119 results found
Izzi-Engbeaya C, Mills E, Yang L, et al., 2020, Acute effects of glucagon on reproductive hormone secretion in healthy men, Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol: 105, ISSN: 0021-972X
ContextGlucagon increases energy expenditure; consequently, glucagon receptor agonists are in development for the treatment of obesity. Obesity negatively affects the reproductive axis, and hypogonadism itself can exacerbate weight gain. Therefore, knowledge of the effects of glucagon receptor agonism on reproductive hormones is important for developing therapeutics for obesity; but reports in the literature about the effects of glucagon receptor agonism on the reproductive axis are conflicting.ObjectiveThe objective of this work is to investigate the effect of glucagon administration on reproductive hormone secretion in healthy young men.DesignA single-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study was conducted.SettingThe setting of this study was the Clinical Research Facility, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust.ParticipantsEighteen healthy eugonadal men (mean ± SEM: age 25.1 ± 1.0 years; body mass index 22.5 ± 0.4 kg/m2; testosterone 21.2 ± 1.2 nmol/L) participated in this study.InterventionAn 8-hour intravenous infusion of 2 pmol/kg/min glucagon or rate-matched vehicle infusion was administered.Main Outcome MeasuresLuteinizing hormone (LH) pulsatility; LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and testosterone levels were measured.ResultsAlthough glucagon administration induced metabolic effects (insulin area under the curve: vehicle 1065 ± 292 min.µU/mL vs glucagon 2098 ± 358 min.µU/mL, P < .001), it did not affect LH pulsatility (number of LH pulses/500 min: vehicle 4.7 ± 0.4, glucagon 4.2 ± 0.4, P = .22). Additionally, there were no significant differences in circulating LH, FSH, or testosterone levels during glucagon administration compared with vehicle administration.ConclusionsAcute administration of a metabolically active dose of glucagon does not alter reproductive hormone secretion in healthy men. These data are important for the continued development of glucagon-based tre
Alexiadou K, Tan TM-M, 2020, Gastrointestinal Peptides as Therapeutic Targets to Mitigate Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome, CURRENT DIABETES REPORTS, Vol: 20, ISSN: 1534-4827
Kamocka A, McGlone ER, Pérez-Pevida B, et al., 2020, Candy cane revision after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, Surgical Endoscopy, Vol: 34, Pages: 2076-2081, ISSN: 0930-2794
BACKGROUND: An excessively long-blind end of the alimentary limb following a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), known as a 'candy cane' (CC), may cause symptoms including abdominal pain, regurgitation and vomiting. Very few studies have examined the efficacy of surgical resection of the CC. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess sensitivity of preoperative diagnostic tools for CC, as well as perioperative outcomes and symptom resolution after CC revision surgery. SETTING: High volume bariatric centre of excellence, United Kingdom. METHODS: Observational study of CC revisions from 2010 to 2017. RESULTS: Twenty-eight CC revision cases were identified (mean age 45 ± 9 years, female preponderance 9:1). Presenting symptoms were abdominal pain (86%), regurgitation/vomiting (43%), suboptimal weight loss (36%) and acid reflux (21%). Preoperative tests provided correct diagnosis in 63% of barium contrast swallows, 50% of upper gastrointestinal endoscopies and 29% computed tomographies. Patients presenting with pain had significantly higher CC size as compared with pain-free group (4.2 vs. 2 cm, p = 0.001). Perioperative complications occurred in 25% of cases. Complete or partial symptom resolution was documented in 73% of patients undergoing CC revision. Highest success rates were recorded in the regurgitation/vomiting group (67%). CONCLUSION: Surgical revision of CC is associated with good symptom resolution in the majority of patients, especially those presenting with regurgitation/vomiting. However, it carries certain risk of complications. CC diagnosis may frequently be missed; hence more than one diagnostic tool should be considered when investigating symptomatic patients after RYGB.
