45 results found
Andrikakou P, Reebye V, Vasconcelos D, et al., 2022, Enhancing SIRT1 Gene Expression Using Small Activating RNAs: A Novel Approach for Reversing Metabolic Syndrome, NUCLEIC ACID THERAPEUTICS, ISSN: 2159-3337
Plummer R, Sodergren M, Pinato D, et al., 2021, A PHASE 1 STUDY OF MYELOID MODULATING AGENT MTL-CEBPA IN COMBINATION WITH PEMBROLIZUMAB IN ADULT PATIENTS WITH ADVANCED SOLID TUMOURS, Publisher: BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, Pages: A545-A545
Hashimoto A, Sarker D, Reebye V, et al., 2021, Upregulation of C/EBP alpha Inhibits Suppressive Activity of Myeloid Cells and Potentiates Antitumor Response in Mice and Patients with Cancer, CLINICAL CANCER RESEARCH, Vol: 27, Pages: 5961-5978, ISSN: 1078-0432
Huang K-W, Tan CP, Reebye V, et al., 2021, MTL-CEBPA Combined with Immunotherapy or RFA Enhances Immunological Anti-Tumor Response in Preclinical Models, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES, Vol: 22
IntroductionCannabinoids are a group of terpenophenolic compounds derived from the Cannabis sativa L. plant. There is a growing body of evidence from cell culture and animal studies in support of cannabinoids possessing anticancer properties.MethodA database search of peer reviewed articles published in English as full texts between January 1970 and April 2021 in Google Scholar, MEDLINE, PubMed and Web of Science was undertaken. References of relevant literature were searched to identify additional studies to construct a narrative literature review of oncological effects of cannabinoids in pre-clinical and clinical studies in various cancer types.ResultsPhyto-, endogenous and synthetic cannabinoids demonstrated antitumour effects both in vitro and in vivo. However, these effects are dependent on cancer type, the concentration and preparation of the cannabinoid and the abundance of receptor targets. The mechanism of action of synthetic cannabinoids, (−)-trans-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) has mainly been described via the traditional cannabinoid receptors; CB1 and CB2, but reports have also indicated evidence of activity through GPR55, TRPM8 and other ion channels including TRPA1, TRPV1 and TRPV2.ConclusionCannabinoids have shown to be efficacious both as a single agent and in combination with antineoplastic drugs. These effects have occurred through various receptors and ligands and modulation of signalling pathways involved in hallmarks of cancer pathology. There is a need for further studies to characterise its mode of action at the molecular level and to delineate efficacious dosage and route of administration in addition to synergistic regimes.
Sarker D, Plummer R, Meyer T, et al., 2020, MTL-CEBPA, a small activating RNA therapeutic upregulating C/EBP-α, in patients with advanced liver cancer: a first-in-human, multicenter, open-label, phase I trial, Clinical Cancer Research, Vol: 26, Pages: 3936-3946, ISSN: 1078-0432
PURPOSE: Transcription factor C/EBP-α (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha) acts as a master regulator of hepatic and myeloid functions and multiple oncogenic processes. MTL-CEBPA is a first-in-class small activating RNA oligonucleotide drug that upregulates C/EBP-α. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a phase I, open-label, dose-escalation trial of MTL-CEBPA in adults with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with cirrhosis, or resulting from nonalcoholic steatohepatitis or with liver metastases. Patients received intravenous MTL-CEBPA once a week for 3 weeks followed by a rest period of 1 week per treatment cycle in the dose-escalation phase (3+3 design). RESULTS: Thirty-eight participants have been treated across six dose levels (28-160 mg/m2) and three dosing schedules. Thirty-four patients were evaluable for safety endpoints at 28 days. MTL-CEBPA treatment-related adverse events were not associated with dose, and no maximum dose was reached across the three schedules evaluated. Grade 3 treatment-related adverse events occurred in nine (24%) patients. In 24 patients with HCC evaluable for efficacy, an objective tumor response was achieved in one patient [4%; partial response (PR) for over 2 years] and stable disease (SD) in 12 (50%). After discontinuation of MTL-CEBPA, seven patients were treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs); three patients had a complete response with one further PR and two with SD. CONCLUSIONS: MTL-CEBPA is the first saRNA in clinical trials and demonstrates an acceptable safety profile and potential synergistic efficacy with TKIs in HCC. These encouraging phase I data validate targeting of C/EBP-α and have prompted MTL-CEBPA + sorafenib combination studies in HCC.
