50 results found
Raducan SD, Davison TM, Collins GS, 2022, Ejecta distribution and momentum transfer from oblique impacts on asteroid surfaces, Icarus, Vol: 374, Pages: 1-16, ISSN: 0019-1035
NASA’s Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) mission will impact its target asteroid, Dimorphos, at anoblique angle that will not be known prior to the impact. We computed iSALE-3D simulations of DARTlike impacts on asteroid surfaces at different impact angles and found that the vertical momentum transferefficiency, 𝛽, is similar for different impact angles, however, the imparted momentum is reduced as the impactangle decreases. It is expected that the momentum imparted from a 45◦impact is reduced by up to 50%compared to a vertical impact. The direction of the ejected momentum is not normal to the surface, howeverit is observed to ‘straighten up’ with crater growth. iSALE-2D simulations of vertical impacts provide contextfor the iSALE-3D simulation results and show that the ejection angle varies with both target properties andwith crater growth. While the ejection angle is relatively insensitive to the target porosity, it varies by upto 30◦ with target coefficient of internal friction. The simulation results presented in this paper can helpconstrain target properties from the DART crater ejecta cone, which will be imaged by the LICIACube. Theresults presented here represent the basis for an empirical scaling relationship for oblique impacts and canbe used as a framework to determine an analytical approximation of the vertical component of the ejectamomentum, 𝛽 − 1, given known target properties.
Wakita S, Johnson BC, Garrick-Bethell I, et al., 2021, Impactor material records the ancient lunar magnetic field in antipodal anomalies, NATURE COMMUNICATIONS, Vol: 12
Wakita S, Johnson BC, Denton CA, et al., 2021, Jetting during oblique impacts of spherical impactors, ICARUS, Vol: 360, ISSN: 0019-1035
Halim SH, Crawford IA, Collins GS, et al., 2021, Assessing the survivability of biomarkers within terrestrial material impacting the lunar surface, Icarus, Vol: 354, Pages: 1-15, ISSN: 0019-1035
The history of organic and biological markers (biomarkers) on the Earth is effectively non-existent in the geological record >3.8 Ga ago. Here, we investigate the potential for terrestrial material (i.e., terrestrial meteorites) to be transferred to the Moon by a large impact on Earth and subsequently survive impact with the lunar surface, using the iSALE shock physics code. Three-dimensional impact simulations show that a typical basin-forming impact on Earth can eject solid fragments equivalent to ~10−3 of an impactor mass at speeds sufficient to transfer from Earth to the Moon. Previous modelling of meteorite survivability has relied heavily upon the assumption that peak-shock pressures can be used as a proxy for gauging survival of projectiles and their possible biomarker constituents. Here, we show the importance of considering both pressure and temperature within the projectile, and the inclusion of both shock and shear heating, in assessing biomarker survival. Assuming that they survive launch from Earth, we show that some biomarker molecules within terrestrial meteorites are likely to survive impact with the Moon, especially at the lower end of the range of typical impact velocities for terrestrial meteorites (2.5 km s−1). The survival of larger biomarkers (e.g., microfossils) is also assessed, and we find limited, but significant, survival for low impact velocity and high target porosity scenarios. Thermal degradation of biomarkers shortly after impact depends heavily upon where the projectile material lands, whether it is buried or remains on the surface, and the related cooling timescales. Comparing sandstone and limestone projectiles shows similar temperature and pressure profiles for the same impact velocities, with limestone providing slightly more favourable conditions for biomarker survival.
