387 results found
Paterson AF, Singh S, Fallon KJ, et al., 2018, Recent progress in high-mobility organic transistors: a reality check, Advanced Materials, Vol: 30, ISSN: 0935-9648
Over the past three decades, significant research efforts have focused on improving the charge carrier mobility of organic thin‐film transistors (OTFTs). In recent years, a commonly observed nonlinearity in OTFT current–voltage characteristics, known as the “kink” or “double slope,” has led to widespread mobility overestimations, contaminating the relevant literature. Here, published data from the past 30 years is reviewed to uncover the extent of the field‐effect mobility hype and identify the progress that has actually been achieved in the field of OTFTs. Present carrier‐mobility‐related challenges are identified, finding that reliable hole and electron mobility values of 20 and 10 cm2 V−1 s−1, respectively, have yet to be achieved. Based on the analysis, the literature is then reviewed to summarize the concepts behind the success of high‐performance p‐type polymers, along with the latest understanding of the design criteria that will enable further mobility enhancement in n‐type polymers and small molecules, and the reasons why high carrier mobility values have been consistently produced from small molecule/polymer blend semiconductors. Overall, this review brings together important information that aids reliable OTFT data analysis, while providing guidelines for the development of next‐generation organic semiconductors.
Costa JC, Pouryazdan A, Panidi J, et al., 2018, Low Temperature and Radiation Stability of Flexible IGZO TFTs and their Suitability for Space Applications, 48th European Solid-State Device Research Conference (ESSDERC 2018), Publisher: IEEE
Wahyudi W, Cao Z, Kumar P, et al., 2018, Phase Inversion Strategy to Flexible Freestanding Electrode: Critical Coupling of Binders and Electrolytes for High Performance Li-S Battery, ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Vol: 28, ISSN: 1616-301X
Heeney MJ, Creamer A, Wood C, et al., 2018, Post-polymerisation functionalisation of conjugated polymer backbones and its application in multi-functional emissive nanoparticles, Nature Communications, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2041-1723
Backbone functionalisation of conjugated polymers is crucial to their performance in many applications, from electronic displays to nanoparticle biosensors, yet there are limited approaches to introduce functionality. To address this challenge we have developed a method for the direct modification of the aromatic backbone of a conjugated polymer, post-polymerisation. This is achieved via a quantitative nucleophilic aromatic substitution (SNAr) reaction on a range of fluorinated electron deficient comonomers. The method allows for facile tuning of the physical and optoelectronic properties within a batch of consistent molecular weight and dispersity. It also enables the introduction of multiple different functional groups onto the polymer backbone in a controlled manner. To demonstrate the versatility of this reaction, we designed and synthesised a range of emissive poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT) based polymers for the creation of mono and multifunctional semiconducting polymer nanoparticles (SPNs) capable of two orthogonal bioconjugation reactions on the same surface.
Firdaus Y, Seitkhan A, Eisner F, et al., 2018, Charge Photogeneration and Recombination in Mesostructured CuSCN-Nanowire/PC70BM Solar Cells, SOLAR RRL, Vol: 2, ISSN: 2367-198X
Wijeyasinghe N, Eisner F, Tsetseris L, et al., 2018, p-Doping of Copper(I) Thiocyanate (CuSCN) Hole-Transport Layers for High-Performance Transistors and Organic Solar Cells, ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Vol: 28, ISSN: 1616-301X
Eisner F, Seitkhan A, Han Y, et al., 2018, Solution-processed In2O3/ZnO heterojunction electron transport layers for efficient organic bulk heterojunction and inorganic colloidal quantum-dot solar cells, Solar RRL, Vol: 2, ISSN: 2367-198X
We report the development of a solution‐processed In2O3/ZnO heterojunction electron transport layer (ETL) and its application in high efficiency organic bulk‐heterojunction (BHJ) and inorganic colloidal quantum dot (CQD) solar cells. Study of the electrical properties of this low‐dimensional oxide heterostructure via field‐effect measurements reveals that electron transport along the heterointerface is enhanced by more than a tenfold when compared to the individual single‐layer oxides. Use of the heterojunction as the ETL in organic BHJ photovoltaics is found to consistently improve the cell's performance due to the smoothening of the ZnO surface, increased electron mobility and a noticeable reduction in the cathode's work function, leading to a decrease in the cells’ series resistance and a higher fill factor (FF). Specifically, non‐fullerene based organic BHJ solar cells based on In2O3/ZnO ETLs exhibit very high power conversion efficiencies (PCE) of up to 12.8%, and high FFs of over 70%. The bilayer ETL concept is further extended to inorganic lead‐sulphide CQD solar cells. Resulting devices exhibit excellent performance with a maximum PCE of 8.2% and a FF of 56.8%. The present results highlight the potential of multilayer oxides as novel ETL systems and lay the foundation for future developments.
