Imperial College London

ProfessorThomasAnthopoulos

Faculty of Natural SciencesDepartment of Physics

Visiting Professor
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 7594 6669thomas.anthopoulos Website

 
 
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Assistant

 

Mrs Carolyn Dale +44 (0)20 7594 7579

 
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Location

 

1111Blackett LaboratorySouth Kensington Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

329 results found

Colleaux F, Ball JM, Woebkenberg PH, Hotchkiss PJ, Marder SR, Anthopoulos TDet al., 2011, Bias-stress effects in organic field-effect transistors based on self-assembled monolayer nanodielectrics, PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY CHEMICAL PHYSICS, Vol: 13, Pages: 14387-14393, ISSN: 1463-9076

Journal article

Smith J, Heeney M, McCulloch I, Malik JN, Stingelin N, Bradley DDC, Anthopoulos TDet al., 2011, Percolation behaviour in high mobility p-channel polymer/small-molecule blend organic field-effect transistors, ORGANIC ELECTRONICS, Vol: 12, Pages: 143-147, ISSN: 1566-1199

Journal article

Donaghey JE, Ashraf RS, Kim Y, Huang ZG, Nielsen CB, Zhang W, Schroeder B, Grenier CRG, Brown CT, D'Angelo P, Smith J, Watkins S, Song K, Anthopoulos TD, Durrant JR, Williams CK, McCulloch Iet al., 2011, Pyrroloindacenodithiophene containing polymers for organic field effect transistors and organic photovoltaics, Journal of Materials Chemistry, Vol: 21, Pages: 18744-18752, ISSN: 0959-9428

The synthesis of the novel electron-rich pyrroloindacenodithiophene (NIDT) unit is reported. Stille copolymerization of the distannylated NIDT unit, with the electron-deficient dibrominated benzothiadiazole (BT), difluorobenzothiadiazole (ffBT), thienopyrrolodione (TPD) and 1,1[prime or minute]-bithienopyrrolodione (biTPD) units afforded a series of low band gap semiconducting polymers. Initial testing shows promise for the use of these materials as p-type semiconductors in organic field effect transistors (OFETs) with mobilities as high as 0.07 cm2V-1s-1 being measured. These materials have also been tested as the donor polymer in polymer/fullerene bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaics (OPVs) giving maximum efficiencies of 2.5%.

Journal article

Dalgleish S, Labram JG, Li Z, Wang J, McNeill CR, Anthopoulos TD, Greenham NC, Robertson Net al., 2011, Indole-substituted nickel dithiolene complexes in electronic and optoelectronic devices, Journal of Materials Chemistry, Vol: 21, Pages: 15422-15430, ISSN: 0959-9428

The synthesis and full characterisation of a novel indole-substituted nickel dithiolene [Ni(mi-5edt)2] (3) is reported, and compared to its alkyl-substituted analogue [Ni(mi-5hdt)2] (4) that has been previously communicated [Dalgleish et al., Chem. Commun., 2009, 5826] [mi-5edt = 1-(N-methylindol-5-yl)-ethene-1,2-dithiolate; mi-5hdt = 1-(N-methylindol-5-yl)-hex-1-ene-1,2-dithiolate)]. Both complexes are shown to undergo oxidative electropolymerisation, yielding polymer films that retain the redox and optical properties of the monomer. The more soluble analogue 4 is shown to form high quality thin films by spin coating, which have been utilised to fabricate field-effect transistors (FETs) and bulk heterojunction photovoltaic devices (BHJ-PVs). From FET studies, the material shows ambipolar charge transport behaviour, with a maximum carrier mobility of [similar]10-6 cm2 V-1 s-1 for electrons. By using 4 simultaneously as the electron acceptor as well as a NIR sensitiser in BHJ-PVs, the complex is shown to contribute to the photocurrent, extending light harvesting into the NIR region.

Journal article

Schroeder BC, Nielsen CB, Kim YJ, Smith J, Huang Z, Durrant J, Watkins SE, Song K, Anthopoulos TD, McCulloch Iet al., 2011, Benzotrithiophene Co-polymers with High Charge Carrier Mobilities in Field-Effect Transistors, Chemistry of Materials, Vol: 23, Pages: 4025-4031, ISSN: 0897-4756

Journal article

Keyworth CW, Chan KL, Labram JG, Anthopoulos TD, Watkins SE, McKiernan M, White AJP, Holmes AB, Williams CKet al., 2011, The tuning of the energy levels of dibenzosilole copolymers and applications in organic electronics, Journal of Materials Chemistry, Vol: 21, Pages: 11800-11814, ISSN: 0959-9428