Raducan SD, Davison TM, Collins GS, 2020, Morphological diversity of impact craters on asteroid (16) Psyche: insight from numerical models, Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, Vol: 125, Pages: 1-19, ISSN: 2169-9097
The asteroid (16) Psyche, target of NASA's “Psyche” mission, is thought to be one of the most massive exposed iron cores in the solar system. Earth‐based observations suggest that Psyche has a metal‐rich surface; however, its internal structure cannot be determined from ground‐based observations. Here we simulate impacts into a variety of possible target structures on Psyche and show the possible diversity in crater morphologies that the “Psyche” mission could encounter. If Psyche's interior is homogeneous, then the mission will find simple bowl‐shaped craters, with a depth‐diameter ratio diagnostic of rock or iron. Craters will be much deeper than those on other visited asteroids and possess much more spectacular rims if the surface is dominated by metallic iron. On the other hand, if Psyche has a layered structure, the spacecraft could find craters with more complex morphologies, such as concentric or flat‐floored craters. Furthermore, if ferrovolcanism occurred on Psyche, then the morphology of craters less than 2 km in diameter could be even more exotic. Based on three to four proposed large craters on Psyche's surface, model size‐frequency distributions suggest that if Psyche is indeed an exposed iron core, then the spacecraft will encounter a very old and evolved surface, that would be 4.5 Gyr old. For a rocky surface, then Psyche could be at least 3 Gyr old.
Collins G, Patel N, Davison T, et al., 2020, A steeply-inclined trajectory for the Chicxulub impact, Nature Communications, Vol: 11, Pages: 1-10, ISSN: 2041-1723
The environmental severity of large impacts on Earth is influenced by their impact trajectory. Impact direction and angle to the target plane affect the volume and depth of origin of vaporized target, as well as the trajectories of ejected material. The asteroid impact that formed the 66 Ma Chicxulub crater had a profound and catastrophic effect on Earth’s environment,but the impact trajectory is debated. Here we show that impact angle and direction can be diagnosed by asymmetries in the subsurface structure of the Chicxulub crater. Comparison of 3D numerical simulations of Chicxulub-scale impacts with geophysical observations suggests that the Chicxulub crater was formed by a steeply-inclined (45 -60° to horizontal) impact from the northeast; several lines of evidence rule out a low angle (< 30°) impact. Asteeply-inclined impact produces a nearly symmetric distribution of ejected rock and releases more climate-changing gases per impactor mass than either a very shallow or near-vertical impact.
Stickle AM, Bruck Syal M, Cheng AF, et al., 2020, Benchmarking impact hydrocodes in the strength regime: Implications for modeling deflection by a kinetic impactor, Icarus, Vol: 338, Pages: 1-24, ISSN: 0019-1035
The Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) is a NASA-sponsored mission that will be the first direct test of the kinetic impactor technique for planetary defense. The DART spacecraft will impact into Didymos-B, the moon of the binary system 65803 Didymos, and the resulting period change will be measured from Earth. Impact simulations will be used to predict the crater size and momentum enhancement expected from the DART impact. Because the specific material properties (strength, porosity, internal structure) of the Didymos-B target are unknown, a wide variety of numerical simulations must be performed to better understand possible impact outcomes. This simulation campaign will involve a large parameter space being simulated using multiple different shock physics hydrocodes. In order to understand better the behaviors and properties of numerical simulation codes applicable to the DART impact, a benchmarking and validation program using different numerical codes to solve a set of standard problems was designed and implemented. The problems were designed to test the effects of material strength, porosity, damage models, and target geometry on the ejecta following an impact and thus the momentum transfer efficiency. Several important results were identified from comparing simulations across codes, including the effects of model resolution and porosity and strength model choice: 1) momentum transfer predictions almost uniformly exhibit a larger variation than predictions of crater size; 2) the choice of strength model, and the values used for material strength, are significantly more important in the prediction of crater size and momentum enhancement than variation between codes; 3) predictions for crater size and momentum enhancement tend to be similar (within 15‐20%) when similar strength models are used in different codes. These results will be used to better design a modeling plan for the DART mission as well as to better understand the potential results that may be
Erickson TM, Kirkland CL, Timms NE, et al., 2020, Precise radiometric age establishes Yarrabubba, Western Australia, as Earth’s oldest recognised meteorite impact structure, Nature Communications, Vol: 11, Pages: 1-8, ISSN: 2041-1723
The ~70 km-diameter Yarrabubba impact structure in Western Australia is regarded as among Earth’s oldest, but has hitherto lacked precise age constraints. Here we present U–Pb ages for impact-driven shock-recrystallised accessory minerals. Shock-recrystallised monazite yields a precise impact age of 2229 ± 5 Ma, coeval with shock-reset zircon. This result establishes Yarrabubba as the oldest recognised meteorite impact structure on Earth, extending the terrestrial cratering record back >200 million years. The age of Yarrabubba coincides, within uncertainty, with temporal constraint for the youngest Palaeoproterozoic glacial deposits, the Rietfontein diamictite in South Africa. Numerical impact simulations indicate that a 70 km-diameter crater into a continental glacier could release between 8.7 × 1013 to 5.0 × 1015 kg of H2O vapour instantaneously into the atmosphere. These results provide new estimates of impact-produced H2O vapour abundances for models investigating termination of the Paleoproterozoic glaciations, and highlight the possible role of impact cratering in modifying Earth’s climate.