Fang Z, Chen S, Pickford P, et al., 2020, The influence of peptide context on signaling and trafficking of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor biased agonists, ACS Pharmacology & Translational Science, Vol: 3, Pages: 345-360, ISSN: 2575-9108
Signal bias and membrane trafficking have recently emerged as important considerations in the therapeutic targeting of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) in type 2 diabetes and obesity. In the present study, we have evaluated a peptide series with varying sequence homology between native GLP-1 and exendin-4, the archetypal ligands on which approved GLP-1R agonists are based. We find notable differences in agonist-mediated cyclic AMP signaling, recruitment of β-arrestins, endocytosis, and recycling, dependent both on the introduction of a His → Phe switch at position 1 and the specific midpeptide helical regions and C-termini of the two agonists. These observations were linked to insulin secretion in a beta cell model and provide insights into how ligand factors influence GLP-1R function at the cellular level.
Alexiadou K, Cuenco J, Howard J, et al., 2020, Proglucagon peptide secretion profiles in type 2 diabetes before and after bariatric surgery: 1-year prospective study, BMJ Open Diabetes Research and Care, Vol: 8, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 2052-4897
Introduction Hyperglucagonemia is a key pathophysiological driver of type 2 diabetes. Although Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is a highly effective treatment for diabetes, it is presently unclear how surgery alters glucagon physiology. The aim of this study was to characterize the behavior of proglucagon-derived peptide (glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, glicentin) secretion after RYGB surgery.Research design and methods Prospective study of 19 patients with obesity and pre-diabetes/diabetes undergoing RYGB. We assessed the glucose, insulin, GLP-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), oxyntomodulin, glicentin and glucagon responses to a mixed-meal test (MMT) before and 1, 3 and 12 months after surgery. Glucagon was measured using a Mercodia glucagon ELISA using the ‘Alternative’ improved specificity protocol, which was validated against a reference liquid chromatography combined with mass spectrometry method.Results After RYGB, there were early improvements in fasting glucose and glucose tolerance and the insulin response to MMT was accelerated and amplified, in parallel to significant increases in postprandial GLP-1, oxyntomodulin and glicentin secretion. There was a significant decrease in fasting glucagon levels at the later time points of 3 and 12 months after surgery. Glucagon was secreted in response to the MMT preoperatively and postoperatively in all patients and there was no significant change in this postprandial secretion. There was no significant change in GIP secretion.Conclusions There is a clear difference in the dynamics of secretion of proglucagon peptides after RYGB. The reduction in fasting glucagon secretion may be one of the mechanisms driving later improvements in glycemia after RYGB.
Kamocka A, Miras AD, Perez-Pevida B, et al., 2020, Long versus standard biliopancreatic limb in the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. The LONG LIMB Trial., 11th Annual Scientific Meeting of the British-Obesity-and-Metabolic-Surgery-Society (BOMSS), Publisher: SPRINGER, Pages: S4-S4, ISSN: 0960-8923
Izzi-Engbeaya C, Dhillo W, Tan T, et al., 2020, Effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 on the reproductive axis in healthy men, Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol: 105, Pages: 1-7, ISSN: 0021-972X
ContextGlucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) potently reduces food intake and augments glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Recent animal data suggest that GLP-1 may also influence reproduction. As GLP-1 receptor agonists are currently widely used in clinical practice to treat obesity/type 2 diabetes, it is necessary to determine the effects of GLP-1 on the reproductive system in humans.ObjectiveTo investigate the effects of GLP-1 administration on the reproductive axis in humans.DesignSingle-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study.SettingClinical Research Facility, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust.ParticipantsEighteen healthy men (mean age 24.7 ± 0.1years, mean BMI 22.1 ± 0.4kg/m2).InterventionEight-hour intravenous infusion of 0.8 pmol/kg/min GLP-1 or rate-matched vehicle infusion.Main Outcome MeasuresNumber of luteinizing hormone (LH) pulses, LH, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and testosterone levels.ResultsThe number of LH pulses (number of LH pulses/500 min: vehicle 4.2 ± 0.4, GLP-1 4.5 ± 0.3, P = 0.46), LH area under the curve (AUC) (vehicle 1518 ± 88min.IU/L, GLP-1 1524 ± 101min.IU/L, P = 0.95), follicle-stimulating hormone AUC (vehicle 1210 ± 112 min IU/L, GLP-1 1216 ± 112 min IU/L, P = 0.86), and testosterone AUC (vehicle 10893 ± 615 min nmol/L, GLP-1 11088 ± 792 min nmol/L, P = 0.77) did not significantly differ during vehicle and GLP-1 administration. Glucagon-like peptide-1 significantly reduced food intake (vehicle 15.7 ± 1.3 kcal/kg, GLP-1 13.4 ± 1.3 kcal/kg, P = 0.01).ConclusionsIn contrast to the animal literature, our data demonstrate that acute GLP-1 administration does not affect reproductive hormone secretion in healthy men.
