Imperial College London

ProfessorThomasAnthopoulos

Faculty of Natural SciencesDepartment of Physics

Visiting Professor
 
 
 
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Contact

 

+44 (0)20 7594 6669thomas.anthopoulos Website

 
 
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Assistant

 

Mrs Carolyn Dale +44 (0)20 7594 7579

 
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Location

 

1111Blackett LaboratorySouth Kensington Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

445 results found

Peng W, Lin Y, Jeong SY, Genene Z, Magomedov A, Woo HY, Chen C, Wahyudi W, Tao Q, Deng J, Han Y, Getautis V, Zhu W, Anthopoulos TD, Wang Eet al., 2022, Over 18% ternary polymer solar cells enabled by a terpolymer as the third component, NANO ENERGY, Vol: 92, ISSN: 2211-2855

Journal article

Aniés F, Qiao Z, Nugraha MI, Basu A, Anthopoulos TD, Gasparini N, Heeney Met al., 2022, N-type polymer semiconductors incorporating para, meta, and ortho-carborane in the conjugated backbone, Polymer, Vol: 240, ISSN: 0032-3861

We report on three novel n-type conjugated polymer semiconductors incorporating carborane in the polymer backbone and demonstrate their applicability in optoelectronic devices. Comparing the optoelectronic properties of para-, meta-, and ortho-carborane isomers revealed similar energetic characteristics between the different polymers, with the carborane unit acting as a “conjugation breaker”, confining electron delocalisation to the conjugated moieties. The fabrication of all-polymer organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices and thin-film transistors (TFTs) revealed some differences in device performance between the polymers, with the meta-carborane based polymer exhibiting superior performance in both OPV and TFT devices.

Journal article

Loganathan K, Scaccabarozzi AD, Faber H, Ferrari F, Bizak Z, Yengel E, Naphade DR, Gedda M, He Q, Solomeshch O, Adilbekova B, Yarali E, Tsetseris L, Salama KN, Heeney M, Tessler N, Anthopoulos TDet al., 2022, 14 GHz schottky diodes using a p-doped organic polymer., Advanced Materials, Pages: e2108524-e2108524, ISSN: 0935-9648

The low carrier mobility of organic semiconductors and the high parasitic resistance and capacitance often encountered in conventional organic Schottky diodes, hinder their deployment in emerging radio frequency (RF) electronics. Here we overcome these limitations by combining self-aligned asymmetric nanogap electrodes (∼25 nm) produced by adhesion-lithography, with a high mobility organic semiconductor and demonstrate RF Schottky diodes able to operate in the 5G frequency spectrum. We used C16 IDT-BT, as the high hole mobility polymer, and studied the impact of p-doping on the diode performance. Pristine C16 IDT-BT-based diodes exhibit maximum intrinsic and extrinsic cutoff frequencies (fC ) of >100 and 6 GHz, respectively. This extraordinary performance is attributed primarily to the planar nature of the nanogap channel and the diode's small junction capacitance (< 2 pF). Doping of C16 IDT-BT with the molecular p-dopant C60 F48 , improves the diode's performance further by reducing the series resistance resulting to intrinsic and extrinsic fC of >100 and ∼14 GHz respectively, while the DC output voltage of a RF rectifier circuit increases by a tenfold. Our work highlights the importance of the planar nanogap architecture and paves the way for the use of organic Schottky diodes in large-area radio frequency electronics of the future. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Journal article

Kafourou P, Nugraha MI, Nikitaras A, Tan L, Firdaus Y, Aniés F, Eisner F, Ding B, Wenzel J, Holicky M, Tsetseris L, Anthopoulos TD, Heeney Met al., 2021, Near-IR absorbing molecular semiconductors incorporating cyanated benzothiadiazole acceptors for high performance semi-transparent n-type organic field-effect transistors, ACS Materials Letters, ISSN: 2639-4979

Small band gap molecular semiconductors are of interest for the development of transparent electronics. Here we report two near-infrared (NIR), n-type small molecule semiconductors, based upon an acceptor-donor-acceptor (A-D-A) approach. We show that the inclusion of molecular spacers between the strong electron accepting end group, 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole-4,5,6-tricarbonitrile, and the donor core affords semiconductors with very low band gaps down to 1 eV. Both materials were synthesised by a one-pot, sixfold nucleophilic displacement of a fluorinated precursor by cyanide. Significant differences in solid-state ordering and charge carrier mobility are observed depending on the nature of the spacer, with a thiophene spacer resulting in solution processed organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) exhibiting excellent electron mobility up to 1.1 cm2 V-1s-1. The use of silver nanowires as the gate electrodes enables the fabrication of semi-transparent OFET device with average visible transmission of 71% in the optical spectrum.