An understanding of the structure-function relationships of conjugated polymers is an invaluable resource for the successful design of new materials for use in organic electronics. To this end, we report the synthesis, characterisation and optoelectronic properties of a range of new alternating copolymers of dibenzosilole. Suzuki polycondensation reactions were used to afford a series of eight conjugated materials by the respective combination of either a 3,6- or 2,7-linked 9,9-dioctyldibenzosilole with 3,6-linked-N-octylcarbazole, triarylamine, oxadiazole and triazole monomers. The copolymers were fully characterised using 1H, 13C{1H} NMR spectroscopy, size exclusion chromatography (SEC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The photophysical properties were determined using UV-Vis spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) measurements, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and photoelectron emission spectroscopy in air (PESA). The spectroscopic and electrochemical measurements were used to determine the materials' HOMO and LUMO energies and the values were correlated with the copolymer composition and structure. A selection of the copolymers (P4, P5 and P8) were evaluated as the active layer within single-layer polymer light emitting diodes (PLEDs), with the configuration: glass/ITO/PEDOT:PSS/emissive layer/Ba/Al, which gave low intensity electroluminescence. The selected copolymers were also evaluated as the organic semiconductor in bottom-gate, bottom-contact organic field effect transistors (OFETs). The best performing devices gave a maximum mobility of 3 [times] 10-4 cm2 V-1 s-1 and on/off current ratios of 105.

Journal article

McEntee GJ, Vilela F, Skabara PJ, Anthopoulos TD, Labram JG, Tierney S, Harrington RW, Clegg Wet al., 2011, Self-assembly and charge transport properties of a benzobisthiazole end-capped with dihexyl thienothiophene units, Journal of Materials Chemistry, Vol: 21, Pages: 2091-2097, ISSN: 0959-9428

The synthesis of a new conjugated material is reported; BDHTT-BBT features a central electron-deficient benzobisthiazole capped with two 3,6-dihexyl-thieno[3,2-b]thiophenes. Cyclic voltammetry was used to determine the HOMO (-5.7 eV) and LUMO (-2.9 eV) levels. The solid-state properties of the compound were investigated by X-ray diffraction on single-crystal and thin-film samples. OFETs were constructed with vacuum deposited films of BDHTT-BBT. The films displayed phase transitions over a range of temperatures and the morphology of the films affected the charge transport properties of the films. The maximum hole mobility observed from bottom-contact, top-gate devices was 3 [times] 10-3 cm2 V-1 s-1, with an on/off ratio of 104-105 and a threshold voltage of -42 V. The morphological and self-assembly characteristics versus electronic properties are discussed for future improvement of OFET devices.

Journal article

Ball JM, Bouwer RKM, Kooistra FB, Frost JM, Qi Y, Domingo EB, Smith J, de Leeuw DM, Hummelen JC, Nelson J, otherset al., 2011, Soluble fullerene derivatives: The effect of electronic structure on transistor performance and air stability, Journal of Applied Physics, Vol: 110, Pages: 014506-014506

Journal article

Al-Hashimi M, Labram JG, Watkins S, Motevalli M, Anthopoulos TD, Heeney Met al., 2010, Synthesis and Characterization of Fused Pyrrolo[3,2-d:4,5-d′]bisthiazole-Containing Polymers, Organic Letters, Vol: 12, Pages: 5478-5481, ISSN: 1523-7060

Journal article

Adamopoulos G, Bashir A, Thomas S, Gillin WP, Georgakopoulos S, Shkunov M, Baklar MA, Stingelin N, Maher RC, Cohen LF, Bradley DDC, Anthopoulos TDet al., 2010, Spray-Deposited Li-Doped ZnO Transistors with Electron Mobility Exceeding 50 cm(2)/Vs, ADVANCED MATERIALS, Vol: 22, Pages: 4764-+, ISSN: 0935-9648

Journal article

Kim YM, Credgingtom DJN, Labram JG, Anthopoulos TD, Durrant JRet al., 2010, Combining vacuum deposited with solution processed layers in organic solar cell, Pages: 693-695

Heterojunction cells are the subject of much current research. They can be differentiated by their production processes: solution processing and vacuum processing. Both production processes have advantages and disadvantages. Solution processed devices have the advantages of monodisperity and simple synthesis, but the use of solution processing is limited to soluble conjugated polymers due to their ability to form a smooth film on spin coated materials and the devices are characterised by lower mobilities due to their disordered structures. Vacuum processing can lead to relatively high throughput and sequential stacking of well-defined layers and extraction of exciton diffusion lengths can be performed. Vacuum processed devices, however, tend to suffer from lower efficiencies. Our approach is based on combining vacuum deposited active layers with solution processed layers in organic photovoltaic cells using pentacene and buckminsterfullerene.