Miras AD, Ravindra S, Humphreys A, et al., 2019, Metabolic changes and diabetes microvascular complications 5 years after obesity surgery., Obesity Surgery, Vol: 29, Pages: 3907-3911, ISSN: 0960-8923
BACKGROUND: Obesity surgery has pronounced effects on metabolic profile of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); however, reports on long-term remission rates based on the standardised and holistic criteria by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and effects on T2DM microvascular complications are scarce in the literature. In this retrospective clinical trial, our objectives were to assess these variables 5 years after surgery. METHODS: Clinical data and direct measurements of renal and retinal damage were collected prospectively and analysed retrospectively for 82 patients with T2DM who underwent obesity surgery and were followed up for 5 years. RESULTS: The cohort of 82 patients with T2DM that were followed up 5 years after obesity surgery was predominantly female (71%) with a median age of 51 years, weight of 133.5 kg, BMI of 46.8 kg/m2 and pre-operative duration of T2DM of 8 years; 6% of patients had diet-controlled T2DM, 57% were on non-insulin treatment and 37% were on insulin treatment pre-operatively. Of the total 82 patients, 59 patients underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, 15 sleeve gastrectomy and 8 patients underwent gastric band operations. At 5 years, 5% and 15% patients achieved optimisation and improvement of the metabolic state based on the IDF criteria respectively. Surgery was associated with almost halving of the albumin-creatinine ratio in 22 patients with pre-existing albuminuria (follow-up data available for 64 patients) and an overall stabilisation of retinopathy in 24 patients with retinal images available at 5 years. CONCLUSION: Whilst the findings on microvascular complications are encouraging, the rates of metabolic remission were lower than expected and raise the need for validated protocols to assist clinicians in managing these patients more aggressively post-operatively to achieve optimum cardio-metabolic risk factor control and hopefully further reduction in microvascular an
Izzi-Engbeaya C, Jones S, Crustna Y, et al., 2019, Effects of peptide-YY on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in healthy men, Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol: 105, Pages: 1-6, ISSN: 0021-972X
ContextCentral and peripheral administration of peptide-YY (PYY) has potent anorectic effects, and PYY analogues are under development as anti-obesity treatments. Recent animal data suggest PYY may also influence the reproductive axis, however the effects of PYY on the human reproductive system are unknown.ObjectiveTo investigate the effects of PYY administration on the reproductive axis in healthy young men.DesignSingle-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled crossover study.SettingClinical Research Facility, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust.ParticipantsEighteen healthy eugonadal men (mean age 24.1±0.9years, mean BMI 22.2±0.4kg/m2).InterventionEight-hour intravenous infusion of 0.4pmol/kg/min PYY3-36 or rate-matched vehicle infusion.ResultsThe number of LH pulses (mean number of LH pulses/8hours: PYY 4.4±0.3 vs vehicle 4.4±0.4, p>0.99), LH area under the curve (AUC) (PYY 1503±79IU.min/L vs vehicle 1574±86IU.min/L, p=0.36), FSH AUC (PYY 1158±513IU.min/L vs vehicle 1199±476IU.min/L, p=0.49) and testosterone AUC (PYY 10485±684IU.min/L vs vehicle 11133±803IU.min/L, p=0.24) were similar during PYY and vehicle infusions.ConclusionsAcute intravenous infusion of 0.4pmol/kg/min PYY does not affect the reproductive axis in healthy men.