Choi HH, Rodionov YI, Paterson AF, et al., 2018, Accurate Extraction of Charge Carrier Mobility in 4-Probe Field-Effect Transistors, ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Vol: 28, ISSN: 1616-301X
Semple J, Georgiadou DG, Wyatt-Moon G, et al., 2018, Large-area plastic nanogap electronics enabled by adhesion lithography, npj Flexible Electronics, Vol: 2, ISSN: 2397-4621
Large-area manufacturing of flexible nanoscale electronics has long been sought by the printed electronics industry. However, the lack of a robust, reliable, high throughput and low-cost technique that is capable of delivering high-performance functional devices has hitherto hindered commercial exploitation. Herein we report on the extensive range of capabilities presented by adhesion lithography (a-Lith), an innovative patterning technique for the fabrication of coplanar nanogap electrodes with arbitrarily large aspect ratio. We use this technique to fabricate a plethora of nanoscale electronic devices based on symmetric and asymmetric coplanar electrodes separated by a nanogap < 15 nm. We show that functional devices including self-aligned-gate transistors, radio frequency diodes and rectifying circuits, multi-colour organic light-emitting nanodiodes and multilevel non-volatile memory devices, can be fabricated in a facile manner with minimum process complexity on a range of substrates. The compatibility of the formed nanogap electrodes with a wide range of solution processable semiconductors and substrate materials renders a-Lith highly attractive for the manufacturing of large-area nanoscale opto/electronics on arbitrary size and shape substrates.
Chaudhry MU, Tetzner K, Lin Y-H, et al., 2018, Low-Voltage Solution-Processed Hybrid Light-Emitting Transistors, ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES, Vol: 10, Pages: 18445-18449, ISSN: 1944-8244
Mottram AD, Pattanasattayavong P, Isakov I, et al., 2018, Electron mobility enhancement in solution-processed low-voltage In2O3 transistorsvia channel interface planarization, AIP ADVANCES, Vol: 8, ISSN: 2158-3226
Squeo BM, Gregoriou VG, Han Y, et al., 2018, alpha,beta-Unsubstituted meso-positioning thienyl BODIPY: a promising electron deficient building block for the development of near infrared (NIR) p-type donor-acceptor (D-A) conjugated polymers, JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY C, Vol: 6, Pages: 4030-4040, ISSN: 2050-7526
Nam S, Hahm SG, Khim D, et al., 2018, Pronounced Side Chain Effects in Triple Bond-Conjugated Polymers Containing Naphthalene Diimides for n-Channel Organic Field-Effect Transistors, ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES, Vol: 10, Pages: 12921-12929, ISSN: 1944-8244
Han Y, Fei Z, Lin Y-H, et al., 2018, Anion-induced N-doping of naphthalenediimide polymer semiconductor in organic thin-film transistors, npj Flexible Electronics, Vol: 2, Pages: 1-7, ISSN: 2397-4621
Molecular doping is an important strategy to improve the charge transport properties of organic semiconductors in various electronic devices. Compared to p-type dopants, the development of n-type dopants is especially challenging due to poor dopant stability against atmospheric conditions. In this article, we report the n-doping of the milestone naphthalenediimide-based conjugated polymer P(NDI2OD-T2) in organic thin film transistor devices by soluble anion dopants. The addition of the dopants resulted in the formation of stable radical anions in thin films, as confirmed by EPR spectroscopy. By tuning the dopant concentration via simple solution mixing, the transistor parameters could be readily controlled. Hence the contact resistance between the electrodes and the semiconducting polymer could be significantly reduced, which resulted in the transistor behaviour approaching the desirable gate voltage-independent model. Reduced hysteresis was also observed, thanks to the trap filling by the dopant. Under optimal doping concentrations the channel on-current was increased several fold whilst the on/off ratio was simultaneously increased by around one order of magnitude. Hence doping with soluble organic salts appears to be a promising route to improve the charge transport properties of n-type organic semiconductors.