Raducan SD, Davison TM, Collins GS, 2020, The effects of asteroid layering on ejecta mass-velocity distribution and implications for impact momentum transfer, Planetary and Space Science, Vol: 180, ISSN: 0032-0633
Most bodies in the Solar System do not have a homogeneous structure. Understanding the outcome of an impact into regolith layers of different properties is especially important for NASA’s Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) and ESA’s Hera missions. Here we used the iSALE shock physics code to simulate the DART impact into three different target scenarios in the strength regime: a homogeneous porous half-space; layered targets with a porous weak layer overlying a stronger bedrock; and targets with exponentially decreasing porosity with depth. For each scenario we determined the sensitivity of crater morphology, ejecta mass-velocity distribution and momentum transferred from the impact for deflection, , to target properties and structure. We found that for a homogeneous porous half-space, cohesion and porosity play a significant role and the DART impact is expected to produce a between 1 and 3. In a two-layer target scenario, the presence of a less porous, stronger lower layer close to the surface can cause both amplification and reduction of ejected mass and momentum relative to the homogeneous upper-layer case. For the case of DART, the momentum enhancement can change by up to 90%. Impacts into targets with an exponentially decreasing porosity with depth only produced an enhancement in the ejected mass and momentum for sharp decreases in porosity that occur within 6 m of the asteroid surface. Together with measurements of the DART crater by the Hera mission, these results can be used to test the predictive capabilities of numerical models of asteroid deflection.
Wakita S, Genda H, Kurosawa K, et al., 2019, Enhancement of impact heating in pressure-strengthened rocks in oblique impacts, Geophysical Research Letters, Vol: 46, Pages: 13678-13686, ISSN: 0094-8276
Shock‐induced metamorphism in meteorites informs us about the collisional environment and history of our solar system. Recently, the importance of material strength in impact heating was reported from head‐on impact simulations. Here, we perform three‐dimensional oblique impact simulations and confirm the additional heating due to material strength for oblique impacts. Despite a large difference in the peak pressure at the impact point at a given impact velocity, we find that the heated mass for an oblique impact is nearly the same as that for a head‐on impact. Thus, our results differ from the previous finding that the heated mass decreases as the impact becomes more oblique and show that the additional shear heating is more effective for oblique impacts than for head‐on impacts. This also indicates that material ejected during oblique impact tends to experience lower shock pressures but higher temperatures.
Raducan SD, Davison TM, Luther R, et al., 2019, The role of asteroid strength, porosity and internal friction in impact momentum transfer, Icarus, Vol: 329, Pages: 282-295, ISSN: 0019-1035
Earth is continually impacted by very small asteroids and debris, and a larger object, though uncommon, could produce a severe natural hazard. During impact crater formation the ballistic ejection of material out of the crater is a major process, which holds significance for an impact study into the deflection of asteroids. In this study we numerically simulate impacts into low-gravity, strength dominated asteroid surfaces using the iSALE shock physics code, and consider the Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) mission as a case study. We find that target cohesion, initial porosity, and internal friction coefficient greatly influence ejecta mass/velocity/launch-position distributions and hence the amount by which an asteroid can be deflected. Our results show that as the cohesion is decreased the ratio of ejected momentum to impactor momentum, β − 1, increases; β − 1 also increases as the initial porosity and internal friction coefficient of the asteroid surface decrease. Using nominal impactor parameters and reasonable estimates for the material properties of the Didymos binary asteroid, the DART target, our simulations show that the ejecta produced from the impact can enhance the deflection by a factor of 2 to 4. We use numerical impact simulations that replicate conditions in several laboratory experiments to demonstrate that our approach to quantify ejecta properties is consistent with impact experiments in analogous materials. Finally, we investigate the self-consistency between the crater size and ejection speed scaling relationships previously derived from the point-source approximation for impacts into the same target material.
