Imperial College London


Faculty of Natural SciencesDepartment of Physics

Visiting Professor



+44 (0)20 7594 6669thomas.anthopoulos Website




Mrs Carolyn Dale +44 (0)20 7594 7579




1111Blackett LaboratorySouth Kensington Campus






BibTex format

author = {Heeney, MJ and Creamer, A and Wood, C and Howes, P and Casey, A and Cong, S and Marsh, A and Godin, R and Panidi, J and Anthopoulos, T and Burgess, C and Wu, T and Fei, Z and McLachlan, M and Stevens, M},
doi = {10.1038/s41467-018-05381-4},
journal = {Nature Communications},
title = {Post-polymerisation functionalisation of conjugated polymer backbones and its application in multi-functional emissive nanoparticles},
url = {},
volume = {9},
year = {2018}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - Backbone functionalisation of conjugated polymers is crucial to their performance in many applications, from electronic displays to nanoparticle biosensors, yet there are limited approaches to introduce functionality. To address this challenge we have developed a method for the direct modification of the aromatic backbone of a conjugated polymer, post-polymerisation. This is achieved via a quantitative nucleophilic aromatic substitution (SNAr) reaction on a range of fluorinated electron deficient comonomers. The method allows for facile tuning of the physical and optoelectronic properties within a batch of consistent molecular weight and dispersity. It also enables the introduction of multiple different functional groups onto the polymer backbone in a controlled manner. To demonstrate the versatility of this reaction, we designed and synthesised a range of emissive poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-alt-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT) based polymers for the creation of mono and multifunctional semiconducting polymer nanoparticles (SPNs) capable of two orthogonal bioconjugation reactions on the same surface.
AU - Heeney,MJ
AU - Creamer,A
AU - Wood,C
AU - Howes,P
AU - Casey,A
AU - Cong,S
AU - Marsh,A
AU - Godin,R
AU - Panidi,J
AU - Anthopoulos,T
AU - Burgess,C
AU - Wu,T
AU - Fei,Z
AU - McLachlan,M
AU - Stevens,M
DO - 10.1038/s41467-018-05381-4
PY - 2018///
SN - 2041-1723
TI - Post-polymerisation functionalisation of conjugated polymer backbones and its application in multi-functional emissive nanoparticles
T2 - Nature Communications
UR -
UR -
VL - 9
ER -