Wijeyasinghe N, Tsetseris L, Regoutz A, et al., 2018, Copper (I) selenocyanate (CuSeCN) as a novel hole-transport layer for transistors, organic solar cells, and light-emitting diodes, Advanced Functional Materials, Vol: 28, ISSN: 1616-301X
The synthesis and characterization of copper (I) selenocyanate (CuSeCN) and its application as a solution-processable hole-transport layer (HTL) material in transistors, organic light-emitting diodes, and solar cells are reported. Density-functional theory calculations combined with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy are used to elucidate the electronic band structure, density of states, and microstructure of CuSeCN. Solution-processed layers are found to be nanocrystalline and optically transparent ( > 94%), due to the large bandgap of ≥3.1 eV, with a valence band maximum located at -5.1 eV. Hole-transport analysis performed using field-effect measurements confirms the p-type character of CuSeCN yielding a hole mobility of 0.002 cm 2 V -1 s -1 . When CuSeCN is incorporated as the HTL material in organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells, the resulting devices exhibit comparable or improved performance to control devices based on commercially available poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate as the HTL. This is the first report on the semiconducting character of CuSeCN and it highlights the tremendous potential for further developments in the area of metal pseudohalides.
Sit WY, Eisner FD, Lin YH, et al., 2018, High-efficiency fullerene solar cells enabled by a spontaneously formed mesostructured CuSCN-nanowire heterointerface, Advanced Science, Vol: 5, ISSN: 2198-3844
Fullerenes and their derivatives are widely used as electron acceptors in bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells as they combine high electron mobility with good solubility and miscibility with relevant semiconducting polymers. However, studies on the use of fullerenes as the sole photogeneration and charge-carrier material are scarce. Here, a new type of solution-processed small-molecule solar cell based on the two most commonly used methanofullerenes, namely [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC 60 BM) and [6,6]-phenyl-C71-butyric acid methyl ester (PC 70 BM), as the light absorbing materials, is reported. First, it is shown that both fullerene derivatives exhibit excellent ambipolar charge transport with balanced hole and electron mobilities. When the two derivatives are spin-coated over the wide bandgap p-type semiconductor copper (I) thiocyanate (CuSCN), cells with power conversion efficiency (PCE) of ≈1%, are obtained. Blending the CuSCN with PC 70 BM is shown to increase the performance further yielding cells with an open-circuit voltage of ≈0.93 V and a PCE of 5.4%. Microstructural analysis reveals that the key to this success is the spontaneous formation of a unique mesostructured p-n-like heterointerface between CuSCN and PC 70 BM. The findings pave the way to an exciting new class of single photoactive material based solar cells.