McMullan S, Collins GS, Davison TM, 2019, ASTEROID TO AIRBURST; COMPARING SEMI-ANALYTICAL AIRBURST MODELS TO HYDROCODES, 82nd Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical-Society (MetSoc), Publisher: WILEY, ISSN: 1086-9379
Lyons RJ, Bowling TJ, Ciesla FJ, et al., 2019, The effects of impacts on the cooling rates of iron meteorites, Meteoritics and Planetary Science, Vol: 54, Pages: 1604-1618, ISSN: 1086-9379
Iron meteorites provide a record of the thermal evolution of their parent bodies, with cooling rates inferred from the structures observed in the Widmanstätten pattern. Traditional planetesimal thermal models suggest that meteorite samples derived from the same iron core would have identical cooling rates, possibly providing constraints on the sizes and structures of their parent bodies. However, some meteorite groups exhibit a range of cooling rates or point to uncomfortably small parent bodies whose survival is difficult to reconcile with dynamical models. Together, these suggest that some meteorites are indicating a more complicated origin. To date, thermal models have largely ignored the effects that impacts would have on the thermal evolution of the iron meteorite parent bodies. Here we report numerical simulations investigating the effects that impacts at different times have on cooling rates of cores of differentiated planetesimals. We find that impacts that occur when the core is near or above its solidus, but the mantle has largely crystallized can expose iron near the surface of the body, leading to rapid and nonuniform cooling. The time period when a planetesimal can be affected in this way can range between 20 and 70 Myr after formation for a typical 100 km radius planetesimal. Collisions during this time would have been common, and thus played an important role in shaping the properties of iron meteorites.
Derrick JG, Rutherford ME, Chapman DJ, et al., 2019, Investigating shock processes in bimodal powder compaction through modelling and experiment at the mesoscale, International Journal of Solids and Structures, Vol: 163, Pages: 211-219, ISSN: 0020-7683
Impact-driven compaction is a proposed mechanism for the lithification of primordial bimodal granular mixtures from which many meteorites derive. We present a numerical-experimental mesoscale study that investigates the fundamental processes in shock compaction of this heterogeneous matter, using analog materials. Experiments were performed at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility generating real-time, in-situ, X-ray radiographs of the shock's passage in representative granular systems. Mesoscale simulations were performed using a shock physics code and set-ups that were geometrically identical to the experiments. We considered two scenarios: pure matrix, and matrix with a single chondrule. Good agreement was found between experiments and models in terms of shock position and post-shock compaction in the pure powder setup. When considering a single grain embedded in matrix we observed a spatial porosity anisotropy in its vicinity; the compaction was greater in the region immediately shockward of the grain, and less in its lee. We introduced the porosity vector, C, which points in the direction of lowest compaction across a chondrule. This direction-dependent observation may present a new way to decode the magnitude, and direction, of a single shock wave experienced by a meteorite in the past.
Bowling TJ, Ciesla FJ, Davison TM, et al., 2019, Post-impact thermal structure and cooling timescales of Occator Crater on Asteroid 1 Ceres, Icarus, Vol: 320, Pages: 110-118, ISSN: 0019-1035
Occator crater is perhaps the most distinct surface feature observed by NASA's Dawn spacecraft on the Cerean surface. Contained within the crater are the highest albedo features on the planet, Cerealia Facula and Vinalia Faculae, and relatively smooth lobate flow deposits. We present hydrocode simulations of the formation of Occator crater, varying the water to rock ratio of our pre-impact Cerean surface. We find that at water to rock mass ratios up to 0.3, sufficient volumes of Occator's post-impact subsurface would be above the melting point of water to allow for the deposition of Faculae like deposits via impact-heat driven hydrothermal effusion of brines. This reservoir of hydrothermally viable material beneath the crater is composed of a mixture of impactor material and material uplifted from 10’s of kilometers beneath the pre-impact surface, potentially sampling a deep subsurface volatile reservoir. Using a conductive cooling model, we estimate that the lifetime of hydrothermal activity within such a system, depending on choice of material constants, is between 0.4 and 4 Myr. Our results suggest that impact heating from the Occator forming impact provides a viable mechanism for the creation of observed faculae, with the proviso that the faculae formed within a relatively short time window after the crater itself formed.