Sarker D, Sodergren M, Plummer ER, et al., 2020, Phase Ib dose escalation and cohort expansion study of the novel myeloid differentiating agent MTL-CEBPA in combination with sorafenib in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)., Annual Meeting of the American-Society-of-Clinical-Oncology (ASCO), Publisher: LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, ISSN: 0732-183X
Reebye V, Vasara J, Raulf N, et al., 2020, Therapeutic saRNAstargeting CEBPA in Myeloid Cells. A potential Immunomodulatoryswitch for Anticancer Therapy, 23rd Annual Meeting of the American-Society-for-Gene-and-Cell-Therapy, Publisher: CELL PRESS, Pages: 51-52, ISSN: 1525-0016
Huang K-W, Reebye V, Czysz K, et al., 2020, Liver activation of hepatocellular nuclear factor-4 alpha by small activating RNA rescues dyslipidemia and improves metabolic profile, Molecular Therapy : Nucleic Acids, Vol: 19, Pages: 361-370, ISSN: 2162-2531
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) culminates in insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. Because there are no approved pharmacological treatment agents for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and NAFLD, different signaling pathways are under investigation for drug development with the focus on metabolic pathways. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4-alpha (HNF4A) is at the center of a complex transcriptional network where its disruption is directly linked to glucose and lipid metabolism. Resetting HNF4A expression in NAFLD is therefore crucial for re-establishing normal liver function. Here, small activating RNA (saRNA) specific for upregulating HNF4A was injected into rats fed a high-fat diet for 16 weeks. Intravenous delivery was carried out using 5-(G5)-triethanolamine-core polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers. We observed a significant reduction in liver triglyceride, increased high-density lipoprotein/low-density lipoprotein (HDL/LDL) ratio, and decreased white adipose tissue/body weight ratio, all parameters to suggest that HNF4A-saRNA treatment induced a favorable metabolic profile. Proteomic analysis showed significant regulation of genes involved in sphingolipid metabolism, fatty acid β-oxidation, ketogenesis, detoxification of reactive oxygen species, and lipid transport. We demonstrate that HNF4A activation by oligonucleotide therapy may represent a novel single agent for the treatment of NAFLD and insulin resistance.
Sarker D, Sodergren M, Plummer ER, et al., 2020, First-in-human phase I trial of small activating RNA (saRNA) oligonucleotide MTL-CEBPA in combination with sorafenib in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), Gastrointestinal Cancers Symposium of the American-Society-of-Clinical-Oncology, Publisher: AMER SOC CLINICAL ONCOLOGY, ISSN: 0732-183X
Yoon S, Huang K-W, Andrikakou P, et al., 2019, Targeted delivery of C/EBP alpha-saRNA by RNA aptamers shows anti-tumor effects in a mouse model of advanced PDAC, Molecular Therapy : Nucleic Acids, Vol: 18, Pages: 142-154, ISSN: 2162-2531
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most aggressive malignancies; it preferentially metastasizes to the liver and is the main cause of death from this disease. In previous studies, small activating RNA against CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-α (C/EBPα-saRNA) demonstrated efficacy of PDAC in a local subcutaneous tumor model. In this study, we focused on the efficacy of C/EBPα-saRNA in advanced stage PDAC. For targeted delivery, we selected a new anti-transferrin receptor aptamer (TR14), which demonstrated a high binding affinity to target proteins. The TR14 aptamer was internalized with clathrin-mediated endocytosis, distributed in early endosome, late endosome, and lysosome subcellularly. To investigate its anti-tumor effects to advanced PDAC, we conjugated C/EBPα-saRNA to TR14. Treatment of pancreatic cancer cells with the conjugates upregulated expression of C/EBPα and its downstream target p21, and inhibited cell proliferation. For in vivo assays, we established an advanced PDAC mouse model by engrafting luciferase reporter-PANC-1 cells directly into the livers of non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency (NOD/SCID) mice. After treatment of aptamer-C/EBPα conjugates, we observed significant reduction of tumor growth in this advanced PDAC mouse model. Combinational treatment of the conjugates with gemcitabine also demonstrated enhanced anti-tumor effects in advanced PDAC. This suggests that aptamer-C/EBPα conjugates could be used as an adjuvant, along with other conventional anti-cancer drugs in advanced PDAC. In conclusion, targeted delivery of C/EBPα-saRNAs by aptamers might have potential therapeutic effects in advanced PDAC.