Fei Z, Eisner FD, Jiao X, et al., 2018, Correction: An alkylated indacenodithieno[3,2-b] thiophene-based nonfullerene acceptor with high crystallinity exhibiting single junction solar cell efficiencies greater than 13% with low voltage losses (vol 30, 2018), Advanced Materials, Vol: 30, ISSN: 0935-9648
Huang W, Lin Y-H, Anthopoulos TD, 2018, High Speed Ultraviolet Phototransistors Based on an Ambipolar Fullerene Derivative, ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES, Vol: 10, Pages: 10202-10210, ISSN: 1944-8244
Lu R, Han Y, Zhang W, et al., 2018, Alkylated indacenodithieno[3,2-b] thiophene-based all donor ladder-type conjugated polymers for organic thin film transistors, Journal of Materials Chemistry C, Vol: 6, Pages: 2004-2009, ISSN: 2050-7534
We report the synthesis of a series of indacenodithieno[3,2-b]thiophene (IDTT) based conjugated polymers by copolymerization with three different electron rich co-monomers [thiophene (T), thieno[3,2-b] thiophene (TT) and dithieno[3,2-b:2′,3′-d]thiophene (DTT)] under Stille coupling conditions. The resulting all-donor polymers show very good solubility in common solvents and exhibit similar optical, thermal and electronic properties. However, the performance of these semiconductors in thin film transistor devices varied and was highly dependent on the nature of the co-monomer. All polymers exhibited unipolar p-type charge transport behaviour, with the mobility values following the trend of IDTT-TT > IDTT-DTT > IDTT-T. The peak saturation mobility value of IDTT-TT was extracted to be 1.1 cm 2 V -1 s -1 , amongst the highest mobility for all-donor conjugated polymers reported to date.
Fei Z, Eisner FD, Jiao X, et al., 2018, An alkylated indacenodithieno[3,2-b]thiophene-based nonfullerene acceptor with high crystallinity exhibiting single junction solar cell efficiencies greater than 13% with low voltage losses, Advanced Materials, Vol: 30, ISSN: 0935-9648
A new synthetic route, to prepare an alkylated indacenodithieno[3,2-b]thiophene-based nonfullerene acceptor (C8-ITIC), is reported. Compared to the reported ITIC with phenylalkyl side chains, the new acceptor C8-ITIC exhibits a reduction in the optical band gap, higher absorptivity, and an increased propensity to crystallize. Accordingly, blends with the donor polymer PBDB-T exhibit a power conversion efficiency (PCE) up to 12.4%. Further improvements in efficiency are found upon backbone fluorination of the donor polymer to afford the novel material PFBDB-T. The resulting blend with C8-ITIC shows an impressive PCE up to 13.2% as a result of the higher open-circuit voltage. Electroluminescence studies demonstrate that backbone fluorination reduces the energy loss of the blends, with PFBDB-T/C8-ITIC-based cells exhibiting a small energy loss of 0.6 eV combined with a high JSCof 19.6 mA cm-2.
Lin Y-H, Pattanasattayavong P, Anthopoulos TD, 2017, Metal-Halide Perovskite Transistors for Printed Electronics: Challenges and Opportunities, ADVANCED MATERIALS, Vol: 29, ISSN: 0935-9648
Wyatt-Moon G, Georgiadou DG, Semple J, et al., 2017, Deep Ultraviolet Copper(I) Thiocyanate (CuSCN) Photodetectors Based on Coplanar Nanogap Electrodes Fabricated via Adhesion Lithography., ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, Vol: 9, Pages: 41965-41972, ISSN: 1944-8244
Adhesion lithography (a-Lith) is a versatile fabrication technique used to produce asymmetric coplanar electrodes separated by a <15 nm nanogap. Here, we use a-Lith to fabricate deep ultraviolet (DUV) photodetectors by combining coplanar asymmetric nanogap electrode architectures (Au/Al) with solution-processable wide-band-gap (3.5-3.9 eV) p-type semiconductor copper(I) thiocyanate (CuSCN). Because of the device's unique architecture, the detectors exhibit high responsivity (≈79 A W-1) and photosensitivity (≈720) when illuminated with a DUV-range (λpeak = 280 nm) light-emitting diode at 220 μW cm-2. Interestingly, the photosensitivity of the photodetectors remains fairly high (≈7) even at illuminating intensities down to 0.2 μW cm-2. The scalability of the a-Lith process combined with the unique properties of CuSCN paves the way to new forms of inexpensive, yet high-performance, photodetectors that can be manufactured on arbitrary substrate materials including plastic.