Rae A, Collins G, Poelchau M, et al., 2019, Stress-strain evolution during peak-ring formation: a case study of the Chicxulub impact structure, Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, Vol: 124, Pages: 396-417, ISSN: 2169-9097
Deformation is a ubiquitous process that occurs to rocks during impact cratering; thus, quantifying the deformation of those rocks can provide first‐order constraints on the process of impact cratering. Until now, specific quantification of the conditions of stress and strain within models of impact cratering has not been compared to structural observations. This paper describes a methodology to analyze stress and strain within numerical impact models. This method is then used to predict deformation and its cause during peak‐ring formation: a complex process that is not fully understood, requiring remarkable transient weakening and causing a significant redistribution of crustal rocks. The presented results are timely due to the recent Joint International Ocean Discovery Program and International Continental Scientific Drilling Program drilling of the peak ring within the Chicxulub crater, permitting direct comparison between the deformation history within numerical models and the structural history of rocks from a peak ring. The modeled results are remarkably consistent with observed deformation within the Chicxulub peak ring, constraining the following: (1) the orientation of rocks relative to their preimpact orientation; (2) total strain, strain rates, and the type of shear during each stage of cratering; and (3) the orientation and magnitude of principal stresses during each stage of cratering. The methodology and analysis used to generate these predictions is general and, therefore, allows numerical impact models to be constrained by structural observations of impact craters and for those models to produce quantitative predictions.
Derrick J, LaJeunesse J, Davison T, et al., 2018, Mesoscale simulations of shock compaction of a granular ceramic: effects of mesostructure and mixed-cell strength treatment, Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering, Vol: 26, ISSN: 0965-0393
The shock response of granular materials is important in a variety of contexts but the precise dynamics of grains during compaction is poorly understood. Here we use 2D mesoscale numerical simulations of the shock compaction of granular tungsten carbide to investigate the effect of internal structure within the particle bed and ’stiction’ between grains on the shock response. An increase in the average number of contactswith other particles, per particle, tends to shift the Hugoniot to higher shock velocities, lower particle velocities and lower densities. This shift is sensitive to inter-particle shear resistance. Eulerian shock physics codes approximate friction between, and interlocking of, grains with their treatment of mixed cell strength (stiction) and here we show thatthis has a significant effect on the shock response. When studying the compaction of particle beds it is not common to quantify the pre-compaction internal structure, yet our results suggest that such differences should be taken into account, either by usingidentical beds or by averaging results over multiple experiments.
Derrick J, Rutherford M, Davison T, et al., 2018, Interrogating Heterogeneous Compaction of Analogue Materials at the Mesoscale Through Numerical Modeling and Experiments, 20th Biennial Conference of the APS Topical Group on Shock Compression of Condensed Matter, Publisher: AIP Publishing, ISSN: 1551-7616
Davison TM, Derrick JG, Collins GS, et al., 2017, Impact-induced compaction of primitive solar system solids: The need for mesoscale modelling and experiments, Procedia Engineering, Vol: 204, Pages: 405-412, ISSN: 1877-7058
Primitive solar system solids were accreted as highly porous bimodal mixtures of mm-sized chondrules and sub-μm matrix grains. To understand the compaction and lithification of these materials by shock, it is necessary to investigate the process at the mesoscale; i.e., the scale of individual chondrules. Here we document simulations of hypervelocity compaction of primitive materials using the iSALE shock physics model. We compare the numerical methods employed here with shock compaction experiments involving bimodal mixtures of glass beads and silica powder and find good agreement in bulk material response between the experiments and models. The heterogeneous response to shock of bimodal porous mixtures with a composition more appropriate for primitive solids was subsequently investigated: strong temperature dichotomies between the chondrules and matrix were observed (non-porous chondrules remained largely cold, while the porous matrix saw temperature increases of 100’s K). Matrix compaction was heterogeneous, and post-shock porosity was found to be lower on the lee-side of chondrules. The strain in the matrix was shown to be higher near the chondrule rims, in agreement with observations from meteorites. Chondrule flattening in the direction of the shock increases with increasing impact velocity, with flattened chondrules oriented with their semi-minor axis parallel to the shock direction.