Conference paper

Baklar MA, Koch F, Kumar A, Domingo EB, Campoy-Quiles M, Feldman K, Yu L, Wobkenberg P, Ball J, Wilson RM, McCulloch I, Kreouzis T, Heeney M, Anthopoulos T, Smith P, Stingelin Net al., 2010, Solid-State Processing of Organic Semiconductors, ADVANCED MATERIALS, Vol: 22, Pages: 3942-+, ISSN: 0935-9648

Journal article

Gelinck G, Heremans P, Nomoto K, Anthopoulos TDet al., 2010, Organic Transistors in Optical Displays and Microelectronic Applications, ADVANCED MATERIALS, Vol: 22, Pages: 3778-3798, ISSN: 0935-9648

Journal article

Anant P, Lucas NT, Ball JM, Anthopoulos TD, Jacob Jet al., 2010, Synthesis and characterization of pyrene-centered oligothiophenes, SYNTHETIC METALS, Vol: 160, Pages: 1987-1993, ISSN: 0379-6779

Journal article

Smith J, Bashir A, Adamopoulos G, Anthony JE, Bradley DDC, Hamilton R, Heeney M, McCulloch I, Anthopoulos TDet al., 2010, Air-Stable Solution-Processed Hybrid Transistors with Hole and Electron Mobilities Exceeding 2 cm(2) V-1 s(-1), ADVANCED MATERIALS, Vol: 22, Pages: 3598-+, ISSN: 0935-9648

Journal article

Zhang W, Smith J, Watkins SE, Gysel R, McGehee M, Salleo A, Kirkpatrick J, Ashraf S, Anthopoulos T, Heeney M, McCulloch Iet al., 2010, Indacenodithiophene Semiconducting Polymers for High-Performance, Air-Stable Transistors, Journal of the American Chemical Society, Vol: 132, Pages: 11437-11439, ISSN: 0002-7863

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Journal article

Smith J, Hamilton R, Qi Y, Kahn A, Bradley DDC, Heeney M, McCulloch I, Anthopoulos TDet al., 2010, The Influence of Film Morphology in High-Mobility Small-Molecule:Polymer Blend Organic Transistors, ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Vol: 20, Pages: 2330-2337, ISSN: 1616-301X

Journal article

Leem D-S, Woebkenberg PH, Huang J, Anthopoulos TD, Bradley DDC, deMello JCet al., 2010, Micron-scale patterning of high conductivity poly(3,4-ethylendioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) for organic field-effect transistors, ORGANIC ELECTRONICS, Vol: 11, Pages: 1307-1312, ISSN: 1566-1199

Journal article

Labram JG, Wöbkenberg PH, Bradley DDC, Anthopoulos TDet al., 2010, Low-voltage ambipolar phototransistors based on a pentacene/PC61BM heterostructure and a self-assembled nano-dielectric, Organic Electronics, Vol: 11, Pages: 1250-1254, ISSN: 1566-1199

Journal article

Woebkenberg PH, Ishwara T, Nelson J, Bradley DDC, Haque SA, Anthopoulos TDet al., 2010, TiO2 thin-film transistors fabricated by spray pyrolysis, APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, Vol: 96, ISSN: 0003-6951

Journal article

Smith J, Hamilton R, McCulloch I, Stingelin-Stutzmann N, Heeney M, Bradley DDC, Anthopoulos TDet al., 2010, Solution-processed organic transistors based on semiconducting blends, JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY, Vol: 20, Pages: 2562-2574, ISSN: 0959-9428

Journal article

Baklar M, Woebkenberg PH, Sparrowe D, Goncalves M, McCulloch I, Heeney M, Anthopoulos T, Stingelin Net al., 2010, Ink-jet printed p-type polymer electronics based on liquid-crystalline polymer semiconductors, JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY, Vol: 20, Pages: 1927-1931, ISSN: 0959-9428

Journal article

Wobkenberg PH, Labram JG, Swiecicki J, Parkhomenko K, Sredojevic D, Gisselbrecht J, de Leeuw DM, Bradley DDC, Djukic J, Anthopoulos TDet al., 2010, Ambipolar organic transistors and near-infrared phototransistors based on a solution-processable squarilium dye, Journal of Materials Chemistry, Vol: 20, Pages: 3673-3680, ISSN: 0959-9428