Journal article

Liu J, Aydin E, Yin J, De Bastiani M, Isikgor FH, Rehman AU, Yengel E, Ugur E, Harrison GT, Wang M, Gao Y, Khan JI, Babics M, Allen TG, Subbiah AS, Zhu K, Zheng X, Yan W, Xu F, Salvador MF, Bakr OM, Anthopoulos TD, Lanza M, Mohammed OF, Laquai F, De Wolf Set al., 2021, 28.2%-efficient, outdoor-stable perovskite/silicon tandem solar cell, JOULE, Vol: 5, Pages: 3169-3186, ISSN: 2542-4351

Journal article

Khan J, Isikgor FH, Ugur E, Raja W, Harrison GT, Yengel E, Anthopoulos TD, De Wolf S, Laquai Fet al., 2021, Charge Carrier Recombination at Perovskite/ Hole Transport Layer Interfaces Monitored by Time-Resolved Spectroscopy, ACS ENERGY LETTERS, Vol: 6, Pages: 4155-4164, ISSN: 2380-8195

Journal article

Gutierrez-Fernandez E, Scaccabarozzi AD, Basu A, Solano E, Anthopoulos TD, Martin Jet al., 2021, Y6 Organic Thin-Film Transistors with Electron Mobilities of 2.4 cm(2) V-1 s(-1) via Microstructural Tuning, ADVANCED SCIENCE

Journal article

Fortunato L, Yarali E, Sanchez-Huerta C, Anthopoulos TDet al., 2021, Rapid photodegradation of organic micro-pollutants in water using high-intensity pulsed light, JOURNAL OF WATER PROCESS ENGINEERING, Vol: 44, ISSN: 2214-7144

Journal article

Karuthedath S, Gorenflot J, Firdaus Y, Chaturvedi N, De Castro CSP, Harrison GT, Khan JI, Markina A, Balawi AH, Pena TAD, Liu W, Liang R-Z, Sharma A, Paleti SHK, Zhang W, Lin Y, Alarousu E, Lopatin S, Anjum DH, Beaujuge PM, De Wolf S, McCulloch I, Anthopoulos TD, Baran D, Andrienko D, Laquai Fet al., 2021, Intrinsic efficiency limits in low-bandgap non-fullerene acceptor organic solar cells (vol 20, pg 378, 2021), NATURE MATERIALS, ISSN: 1476-1122

Journal article

Kosco J, Gonzalez-Carrero S, Howells CT, Zhang W, Moser M, Sheelamanthula R, Zhao L, Willner B, Hidalgo TC, Faber H, Purushothaman B, Sachs M, Cha H, Sougrat R, Anthopoulos TD, Inal S, Durrant JR, McCulloch Iet al., 2021, Oligoethylene Glycol Side Chains Increase Charge Generation in Organic Semiconductor Nanoparticles for Enhanced Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution, ADVANCED MATERIALS, ISSN: 0935-9648

Journal article

Lin Y-H, Han Y, Sharma A, AlGhamdi WS, Liu C-H, Chang T-H, Xiao X-W, Lin W-Z, Lu P-Y, Seitkhan A, Mottram AD, Pattanasattayavong P, Faber H, Heeney M, Anthopoulos TDet al., 2021, A tri-channel oxide transistor concept for the rapid detection of biomolecules including the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, Advanced Materials, Pages: 1-14, ISSN: 0935-9648

Solid-state transistor sensors that can detect biomolecules in real time are highly attractive for emerging bioanalytical applications. However, combining upscalable manufacturing with the required performance remains challenging. Here, an alternative biosensor transistor concept is developed, which relies on a solution-processed In2O3/ZnO semiconducting heterojunction featuring a geometrically engineered tri-channel architecture for the rapid, real-time detection of important biomolecules. The sensor combines a high electron mobility channel, attributed to the electronic properties of the In2O3/ZnO heterointerface, in close proximity to a sensing surface featuring tethered analyte receptors. The unusual tri-channel design enables strong coupling between the buried electron channel and electrostatic perturbations occurring during receptor–analyte interactions allowing for robust, real-time detection of biomolecules down to attomolar (am) concentrations. The experimental findings are corroborated by extensive device simulations, highlighting the unique advantages of the heterojunction tri-channel design. By functionalizing the surface of the geometrically engineered channel with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibody receptors, real-time detection of the SARS-CoV-2 spike S1 protein down to am concentrations is demonstrated in under 2 min in physiological relevant conditions.