Muxworthy AR, Bland PA, Davison TM, et al., 2017, Evidence for an impact-induced magnetic fabric in Allende, and exogenous alternatives to the core dynamo theory for Allende magnetization, Meteoritics & Planetary Science, Vol: 52, Pages: 2132-2146, ISSN: 1086-9379
We conducted a paleomagnetic study of the matrix of Allende CV3 chondritic meteorite, isolating the matrix’s primary remanent magnetization, measuring its magnetic fabric and estimating the ancient magnetic field intensity. A strong planar magnetic fabric was identified; the remanent magnetization of the matrix was aligned within this plane, suggesting a mechanism relating the magnetic fabric and remanence. The intensity of the matrix’s remanent magnetization was found to be consistent and low (~6 μT). The primary magnetic mineral was found to be pyrrhotite. Given the thermal history of Allende, we conclude that the remanent magnetization formed during or after an impact event. Recent mesoscale impact mode ling, where chondrules and matrix are resolved, has shown that low-velocity collisions can generate significant matrix temperatures, as pore-space compaction attenuates shock energy and dramatically increases the amount of heating. Non-porous chondrules are unaffected, and act as heat-sinks, so matrix temperature excursions are brief. We extend this work to model Allende, and show that a 1km/s planar impact generates bulk porosity, matrix porosity, and fabric in our target that match the observed values. Bimodal mixtures of a highly porous matrix and nominally zero-porosity chondrules, make chondrites uniquely capable of recording transient or unstable fields. Targets that have uniform porosity, e.g., terrestrial impact craters, will not record transient or unstable fields. Rather than a core dynamo, it is therefore possible that the origin of the magnetic field in Allende was the impact itself, or a nebula field recorded during transient impact heating.
In situ extrate rrestrial samples returned for study (e.g., from the Moon) are crucial in understanding the origin and evolution of the Solar System as, contrary to meteorites, they provide a known geological context for the samples and their analyses. Asteroid 25143 Itokawa is a rubble pile asteroid consisting of reaccumulated fragments from a catastrophically disrupted monolithic parent asteroid, and from which regolith dust particles have been recovered by the Hayabusa space probe. We analyzed two dust particles using Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) and 40 Ar/39 Ar dating techniques. One of the grains showing signs of 15–25 GPa impact shock pressure, yielded a 40 Ar/Ar plateau age of 2.3 ± 0.1 Ga. We develop a novel temperature -pressure-porosity model, coupled with diffusion models to show that the relatively low pressure and high temperature involved in the impact process can be reconciled only if the asteroid was already made of porous material at ~2.3 Ga and thus, if asteroid Itokawa was already formed, thereby providing a minimum age for catastrophic asteroid breakup. A second particle shows no sign of deformation indicating shock pressure of ˂ 10 GPa and a calculated maximum temperature of ~200 °C. This low temperature estimate is compatible with a lack of isotopic resetting for this particle. This suggests that the breakup of Itokawa’s parent was a relatively low-temperature process at the scale of the asteroid, and occurred on a pre-shattered parent body.