Sodergren M, Tan C, Reebye V, et al., 2019, Targeting myeloid-derived suppressor cells and T cells: Combination treatment with MTL-CEBPA and PD-1 antibody in a mouse syngeneic CT26 model, 44th Congress of the European-Society-for-Medical-Oncology (ESMO), Publisher: OXFORD UNIV PRESS, ISSN: 0923-7534
Habib NA, Huang K-W, Reebye V, et al., 2019, MTLCEBPA, a drug candidate for hepatocellular-carcinoma enhances efficacy of Sorafenib, Annual Meeting of the American-Association-for-Cancer-Research (AACR), Publisher: AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH, ISSN: 0008-5472
Sodergren MH, Huang K-W, Reebye V, et al., 2019, MTL-CEBPA combined with radiofrequency ablation and immunotherapy enhances immunological anti-tumour response in an HCC mouse model, Annual Meeting of the American-Association-for-Cancer-Research (AACR), Publisher: AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH, ISSN: 0008-5472
Zhou J, Li H, Xia X, et al., 2019, Anti-inflammatory activity of MTL-CEBPA, a small activating RNA drug, in LPS-stimulated monocytes and humanized mice, Molecular Therapy, Vol: 27, Pages: 999-1016, ISSN: 1525-0016
Excessive or inappropriate inflammatory responses can cause serious and even fatal diseases. The CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (CEBPA) gene encodes C/EBPα, a transcription factor that plays a fundamental role in controlling maturation of the myeloid lineage and is also expressed during the late phase of inflammatory responses when signs of inflammation are decreasing. MTL-CEBPA, a small activating RNA targeting for upregulation of C/EBPα, is currently being evaluated in a phase 1b trial for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. After dosing, subjects had reduced levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and we therefore hypothesized that MTL-CEBPA has anti-inflammatory potential. The current study was conducted to determine the effects of C/EBPα saRNA - CEBPA-51 - on inflammation in vitro and in vivo after endotoxin challenge. CEBPA-51 led to increased expression of the C/EBPα gene and inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines in THP-1 monocytes previously stimulated by E. coli-derived lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Treatment with MTL-CEBPA in an LPS-challenged humanized mouse model upregulated C/EBPα mRNA, increased neutrophils, and attenuated production of several key pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and IFN-γ. In addition, a Luminex analysis of mouse serum revealed that MTL-CEBPA reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines and increased the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Collectively, the data support further investigation of MTL-CEBPA in acute and chronic inflammatory diseases where this mechanism has pathogenic importance.