Journal article

Scaccabarozzi AD, Basu A, Aniés F, Liu J, Zapata-Arteaga O, Warren R, Firdaus Y, Nugraha MI, Lin Y, Campoy-Quiles M, Koch N, Müller C, Tsetseris L, Heeney M, Anthopoulos TDet al., 2021, Doping Approaches for Organic Semiconductors., Chem Rev

Electronic doping in organic materials has remained an elusive concept for several decades. It drew considerable attention in the early days in the quest for organic materials with high electrical conductivity, paving the way for the pioneering work on pristine organic semiconductors (OSCs) and their eventual use in a plethora of applications. Despite this early trend, however, recent strides in the field of organic electronics have been made hand in hand with the development and use of dopants to the point that are now ubiquitous. Here, we give an overview of all important advances in the area of doping of organic semiconductors and their applications. We first review the relevant literature with particular focus on the physical processes involved, discussing established mechanisms but also newly proposed theories. We then continue with a comprehensive summary of the most widely studied dopants to date, placing particular emphasis on the chemical strategies toward the synthesis of molecules with improved functionality. The processing routes toward doped organic films and the important doping-processing-nanostructure relationships, are also discussed. We conclude the review by highlighting how doping can enhance the operating characteristics of various organic devices.

Journal article

Kabitakis V, Gagaoudakis E, Moschogiannaki M, Kiriakidis G, Seitkhan A, Firdaus Y, Faber H, Yengel E, Loganathan K, Deligeorgis G, Tsetseris L, Anthopoulos TD, Binas Vet al., 2021, A Low-Power CuSCN Hydrogen Sensor Operating Reversibly at Room Temperature, ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, ISSN: 1616-301X

Journal article

Ma C, Chen H, Yengel E, Faber H, Khan J, Tang M-C, Li R, Loganathan K, Lin Y, Zhang W, Laquai F, McCulloch I, Anthopoulos TDet al., 2021, Printed Memtransistor Utilizing a Hybrid Perovskite/Organic Heterojunction Channel, ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES, Vol: 13, Pages: 51592-51601, ISSN: 1944-8244

Journal article

Aydin E, Altinkaya C, Smirnov Y, Yaqin MA, Zanoni KPS, Paliwal A, Firdaus Y, Allen TG, Anthopoulos TD, Bolink HJ, Morales-Masis M, De Wolf Set al., 2021, Sputtered transparent electrodes for optoelectronic devices: Induced damage and mitigation strategies, MATTER, Vol: 4, Pages: 3549-3584, ISSN: 2590-2393

Journal article

Das S, Sebastian A, Pop E, McClellan CJ, Franklin AD, Grasser T, Knobloch T, Illarionov Y, Penumatcha AV, Appenzeller J, Chen Z, Zhu W, Asselberghs I, Li L-J, Avci UE, Bhat N, Anthopoulos TD, Singh Ret al., 2021, Transistors based on two-dimensional materials for future integrated circuits, NATURE ELECTRONICS, Vol: 4, Pages: 786-799, ISSN: 2520-1131

Journal article

Bachevillier S, Yuan H-K, Tetzner K, Bradley DDC, Anthopoulos TD, Stavrinou PN, Stingelin Net al., 2021, Planar refractive index patterning through microcontact photo-thermal annealing of a printable organic/inorganic hybrid material, MATERIALS HORIZONS, Vol: 9, Pages: 411-416, ISSN: 2051-6347

Journal article

Markina A, Lin K-H, Liu W, Poelking C, Firdaus Y, Villalva DR, Khan J, Paleti SHK, Harrison GT, Gorenflot J, Zhang W, De Wolf S, McCulloch I, Anthopoulos TD, Baran D, Laquai F, Andrienko Det al., 2021, Chemical Design Rules for Non-Fullerene Acceptors in Organic Solar Cells, ADVANCED ENERGY MATERIALS, Vol: 11, ISSN: 1614-6832