Collins GS, Lynch E, McAdam R, et al., 2017, A numerical assessment of simple airblast models of impact airbursts, Meteoritics & Planetary Science, Vol: 52, Pages: 1542-1560, ISSN: 1086-9379
Asteroids and comets 10–100 m in size that collide with Earth disrupt dramatically in the atmosphere with an explosive transfer of energy, caused by extreme air drag. Such airbursts produce a strong blastwave that radiates from the meteoroid's trajectory and can cause damage on the surface. An established technique for predicting airburst blastwave damage is to treat the airburst as a static source of energy and to extrapolate empirical results of nuclear explosion tests using an energy-based scaling approach. Here we compare this approach to two more complex models using the iSALE shock physics code. We consider a moving-source airburst model where the meteoroid's energy is partitioned as two-thirds internal energy and one-third kinetic energy at the burst altitude, and a model in which energy is deposited into the atmosphere along the meteoroid's trajectory based on the pancake model of meteoroid disruption. To justify use of the pancake model, we show that it provides a good fit to the inferred energy release of the 2013 Chelyabinsk fireball. Predicted overpressures from all three models are broadly consistent at radial distances from ground zero that exceed three times the burst height. At smaller radial distances, the moving-source model predicts overpressures two times greater than the static-source model, whereas the cylindrical line-source model based on the pancake model predicts overpressures two times lower than the static-source model. Given other uncertainties associated with airblast damage predictions, the static-source approach provides an adequate approximation of the azimuthally averaged airblast for probabilistic hazard assessment.
Forman LV, Bland PA, Timms NE, et al., 2017, Defining the mechanism for compaction of the CV chondrite parent body, Geology, Vol: 45, Pages: 559-562, ISSN: 1943-2682
The Allende meteorite, a relatively unaltered member of the CV carbonaceous chondrite group, contains primitive crystallographic textures that can inform our understanding of early Solar System planetary compaction. To test between models of porosity reduction on the CV parent body, complex microstructures within ~0.5-mm-diameter chondrules and ~10-μm-long matrix olivine grains were analyzed by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) techniques. The large area map presented is one of the most extensive EBSD maps to have been collected in application to extraterrestrial materials. Chondrule margins preferentially exhibit limited intragrain crystallographic misorientation due to localized crystal-plastic deformation. Crystallographic preferred orientations (CPOs) preserved by matrix olivine grains are strongly coupled to grain shape, most pronounced in shortest dimension <a>, yet are locally variable in orientation and strength. Lithostatic pressure within plausible chondritic model asteroids is not sufficient to drive compaction or create the observed microstructures if the aggregate was cold. Significant local variability in the orientation and intensity of compaction is also inconsistent with a global process. Detailed microstructures indicative of crystal-plastic deformation are consistent with brief heating events that were small in magnitude. When combined with a lack of sintered grains and the spatially heterogeneous CPO, ubiquitous hot isostatic pressing is unlikely to be responsible. Furthermore, Allende is the most metamorphosed CV chondrite, so if sintering occurred at all on the CV parent body it would be evident here. We conclude that the crystallographic textures observed reflect impact compaction and indicate shock-wave directionality. We therefore present some of the first significant evidence for shock compaction of the CV parent body.
Forman LV, Bland PA, Timms NE, et al., 2016, Hidden Secrets Of Deformation: Impact-Induced Compaction Within A CV Chondrite, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol: 452, Pages: 133-145, ISSN: 0012-821X
The CV3 Allende is one of the most extensively studied meteorites in worldwide collections. It is currently classified as S1—essentially unshocked—using the classification scheme of Stöffler et al. (1991), however recent modelling suggests the low porosity observed in Allende indicates the body should have undergone compaction-related deformation. In this study, we detail previously undetected evidence of impact through use of Electron Backscatter Diffraction mapping to identify deformation microstructures in chondrules, AOAs and matrix grains. Our results demonstrate that forsterite-rich chondrules commonly preserve crystal-plastic microstructures (particularly at their margins); that low-angle boundaries in deformed matrix grains of olivine have a preferred orientation; and that disparities in deformation occur between chondrules, surrounding and non-adjacent matrix grains. We find heterogeneous compaction effects present throughout the matrix, consistent with a highly porous initial material. Given the spatial distribution of these crystal-plastic deformation microstructures, we suggest that this is evidence that Allende has undergone impact-induced compaction from an initially heterogeneous and porous parent body. We suggest that current shock classifications (Stöffler et al., 1991) relying upon data from chondrule interiors do not constrain the complete shock history of a sample.