Fallon KJ, Santala A, Wijeyasinghe N, et al., 2017, Effect of Alkyl Chain Branching Point on 3D Crystallinity in High N-Type Mobility Indolonaphthyridine Polymers, ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Vol: 27, ISSN: 1616-301X
The low reactive oxygen species production capability and the shallow tissue penetration of excited light (UV) are still two barriers in photodynamic therapy (PDT). Here, Au cluster anchored black anatase TiO2−x nanotubes (abbreviated as Au25/B-TiO2−x NTs) are synthesized by gaseous reduction of anatase TiO2 NTs and subsequent deposition of noble metal. The Au25/B-TiO2−x NTs with thickness of about 2 nm exhibit excellent PDT performance. The reduction process increased the density of Ti3+ on the surface of TiO2, which effectively depresses the recombination of electron and hole. Furthermore, after modification of Au25 nanoclusters, the PDT efficiency is further enhanced owing to the changed electrical distribution in the composite, which forms a shallow potential well on the metal–TiO2 interface to further hamper the recombination of electron and hole. Especially, the reduction of anatase TiO2 can expend the light response range (UV) of TiO2 to the visible and even near infrared (NIR) light region with high tissue penetration depth. When excited by NIR light, the nanoplatform shows markedly improved therapeutic efficacy attributed to the photocatalytic synergistic effect, and promotes separation or restrained recombination of electron and hole, which is verified by experimental results in vitro and in vivo.
Tetzner K, Lin Y-H, Regoutz A, et al., 2017, Sub-second photonic processing of solution-deposited single layer and heterojunction metal oxide thin-film transistors using a high-power xenon flash lamp, Journal of Materials Chemistry C, Vol: 5, Pages: 11724-11732, ISSN: 2050-7526
We report the fabrication of solution-processed In2O3 and In2O3/ZnO heterojunction thin-film transistors (TFTs) where the precursor materials were converted to their semiconducting state using high power light pulses generated by a xenon flash lamp. In2O3 TFTs prepared on glass substrates exhibited low-voltage operation (≤2 V) and a high electron mobility of ∼6 cm2 V−1 s−1. By replacing the In2O3 layer with a photonically processed In2O3/ZnO heterojunction, we were able to increase the electron mobility to 36 cm2 V−1 s−1, while maintaining the low-voltage operation. Although the level of performance achieved in these devices is comparable to control TFTs fabricated via thermal annealing at 250 °C for 1 h, the photonic treatment approach adopted here is extremely rapid with a processing time of less than 18 s per layer. With the aid of a numerical model we were able to analyse the temperature profile within the metal oxide layer(s) upon flashing revealing a remarkable increase of the layer's surface temperature to ∼1000 °C within ∼1 ms. Despite this, the backside of the glass substrate remains unchanged and close to room temperature. Our results highlight the applicability of the method for the facile manufacturing of high performance metal oxide transistors on inexpensive large-area substrates.
Semple J, Georgiadou DG, Wyatt-Moon G, et al., 2017, Flexible diodes for radio frequency (RF) electronics: a materials perspective, Semiconductor Science and Technology, Vol: 32, ISSN: 0268-1242
Over the last decade, there has been increasing interest in transferring the research advances in radiofrequency (RF) rectifiers, the quintessential element of the chip in the RF identification (RFID) tags, obtained on rigid substrates onto plastic (flexible) substrates. The growing demand for flexible RFID tags, wireless communications applications and wireless energy harvesting systems that can be produced at a low-cost is a key driver for this technology push. In this topical review, we summarise recent progress and status of flexible RF diodes and rectifying circuits, with specific focus on materials and device processing aspects. To this end, different families of materials (e.g. flexible silicon, metal oxides, organic and carbon nanomaterials), manufacturing processes (e.g. vacuum and solution processing) and device architectures (diodes and transistors) are compared. Although emphasis is placed on performance, functionality, mechanical flexibility and operating stability, the various bottlenecks associated with each technology are also addressed. Finally, we present our outlook on the commercialisation potential and on the positioning of each material class in the RF electronics landscape based on the findings summarised herein. It is beyond doubt that the field of flexible high and ultra-high frequency rectifiers and electronics as a whole will continue to be an active area of research over the coming years.