Kamocka A, Miras AD, Perez-Pevida B, et al., 2019, LONG VS STANDARD BILIOPANCREATIC LIMB ROUX-EN-Y GASTRIC BYPASS FOR TYPE 2 DIABETES. THE LONG LIMB TRIAL Type 2 diabetes and metabolic surgery, 24th World Congress of the International-Federation-for-the-Surgery-of-Obesity-and-Metabolic-Disorders (IFSO) / 21st SECO Congress, Publisher: SPRINGER, Pages: 234-234, ISSN: 0960-8923
Perez-Pevida B, Kamocka A, Aldhwayan M, et al., 2019, IMPACT OF EATING BEHAVIOURS ON POSTOPERATIVE OUTCOMES IN SUBOPTIMAL RESPONDERS AFTER OBESITY SURGERY Psychology and bariatric surgery - pre and post-op challenges, 24th World Congress of the International-Federation-for-the-Surgery-of-Obesity-and-Metabolic-Disorders (IFSO) / 21st SECO Congress, Publisher: SPRINGER, Pages: 247-247, ISSN: 0960-8923
Mcglone ER, Siebert M, Minnion J, et al., 2019, SLEEVE GASTRECTOMY IS ASSOCIATED WITH WEIGHT LOSS-INDEPENDENT IMPROVEMENT IN HEPATIC STEATOSIS Basic science and research in bariatric surgery, 24th World Congress of the International-Federation-for-the-Surgery-of-Obesity-and-Metabolic-Disorders (IFSO) / 21st SECO Congress, Publisher: SPRINGER, Pages: 479-479, ISSN: 0960-8923
Rose F, Bloom S, Tan T, 2019, Novel approaches to anti-obesity drug discovery with gut hormones over the past 10 years, EXPERT OPINION ON DRUG DISCOVERY, ISSN: 1746-0441
McGlone ER, Tan T, Bloom SR, et al., 2019, What Can We Learn From Mouse Models About Bile Acid–Mediated Changes After Bariatric Surgery?, Gastroenterology, Vol: 157, Pages: 4-8, ISSN: 0016-5085
Behary P, Tharakan G, Alexiadou K, et al., 2019, Combined GLP-1, oxyntomodulin, and peptide YY improves body weight and glycemia in obesity and prediabetes/type 2 diabetes: a randomized single-blinded placebo controlled study, Diabetes Care, Vol: 42, Pages: 1446-1453, ISSN: 0149-5992
OBJECTIVE: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) augments postprandial secretion of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin (OXM), and peptide YY (PYY). Subcutaneous infusion of these hormones ("GOP"), mimicking postprandial levels, reduces energy intake. Our objective was to study the effects of GOP on glycemia and body weight when given for 4 weeks to patients with diabetes and obesity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In this single-blinded mechanistic study, obese patients with prediabetes/diabetes were randomized to GOP (n = 15) or saline (n = 11) infusion for 4 weeks. We also studied 21 patients who had undergone RYGB and 22 patients who followed a very low-calorie diet (VLCD) as unblinded comparators. Outcomes measured were 1) body weight, 2) fructosamine levels, 3) glucose and insulin during a mixed meal test (MMT), 4) energy expenditure (EE), 5) energy intake (EI), and 6) mean glucose and measures of glucose variability during continuous glucose monitoring. RESULTS: GOP infusion was well tolerated over the 4-week period. There was a greater weight loss (P = 0.025) with GOP (mean change -4.4 [95% CI -5.3, -3.5] kg) versus saline (-2.5 [-4.1, -0.9] kg). GOP led to a greater improvement (P = 0.0026) in fructosamine (-44.1 [-62.7, -25.5] µmol/L) versus saline (-11.7 [-18.9, -4.5] µmol/L). Despite a smaller weight loss compared with RYGB and VLCD, GOP led to superior glucose tolerance after a mixed-meal stimulus and reduced glycemic variability compared with RYGB and VLCD. CONCLUSIONS: GOP infusion improves glycemia and reduces body weight. It achieves superior glucose tolerance and reduced glucose variability compared with RYGB and VLCD. GOP is a viable alternative for the treatment of diabetes with favorable effects on body weight.