Davison TM, Collins GS, Bland PA, et al., 2016, MESOSCALE MODELLING OF THE COMPACTION OF WATER-RICH ASTEROIDS BY LOW-VELOCITY IMPACTS, 79th Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical-Society, Publisher: WILEY-BLACKWELL, Pages: A222-A222, ISSN: 1086-9379
Lyons RJ, Ciesla FJ, Bowling TJ, et al., 2016, THE EFFECT OF EARLY IMPACTS ON IRON METEORITE COOLING RATES, 79th Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical-Society, Publisher: WILEY-BLACKWELL, Pages: A433-A433, ISSN: 1086-9379
Derrick JG, Rutherford ME, Davison TM, et al., 2016, INTERROGATING HETEROGENEOUS COMPACTION OF METEORITIC MATERIAL AT THE MESOSCALE USING ANALOG EXPERIMENTS AND NUMERICAL MODELS, 79th Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical-Society, Publisher: WILEY-BLACKWELL, Pages: A228-A228, ISSN: 1086-9379
Davison TM, Collins G, Bland P, 2016, Mesoscale Modeling Of Impact Compaction Of Primitive Solar System Solids, Astrophysical Journal, Vol: 821, ISSN: 1538-4357
We have developed a method for simulating the mesoscale compaction of early solar system solids in low velocity impact events, using the iSALE shock physics code. Chondrules are represented by nonporous disks, placed within a porous matrix. By simulating impacts into bimodal mixtures over a wide range of parameter space (including the chondrule-to-matrix ratio, the matrix porosity and composition and the impact velocity), we have shown how each of these parameters influences the shock processing of heterogeneous materials. The temperature after shock processing shows a strong dichotomy: matrix temperatures are elevated much higher than the chondrules, which remain largely cold. Chondrules can protect some matrix from shock compaction, with shadow regions in the lee side of chondrules exhibiting higher porosity that elsewhere in the matrix. Using the results from this mesoscale modelling, we show how the ε − α porous compaction model parameters depend on initial bulk porosity. We also show that the timescale for the temperature dichotomy to equilibrate is highly dependent on the porosity of the matrix after the shock, and will be on the order of seconds for matrix porosities of less than 0.1, and on the order of 10’s to 100’s seconds for matrix porosities of ~ 0.3–0.5. Finally, we have shown that the composition of the post-shock material is able to match the bulk porosity and chondrule-to-matrix ratios of meteorite groups such as carbonaceous chondrites and unequilibrated ordinary chondrites.
Forman LV, Bland PA, Timms NE, et al., 2015, RECOVERING THE PRIMORDIAL IMPACT HISTORY OF CHONDRITES IN UNPRECEDENTED DETAIL USING MASSIVE EBSD DATASETS, 78th Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical-Society, Publisher: WILEY-BLACKWELL, ISSN: 1086-9379
Bland PA, Collins GS, Davison TM, et al., 2014, Pressure-temperature evolution of primordial solar system solids during impact-induced compaction, Nature Communications, Vol: 5, Pages: 1-13, ISSN: 2041-1723
Prior to becoming chondritic meteorites, primordial solids were a poorly consolidated mix of mm-scale igneous inclusions (chondrules) and high-porosity sub-μm dust (matrix). We used high-resolution numerical simulations to track the effect of impact-induced compaction on these materials. Here we show that impact velocities as low as 1.5 km s−1 were capable of heating the matrix to >1,000 K, with pressure–temperature varying by >10 GPa and >1,000 K over ~100 μm. Chondrules were unaffected, acting as heat-sinks: matrix temperature excursions were brief. As impact-induced compaction was a primary and ubiquitous process, our new understanding of its effects requires that key aspects of the chondrite record be re-evaluated: palaeomagnetism, petrography and variability in shock level across meteorite groups. Our data suggest a lithification mechanism for meteorites, and provide a ‘speed limit’ constraint on major compressive impacts that is inconsistent with recent models of solar system orbital architecture that require an early, rapid phase of main-belt collisional evolution.
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