Imperial College London


Faculty of MedicineDepartment of Metabolism, Digestion and Reproduction

Lecturer in Reproductive Immunology







Chelsea and Westminster HospitalChelsea and Westminster Campus





I am a Sir Henry Dale Fellow and Lecturer in Reproductive Immunology based in the Department of Metabolism, Digestion and Reproduction at Imperial College London.

I did my PhD at the University of Cambridge on NK cells in human pregnancy. I then went on to a post-doctoral project investigating the transcriptional control of NK cell development in mice, which I undertook at Imperial College London. In 2015, I started my own laboratory at the Royal Free Hospital Campus of UCL. Working closely with the liver transplant team, my group showed that long-lived resident NK cells are present in the human liver and defined some of that pathways by which they develop. They also showed that NK cells recruited to the liver become less functional in obesity-associated liver disease, and that this is associated with a decreased ability to clear cancer cells.

In 2019, I returned to reproductive immunology, and to Imperial College London, as a Lecturer in Reproductive Immunology. Using clinical samples and a novel mouse model, my research group is investigating how ILCs in the uterus work to establish and maintain pregnancy, and how this may fail in disorders of pregnancy such as pre-eclampsia and pre-term birth.

I also lecture on Immunology of Transplantation, Viral Immunity and SARS-CoV2 Immunology, act as a mentor to a Windsor Fellow and do outreach in local primary schools.

Students or post-docs interested in my group's work should email me at



Keestra SM, Male V, Salali GD, 2021, Out of balance: the role of evolutionary mismatches in the sex disparity in autoimmune disease, Medical Hypotheses, Vol:151, ISSN:0306-9877, Pages:110558-110558

Male V, 2021, Are COVID-19 vaccines safe in pregnancy? (Mar, 10.1038/s41577-021-00525-y, 2021), Nature Reviews Immunology, Vol:21, ISSN:1474-1733, Pages:268-268

Male V, 2021, Are COVID-19 vaccines safe in pregnancy?, Nature Reviews Immunology, Vol:21, ISSN:1474-1733, Pages:200-201

Woon EV, Day A, Bracewell-Milnes T, et al., 2020, Immunotherapy to improve pregnancy outcome in women with abnormal natural killer cell levels/activity and recurrent miscarriage or implantation failure: A systematic review and meta-analysis., Journal of Reproductive Immunology, Vol:142, ISSN:0165-0378, Pages:1-12

Gómez V, Eykyn TR, Mustapha R, et al., 2020, Breast cancer–associated macrophages promote tumorigenesis by suppressing succinate dehydrogenase in tumor cells, Science Signaling, Vol:13, ISSN:1945-0877, Pages:1-13

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