Imperial College London


Faculty of Natural SciencesDepartment of Physics

Visiting Professor



+44 (0)20 7594 6669thomas.anthopoulos Website




Mrs Carolyn Dale +44 (0)20 7594 7579




1111Blackett LaboratorySouth Kensington Campus






BibTex format

author = {Porte, Y and Maller, R and Faber, H and Alshareef, H and Anthopoulos, T and McLachlan, MA},
doi = {10.1039/C5TC03520A},
journal = {Journal of Materials Chemistry C},
pages = {758--765},
title = {Exploring and controlling intrinsic defect formation in SnO2 thin films},
url = {},
volume = {4},
year = {2015}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - By investigating the influence of key growth variables on the measured structural and electrical properties of SnO2 prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) we demonstrate fine control of intrinsic n-type defect formation. Variation of growth temperatures shows oxygen vacancies (VO) as the dominant defect which can be compensated for by thermal oxidation at temperatures >500 °C. As a consequence films with carrier concentrations in the range 1016–1019 cm−3 can be prepared by adjusting temperature alone. By altering the background oxygen pressure (PD) we observe a change in the dominant defect – from tin interstitials (Sni) at low PD (<50 mTorr) to VO at higher PD with similar ranges of carrier concentrations observed. Finally, we demonstrate the importance of controlling the composition target surface used for PLD by exposing a target to >100 000 laser pulses. Here carrier concentrations >1 × 1020 cm−3 are observed that are associated with high concentrations of Sni which cannot be completely compensated for by modifying the growth parameters.
AU - Porte,Y
AU - Maller,R
AU - Faber,H
AU - Alshareef,H
AU - Anthopoulos,T
AU - McLachlan,MA
DO - 10.1039/C5TC03520A
EP - 765
PY - 2015///
SN - 2050-7534
SP - 758
TI - Exploring and controlling intrinsic defect formation in SnO2 thin films
T2 - Journal of Materials Chemistry C
UR -
UR -
VL - 4
ER -