Suliman M, Buckley A, Al Tikriti A, et al., 2019, Routine clinical use of liraglutide 3 mg for the treatment of obesity: Outcomes in non-surgical and bariatric surgery patients, DIABETES OBESITY & METABOLISM, Vol: 21, Pages: 1498-1501, ISSN: 1462-8902
Miras AD, Pérez-Pevida B, Aldhwayan M, et al., 2019, Adjunctive liraglutide treatment in patients with persistent or recurrent type 2 diabetes after metabolic surgery (GRAVITAS): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, ISSN: 2213-8587
Alexiadou K, Anyiam O, Tan T, 2019, Cracking the combination: gut hormones for the treatment of obesity and diabetes, Journal of Neuroendocrinology, Vol: 31, Pages: e12664-e12664, ISSN: 0953-8194
Obesity and type 2 diabetes are a veritable global pandemic. There is an imperative to develop new therapies for these conditions that can be delivered at scale to patients, which deliver effective and titratable weight loss, amelioration of diabetes, prevention of diabetic complications and improvements in cardiovascular health. Although agents based on glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are now in routine use for diabetes and obesity, the limited efficacy of such drugs means that newer agents are required. By combining the effects of GLP-1 with other gut and metabolic hormones such as glucagon (GCG), oxyntomodulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) and peptide YY, we may obtain improved weight loss, increased energy expenditure and improved metabolic profiles. Drugs based on dual agonism of GLP1R/GCGR and GLP1R/GIPR are being actively developed in clinical trials. Triple agonism, for example with GLPR1/GCGR/GIPR unimolecular agonists or using GLP-1/oxyntomodulin/peptide YY, is also being explored. Multi-agonist drugs seem set to deliver the next generation of therapies for diabetes and obesity soon. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Choudhury S, Machenahalli P, Tan T, et al., 2019, Inadvertent treatment of hypoadrenalism with prednisolone in pemphigus: a case report, Clinical Case Reports, Vol: 7, Pages: 987-989, ISSN: 2050-0904
Pituitary and adrenal insufficiency must not be overlooked when weaning patients down from high‐dose steroids. Prednisolone can be used as glucocorticoid replacement therapy, with most patients needing 3‐4 mg once daily.
Szepietowski O, Alsters S, Mahir G, et al., 2019, Recent-Onset Type 2 Diabetes Is Defined As < 10 Years Duration, 10th Annual Scientific Meeting of the British-Obesity-and-Metabolic-Surgery-Society (BOMSS), Publisher: SPRINGER, Pages: S11-S11, ISSN: 0960-8923
Kamocka A, Perez-Pevida B, Miras AD, et al., 2019, Total small bowel length varies considerably among patients with obesity and diabetes: Is there a role for individualisation of limb lengths in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass?, 10th Annual Scientific Meeting of the British-Obesity-and-Metabolic-Surgery-Society (BOMSS), Publisher: SPRINGER, Pages: S11-S11, ISSN: 0960-8923
Armeni E, Almazrouei R, Hayes AR, et al., 2019, Insight into the Management of Chromaffin Cell Derived Tumours - Experience from Two ENETS Centres of Excellence, 16th Annual ENETS Conference for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Neuroendocrine Tumor Disease, Publisher: KARGER, Pages: 271-271, ISSN: 0028-3835
Izzi-Engbeaya CN, Comninos AN, Clarke S, et al., 2018, The effects of kisspeptin on β-cell function, serum metabolites and appetite in humans, Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, Vol: 20, Pages: 2800-2810, ISSN: 1462-8902
AimsTo investigate the effect of kisspeptin on glucose‐stimulated insulin secretion and appetite in humans.Materials and methodsIn 15 healthy men (age: 25.2 ± 1.1 years; BMI: 22.3 ± 0.5 kg m−2), we compared the effects of 1 nmol kg−1 h−1 kisspeptin versus vehicle administration on glucose‐stimulated insulin secretion, metabolites, gut hormones, appetite and food intake. In addition, we assessed the effect of kisspeptin on glucose‐stimulated insulin secretion in vitro in human pancreatic islets and a human β‐cell line (EndoC‐βH1 cells).ResultsKisspeptin administration to healthy men enhanced insulin secretion following an intravenous glucose load, and modulated serum metabolites. In keeping with this, kisspeptin increased glucose‐stimulated insulin secretion from human islets and a human pancreatic cell line in vitro. In addition, kisspeptin administration did not alter gut hormones, appetite or food intake in healthy men.ConclusionsCollectively, these data demonstrate for the first time a beneficial role for kisspeptin in insulin secretion in humans in vivo. This has important implications for our understanding of the links between reproduction and metabolism in humans, as well as for the ongoing translational development of kisspeptin‐based therapies for reproductive and potentially metabolic conditions.