Journal article

Eisner F, Foot G, Yan J, Azzouzi M, Georgiadou DG, Sit WY, Firdaus Y, Zhang G, Lin Y-H, Yip H-L, Anthopoulos TD, Nelson Jet al., 2021, Emissive charge-transfer states at hybrid inorganic/organic heterojunctions enable low non-radiative recombination and high-performance photodetectors, Advanced Materials, ISSN: 0935-9648

Hybrid devices based on a heterojunction between inorganic and organic semiconductors have offered a means to combine the advantages of both classes of materials in optoelectronic devices, but, in practice, the performance of such devices has often been disappointing. Here, it is demonstrated that charge generation in hybrid inorganic–organic heterojunctions consisting of copper thiocyanate (CuSCN) and a variety of molecular acceptors (ITIC, IT-4F, Y6, PC70BM, C70, C60) proceeds via emissive charge-transfer (CT) states analogous to those found at all-organic heterojunctions. Importantly, contrary to what has been observed at previous organic–inorganic heterojunctions, the dissociation of the CT-exciton and subsequent charge separation is efficient, allowing the fabrication of planar photovoltaic devices with very low non-radiative voltage losses (0.21 ±  0.02 V). It is shown that such low non-radiative recombination enables the fabrication of simple and cost-effective near-IR (NIR) detectors with extremely low dark current (4 pA cm−2) and noise spectral density (3 fA Hz−1/2) at no external bias, leading to specific detectivities at NIR wavelengths of just under 1013 Jones, close to the performance of commercial silicon photodetectors. It is believed that this work demonstrates the possibility for hybrid heterojunctions to exploit the unique properties of both inorganic and organic semiconductors for high-performance opto-electronic devices.

Journal article

Peng W, Lin Y, Jeong SY, Firdaus Y, Genene Z, Nikitaras A, Tsetseris L, Woo HY, Zhu W, Anthopoulos TD, Wang Eet al., 2021, Using Two Compatible Donor Polymers Boosts the Efficiency of Ternary Organic Solar Cells to 17.7%, CHEMISTRY OF MATERIALS, Vol: 33, Pages: 7254-7262, ISSN: 0897-4756

Journal article

Zou Y, Cao Z, Zhang J, Wahyudi W, Wu Y, Liu G, Li Q, Cheng H, Zhang D, Park G-T, Cavallo L, Anthopoulos TD, Wang L, Sun Y-K, Ming Jet al., 2021, Interfacial Model Deciphering High-Voltage Electrolytes for High Energy Density, High Safety, and Fast-Charging Lithium-Ion Batteries, ADVANCED MATERIALS, Vol: 33, ISSN: 0935-9648

Journal article

Mohan L, Ratnasingham SR, Panidi J, Daboczi M, Kim J-S, Anthopoulos TD, Briscoe J, McLachlan MA, Kreouzis Tet al., 2021, Determining out-of-plane hole mobility in CuSCN via the time-of-flight technique to elucidate its function in perovskite solar cells, ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, Vol: 13, Pages: 38499-38507, ISSN: 1944-8244

Copper(I) thiocyanate (CuSCN) is a stable, low-cost, solution-processable p-type inorganic semiconductor used in numerous optoelectronic applications. Here, for the first time, we employ the time-of-flight (ToF) technique to measure the out-of-plane hole mobility of CuSCN films, enabled by the deposition of 4 μm-thick films using aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition (AACVD). A hole mobility of ∼10–3 cm2/V s was measured with a weak electric field dependence of 0.005 cm/V1/2. Additionally, by measuring several 1.5 μm CuSCN films, we show that the mobility is independent of thickness. To further validate the suitability of our AACVD-prepared 1.5 μm-thick CuSCN film in device applications, we demonstrate its incorporation as a hole transport layer (HTL) in methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Our AACVD films result in devices with measured power conversion efficiencies of 10.4%, which compares favorably with devices prepared using spin-coated CuSCN HTLs (12.6%), despite the AACVD HTLs being an order of magnitude thicker than their spin-coated analogues. Improved reproducibility and decreased hysteresis were observed, owing to a combination of excellent film quality, high charge-carrier mobility, and favorable interface energetics. In addition to providing a fundamental insight into charge-carrier mobility in CuSCN, our work highlights the AACVD methodology as a scalable, versatile tool suitable for film deposition for use in optoelectronic devices.