Implementation of organic transistors in low-end, large-volume microelectronics depends, greatly, on the level of performance that can be achieved, but also on the compatibility of the technology with low-cost processing methodologies. Here we examine the suitability of a family of solution-processable zwitterionic molecules, so-called squarilium dyes, for the fabrication of organic ambipolar transistors and their application in (opto)electronic circuits. Ambipolar organic semiconductors and transistors are interesting because they could deliver performance characteristics (i.e. noise margins and signal gain) similar to that of complementary logic, but with the fabrication simplicity associated with unipolar logic (i.e. single semiconductor material and single type of metal electrodes). By designing squarilium dyes with appropriate electrochemical characteristics we demonstrate single-layer organic transistors that exhibit ambipolar charge transport with balanced electron and hole mobilities. By integrating a number of these ambipolar transistors we are also able to demonstrate complementary-like voltage inverters with wide noise margin and high signal gain. Another interesting feature of the squarilium dyes studied here is their strong absorption in the near-infrared (NIR) region of the electromagnetic spectrum. By exploring this interesting property we are able to demonstrate NIR light-sensing ambipolar organic transistors with promising operating characteristics.

Journal article

Afonina I, Skabara PJ, Vilela F, Kanibolotsky AL, Forgie JC, Bansal AK, Turnbull GA, Samuel IDW, Labram JG, Anthopoulos TD, Coles SJ, Hursthouse MBet al., 2010, Synthesis and characterisation of new diindenodithienothiophene (DITT) based materials, Journal of Materials Chemistry, Vol: 20, Pages: 1112-1116, ISSN: 0959-9428

Three new diindenodithienothiophene (DITT) based materials were synthesised and their electrochemical properties investigated. The HOMO-LUMO gaps were observed to be 3.33, 3.48 and 2.81 eV, respectively. Cyclic voltammetry results indicate increased stability for the alkylated derivatives. The dioxide exhibits strong photoluminescence, giving a photoluminescence quantum yield of 0.72 in solution and 0.14 in the solid state. Hole mobility measurements were carried out on the non-alkylated derivative and the corresponding values were [similar]10-4 cm2 V-1 s-1.

Journal article

Ball JM, Wöbkenberg PH, Colléaux F, Smith J, Bradley DDC, Anthopoulos TDet al., 2009, Solution processed low-voltage organic transistors based on self-assembled monolayer gate dielectrics, ISSN: 0277-786X

Reduction in the operating voltage of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) is sought for their successful implementation into future portable and low-power electronic applications. Here we demonstrate OFETs with operation below 2 V enabled by the use of self-assembled monolayer (SAM) gate dielectrics with high geometrical capacitances. A high surface energy monolayer is chosen to allow processing of small molecule semiconductors from solution. Impedance spectroscopy measurements of metal-insulator-semiconductor devices suggest the geometrical capacitance of the alumina-SAM dielectric can reach ∼1 μF/cm2 when accumulating charge at the semiconductor-insulator interface. Atomic force microscopy images reveal that the glass substrates and the SAM-functionalized aluminum gate electrode display significant roughness. Despite this, mobilities of 0.02 cm2/Vs are demonstrated. These results represent an important step towards low-power solution processable electronics. © 2009 SPIE.

Conference paper

Smith J, Hamilton R, McCulloch I, Heeney M, Anthony JE, Bradley DDC, Anthopoulos TDet al., 2009, High mobility p-channel organic field effect transistors on flexible substrates using a polymer-small molecule blend, SYNTHETIC METALS, Vol: 159, Pages: 2365-2367, ISSN: 0379-6779

Journal article

Ball JM, Wobkenberg PH, Kooistra FB, Hummelen JC, de Leeuw DM, Bradley DDC, Anthopoulos TDet al., 2009, Complementary circuits based on solution processed low-voltage organic field-effect transistors, SYNTHETIC METALS, Vol: 159, Pages: 2368-2370, ISSN: 0379-6779

Journal article

Adamopoulos G, Bashir A, Woebkenberg PH, Bradley DDC, Anthopoulos TDet al., 2009, Electronic properties of ZnO field-effect transistors fabricated by spray pyrolysis in ambient air, APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, Vol: 95, ISSN: 0003-6951

Journal article

Ball JM, Woebkenberg PH, Colleaux F, Heeney M, Anthony JE, McCulloch I, Bradley DDC, Anthopoulos TDet al., 2009, Solution processed low-voltage organic transistors and complementary inverters, APPLIED PHYSICS LETTERS, Vol: 95, ISSN: 0003-6951

Journal article

Zhang W, Smith J, Hamilton R, Heeney M, Kirkpatrick J, Song K, Watkins SE, Anthopoulos T, McCulloch Iet al., 2009, Systematic Improvement in Charge Carrier Mobility of Air Stable Triarylamine Copolymers, JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, Vol: 131, Pages: 10814-+, ISSN: 0002-7863

Journal article

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