031-9007

The scattering of dark matter (DM) particles with sub-GeV masses off nuclei is difficult to detect using liquid xenon-based DM search instruments because the energy transfer during nuclear recoils is smaller than the typical detector threshold. However, the tree-level DM-nucleus scattering diagram can be accompanied by simultaneous emission of a bremsstrahlung photon or a so-called “Migdal” electron. These provide an electron recoil component to the experimental signature at higher energies than the corresponding nuclear recoil. The presence of this signature allows liquid xenon detectors to use both the scintillation and the ionization signals in the analysis where the nuclear recoil signal would not be otherwise visible. We report constraints on spin-independent DM-nucleon scattering for DM particles with masses of 0.4–5  GeV/c2 using 1.4×104  kg day of search exposure from the 2013 data from the Large Underground Xenon (LUX) experiment for four different classes of mediators. This analysis extends the reach of liquid xenon-based DM search instruments to lower DM masses than has been achieved previously.

Journal article

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