Panidi J, Paterson AF, Khim D, et al., 2017, Remarkable Enhancement of the Hole Mobility in Several Organic Small-Molecules, Polymers, and Small-Molecule:Polymer Blend Transistors by Simple Admixing of the Lewis Acid p-Dopant B(C6F5)(3), Advanced Science, Vol: 5, ISSN: 2198-3844
Improving the charge carrier mobility of solution-processable organic semiconductors is critical for the development of advanced organic thin-film transistors and their application in the emerging sector of printed electronics. Here, a simple method is reported for enhancing the hole mobility in a wide range of organic semiconductors, including small-molecules, polymers, and small-molecule:polymer blends, with the latter systems exhibiting the highest mobility. The method is simple and relies on admixing of the molecular Lewis acid B(C6F5)3 in the semiconductor formulation prior to solution deposition. Two prototypical semiconductors where B(C6F5)3 is shown to have a remarkable impact are the blends of 2,8-difluoro-5,11-bis(triethylsilylethynyl)anthradithiophene:poly(triarylamine) (diF-TESADT:PTAA) and 2,7-dioctyl-benzothieno[3,2-b]benzothiophene:poly(indacenodithiophene-co-benzothiadiazole) (C8-BTBT:C16-IDTBT), for which hole mobilities of 8 and 11 cm2 V−1 s−1, respectively, are obtained. Doping of the 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)pentacene:PTAA blend with B(C6F5)3 is also shown to increase the maximum hole mobility to 3.7 cm2 V−1 s−1. Analysis of the single and multicomponent materials reveals that B(C6F5)3 plays a dual role, first acting as an efficient p-dopant, and secondly as a microstructure modifier. Semiconductors that undergo simultaneous p-doping and dopant-induced long-range crystallization are found to consistently outperform transistors based on the pristine materials. Our work underscores Lewis acid doping as a generic strategy towards high performance printed organic microelectronics.
Pattanasattayavong P, Promarak V, Anthopoulos TD, 2017, Electronic Properties of Copper(I) Thiocyanate (CuSCN) (vol 3, 1600378, 2017), Advanced Electronic Materials, Vol: 3, ISSN: 2199-160X
Wijeyasinghe N, Regoutz A, Eisner F, et al., 2017, Copper(I) Thiocyanate (CuSCN) Hole-Transport Layers Processed from Aqueous Precursor Solutions and Their Application in Thin-Film Transistors and Highly Efficient Organic and Organometal Halide Perovskite Solar Cells, ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Vol: 27, ISSN: 1616-301X
This study reports the development of copper(I) thiocyanate (CuSCN) hole-transport layers (HTLs) processed from aqueous ammonia as a novel alternative to conventional n-alkyl sulfide solvents. Wide bandgap (3.4–3.9 eV) and ultrathin (3–5 nm) layers of CuSCN are formed when the aqueous CuSCN–ammine complex solution is spin-cast in air and annealed at 100 °C. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the high compositional purity of the formed CuSCN layers, while the high-resolution valence band spectra agree with first-principles calculations. Study of the hole-transport properties using field-effect transistor measurements reveals that the aqueous-processed CuSCN layers exhibit a fivefold higher hole mobility than films processed from diethyl sulfide solutions with the maximum values approaching 0.1 cm2 V−1 s−1. A further interesting characteristic is the low surface roughness of the resulting CuSCN layers, which in the case of solar cells helps to planarize the indium tin oxide anode. Organic bulk heterojunction and planar organometal halide perovskite solar cells based on aqueous-processed CuSCN HTLs yield power conversion efficiency of 10.7% and 17.5%, respectively. Importantly, aqueous-processed CuSCN-based cells consistently outperform devices based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate HTLs. This is the first report on CuSCN films and devices processed via an aqueous-based synthetic route that is compatible with high-throughput manufacturing and paves the way for further developments.
Isakov I, Faber H, Grell M, et al., 2017, Exploring the Leidenfrost Effect for the Deposition of High-Quality In2O3 Layers via Spray Pyrolysis at Low Temperatures and Their Application in High Electron Mobility Transistors, ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Vol: 27, ISSN: 1616-301X
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