Kamocka A, McGlone ER, Pevida BP, et al., 2018, SURGICAL REVISION OF CANDY CANE AFTER ROUX-EN-Y GASTRIC BYPASS, 23rd World Congress of the International-Federation-for-the-Surgery-of-Obesity-and-Metabolic-Disorders (IFSO), Publisher: SPRINGER, Pages: 232-232, ISSN: 0960-8923
Tharakan G, Miras A, Chahal H, et al., 2018, MANAGEMENT OF POST PRANDIAL HYPOGLYCAEMIA USING LIRAGLUTIDE -COMPREHENSIVE PROFILING PRE AND POST INTERVENTION, 23rd World Congress of the International-Federation-for-the-Surgery-of-Obesity-and-Metabolic-Disorders (IFSO), Publisher: SPRINGER, Pages: 378-378, ISSN: 0960-8923
Tharakan G, Miras A, Chahal H, et al., 2018, BARIATRIC SURGERY OUTCOMES IN THE OVER-60S: A SINGLE CENTRE, OBSERVATIONAL STUDY FROM 2007-2012., 23rd World Congress of the International-Federation-for-the-Surgery-of-Obesity-and-Metabolic-Disorders (IFSO), Publisher: SPRINGER, Pages: 376-376, ISSN: 0960-8923
Szepietowski O, Alsters SI, Mahir G, et al., 2018, PREDICTING REMISSION OF NON-INSULIN TREATED TYPE 2 DIABETES AFTER RYGB, 23rd World Congress of the International-Federation-for-the-Surgery-of-Obesity-and-Metabolic-Disorders (IFSO), Publisher: SPRINGER, Pages: 191-191, ISSN: 0960-8923
McGlone ER, Tan M, Purkayastha S, et al., 2018, FEASIBILITY OF SINGLE STAGE REVISION OF GASTRIC BAND TO MINI-GASTRIC BYPASS Gastric Bypass Procedures Including RYGB And OAGB/MGB, 23rd World Congress of the International-Federation-for-the-Surgery-of-Obesity-and-Metabolic-Disorders (IFSO), Publisher: SPRINGER, Pages: 93-93, ISSN: 0960-8923
Hope DCD, Tan TMM, Bloom SR, 2018, No guts, no loss: Toward the ideal treatment for obesity in the twenty-first century, Frontiers in Endocrinology, Vol: 9, ISSN: 1664-2392
Over the last century, our knowledge of the processes which control appetite and weight regulation has developed significantly. The understanding of where gut hormones fit into the control of energy homeostasis in addition to the rapid advancement of pharmacotherapeutics has paved the way for the development of novel gut hormone analogs to target weight loss. Currently, bariatric surgery remains the most efficacious treatment for obesity. The emergence of gut hormone analogs may provide a useful non-surgical addition to the armamentarium in treating obesity. Simply targeting single gut hormone pathways may be insufficiently efficacious, and combination/multiple-agonist approaches may be necessary to obtain the results required for clear clinical impact.
McGlone ER, Tan TM, 2018, Of Mice Not Men? Actions of Interleukin-6 on Glucose Tolerance, CELL METABOLISM, Vol: 27, Pages: 1157-1158, ISSN: 1550-4131
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