Journal article

Dauzon E, Sallenave X, Plesse C, Goubard F, Amassian A, Anthopoulos TDet al., 2021, Pushing the Limits of Flexibility and Stretchability of Solar Cells: A Review, ADVANCED MATERIALS, Vol: 33, ISSN: 0935-9648

Journal article

Zhang T, Moser M, Scaccabarozzi A, Bristow H, Jacoutot P, Wadsworth A, Anthopoulos T, McCulloch I, Gasparini Net al., 2021, Ternary organic photodetectors based on pseudo–binaries nonfullerene–based acceptors, Journal of Physics: Materials, Vol: 4, Pages: 1-8, ISSN: 2515-7639

The addition of a third component to a donor:acceptor blend is a powerful tool to enhance the power conversion efficiency of organic solar cells. Featuring a similar operating mechanism, organic photodetectors are also expected to benefit from this approach. Here, we fabricated ternary organic photodetectors, based on a polymer donor and two nonfullerene acceptors, resulting in a low dark current of 0.42 nA cm−2 at −2 V and a broadband specific detectivity of 1012 Jones. We found that exciton recombination in the binary blend is reduced in ternary devices due to the formation of a pseudo-binary microstructure with mixed donor–acceptor phases. With this approach a wide range of intermediate open-circuit voltages is accessible, without sacrificing light-to-current conversion. This results in ternary organic photodetector (TOPD) with improved Responsivity values in the near-infrared. Moreover, morphology analyses reveal that TOPD devices showed improved microstructure ordering and consequentially higher charge carrier mobilities compared to the reference devices.

Journal article

Nam S, Khim D, Martinez GT, Varambhia A, Nellist PD, Kim Y, Anthopoulos TD, Bradley DDCet al., 2021, Significant Performance Improvement in n-Channel Organic Field-Effect Transistors with C-60:C-70 Co-Crystals Induced by Poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) Nanodots, ADVANCED MATERIALS, Vol: 33, ISSN: 0935-9648

Journal article

Isikgor FH, Furlan F, Liu J, Ugur E, Eswaran MK, Subbiah AS, Yengel E, De Bastiani M, Harrison GT, Zhumagali S, Howells CT, Aydin E, Wang M, Gasparini N, Allen TG, Rehman AU, Van Kerschaver E, Baran D, McCulloch I, Anthopoulos TD, Schwingenschlogl U, Laquai F, De Wolf Set al., 2021, Concurrent cationic and anionic perovskite defect passivation enables 27.4% perovskite/silicon tandems with suppression of halide segregation, JOULE, Vol: 5, Pages: 1566-1586, ISSN: 2542-4351

Journal article

Zhang S, Tang M-C, Nguyen N, Anthopoulos TD, Hacker CAet al., 2021, Wide-Band-Gap Mixed-Halide 3D Perovskites: Electronic Structure and Halide Segregation Investigation, ACS APPLIED ELECTRONIC MATERIALS, Vol: 3, Pages: 2277-2285

Journal article

Lin Y, Magomedov A, Firdaus Y, Kaltsas D, El-Labban A, Faber H, Naphade DR, Yengel E, Zheng X, Yarali E, Chaturvedi N, Loganathan K, Gkeka D, AlShammari SH, Bakr OM, Laquai F, Tsetseris L, Getautis V, Anthopoulos TDet al., 2021, 18.4 % Organic Solar Cells Using a High Ionization Energy Self-Assembled Monolayer as Hole-Extraction Interlayer, CHEMSUSCHEM, Vol: 14, Pages: 3569-3578, ISSN: 1864-5631

Journal article

Marina S, Scaccabarozzi AD, Gutierrez-Fernandez E, Solano E, Khirbat A, Ciammaruchi L, Iturrospe A, Balzer A, Yu L, Gabirondo E, Monnier X, Sardon H, Anthopoulos TD, Caironi M, Campoy-Quiles M, Muller C, Cangialosi D, Stingelin N, Martin Jet al., 2021, Polymorphism in Non-Fullerene Acceptors Based on Indacenodithienothiophene, ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Vol: 31, ISSN: 1616-301X

Journal article

Troughton J, Neubert S, Gasparini N, Villalva DR, Bertrandie J, Seitkhan A, Paleti SHK, Sharma A, De Bastiani M, Aydin E, Anthopoulos TD, De Wolf S, Schlatmann R, Baran Det al., 2021, Efficient Hybrid Amorphous Silicon/Organic Tandem Solar Cells Enabled by Near-Infrared Absorbing Nonfullerene Acceptors, ADVANCED ENERGY MATERIALS, Vol: 11, ISSN: 1614-6832

Journal article

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