Imperial College London


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3 results found

Moreira FRR, Menezes MTD, Salgado-Benvindo C, Whittaker C, Cox V, Chandradeva N, Paula HHSD, Martins AF, Chagas RRD, Brasil RDV, Cândido DDS, Herlinger AL, Ribeiro MDO, Arruda MB, Alvarez P, Tôrres MCDP, Dorigatti I, Brady O, Voloch CM, Tanuri A, Iani F, Souza WMD, Cardozo SV, Faria NR, Aguiar RSet al., 2023, Epidemiological and genomic investigation of chikungunya virus in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, between 2015 and 2018, PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, Vol: 17, ISSN: 1935-2727

Since 2014, Brazil has experienced an unprecedented epidemic caused by chikungunya virus (CHIKV), with several waves of East-Central-South-African (ECSA) lineage transmission reported across the country. In 2018, Rio de Janeiro state, the third most populous state in Brazil, reported 41% of all chikungunya cases in the country. Here we use evolutionary and epidemiological analysis to estimate the timescale of CHIKV-ECSA-American lineage and its epidemiological patterns in Rio de Janeiro. We show that the CHIKV-ECSA outbreak in Rio de Janeiro derived from two distinct clades introduced from the Northeast region in mid-2015 (clade RJ1, n = 63/67 genomes from Rio de Janeiro) and mid-2017 (clade RJ2, n = 4/67). We detected evidence for positive selection in non-structural proteins linked with viral replication in the RJ1 clade (clade-defining: nsP4-A481D) and the RJ2 clade (nsP1-D531G). Finally, we estimate the CHIKV-ECSA's basic reproduction number (R0) to be between 1.2 to 1.6 and show that its instantaneous reproduction number (Rt) displays a strong seasonal pattern with peaks in transmission coinciding with periods of high Aedes aegypti transmission potential. Our results highlight the need for continued genomic and epidemiological surveillance of CHIKV in Brazil, particularly during periods of high ecological suitability, and show that selective pressures underline the emergence and evolution of the large urban CHIKV-ECSA outbreak in Rio de Janeiro.

Journal article

Cox V, O'Driscoll M, Imai N, Prayitno A, Hadinegoro SR, Taurel A-F, Coudeville L, Dorigatti Iet al., 2022, Estimating dengue transmission intensity from serological data: a comparative analysis using mixture and catalytic models., PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, Vol: 16, Pages: e0010592-e0010592, ISSN: 1935-2727

BACKGROUND: Dengue virus (DENV) infection is a global health concern of increasing magnitude. To target intervention strategies, accurate estimates of the force of infection (FOI) are necessary. Catalytic models have been widely used to estimate DENV FOI and rely on a binary classification of serostatus as seropositive or seronegative, according to pre-defined antibody thresholds. Previous work has demonstrated the use of thresholds can cause serostatus misclassification and biased estimates. In contrast, mixture models do not rely on thresholds and use the full distribution of antibody titres. To date, there has been limited application of mixture models to estimate DENV FOI. METHODS: We compare the application of mixture models and time-constant and time-varying catalytic models to simulated data and to serological data collected in Vietnam from 2004 to 2009 (N ≥ 2178) and Indonesia in 2014 (N = 3194). RESULTS: The simulation study showed larger mean FOI estimate bias from the time-constant and time-varying catalytic models (-0.007 (95% Confidence Interval (CI): -0.069, 0.029) and -0.006 (95% CI -0.095, 0.043)) than from the mixture model (0.001 (95% CI -0.036, 0.065)). Coverage of the true FOI was > 95% for estimates from both the time-varying catalytic and mixture model, however the latter had reduced uncertainty. When applied to real data from Vietnam, the mixture model frequently produced higher FOI and seroprevalence estimates than the catalytic models. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest mixture models represent valid, potentially less biased, alternatives to catalytic models, which could be particularly useful when estimating FOI from data with largely overlapping antibody titre distributions.

Journal article

Garcia-Moreno M, Noerenberg M, Ni S, Jarvelin A, Gonzalez-Almela E, Lenz CE, Bach-Pages M, Cox V, Avolio R, Davis T, Hester S, Sohier TJM, Li B, Heikel G, Michlewski G, Sanz MA, Carrasco L, Ricci EP, Pelechano V, Davis I, Fischer B, Mohammed S, Castello Aet al., 2019, System-wide Profiling of RNA-Binding Proteins Uncovers Key Regulators of Virus Infection, MOLECULAR CELL, Vol: 74, Pages: 196-+, ISSN: 1097-2765

Journal article

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