Zhao X, Reebye V, Hitchen P, et al., 2019, Mechanisms involved in the activation of C/EBP alpha by small activating RNA in hepatocellular carcinoma, ONCOGENE, Vol: 38, Pages: 3446-3457, ISSN: 0950-9232
Habib NA, Sodergren M, Reebye V, et al., 2019, Drug Candidate MTL-CEBPA Sensitises Solid Tumours to Standard of Care Therapies, 22nd Annual Meeting of the American-Society-of-Gene-and-Cell-Therapy (ASGCT), Publisher: CELL PRESS, Pages: 333-333, ISSN: 1525-0016
Reebye V, Huang K-W, Lin V, et al., 2018, Gene activation of CEBPA using saRNA: preclinical studies of the first in human saRNA drug candidate for liver cancer, Oncogene, Vol: 37, Pages: 3216-3228, ISSN: 0950-9232
Liver diseases are a growing epidemic worldwide. If unresolved, liver fibrosis develops and can lead to cirrhosis and clinical decompensation. Around 5% of cirrhotic liver diseased patients develop hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which in its advanced stages has limited therapeutic options and negative survival outcomes. CEPBA is a master regulator of hepatic function where its expression is known to be suppressed in many forms of liver disease including HCC. Injection of MTL-CEBPA, a small activating RNA oligonucleotide therapy (CEBPA-51) formulated in liposomal nanoparticles (NOV340- SMARTICLES) upregulates hepatic CEBPA expression. Here we show how MTL-CEBPA therapy promotes disease reversal in rodent models of cirrhosis, fibrosis, hepatosteatosis, and significantly reduces tumor burden in cirrhotic HCC. Restoration of liver function markers were observed in a carbon-tetrachloride-induced rat model of fibrosis following 2 weeks of MTL-CEBPA therapy. At 14 weeks, animals showed reduction in ascites and enhanced survival rates. MTL-CEBPA reversed changes associated with hepatosteatosis in non-alcoholic methionine and cholic-deficient diet-induced steaotic liver disease. In diethylnitrosamine induced cirrhotic HCC rats, MTL-CEBPA treatment led to a significant reduction in tumor burden. The data included here and the rapid adoption of MTL-CEBPA into a Phase 1 study may lead to new therapeutic oligonucleotides for undruggable diseases.
Voutila J, Reebye V, Roberts TC, et al., 2017, Development and Mechanism of Small Activating RNA Targeting CEBPA, a Novel Therapeutic in Clinical Trials for Liver Cancer., Molecular Therapy, Vol: 25, Pages: 2705-2714, ISSN: 1525-0016
Small activating RNAs (saRNAs) are short double-stranded oligonucleotides that selectively increase gene transcription. Here, we describe the development of an saRNA that upregulates the transcription factor CCATT/enhancer binding protein alpha (CEBPA), investigate its mode of action, and describe its development into a clinical candidate. A bioinformatically directed nucleotide walk around the CEBPA gene identified an saRNA sequence that upregulates CEBPA mRNA 2.5-fold in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. A nuclear run-on assay confirmed that this upregulation is a transcriptionally driven process. Mechanistic experiments demonstrate that Argonaute-2 (Ago2) is required for saRNA activity, with the guide strand of the saRNA shown to be associated with Ago2 and localized at the CEBPA genomic locus using RNA chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays. The data support a sequence-specific on-target saRNA activity that leads to enhanced CEBPA mRNA transcription. Chemical modifications were introduced in the saRNA duplex to prevent activation of the innate immunity. This modified saRNA retains activation of CEBPA mRNA and downstream targets and inhibits growth of liver cancer cell lines in vitro. This novel drug has been encapsulated in a liposomal formulation for liver delivery, is currently in a phase I clinical trial for patients with liver cancer, and represents the first human study of an saRNA therapeutic.
Zhao X, Voutila J, Ghobrial S, et al., 2017, Treatment of liver cancer by C/EBPA-saRNA., Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Voutila J, Reebye V, Roberts T, et al., 2017, Mechanism and in vivo activity of a small activating RNA targeting CEBPA, a novel therapeutic in clinical trials for liver disease, 20th Annual Meeting of the American-Society-of-Gene-and-Cell-Therapy (ASGCT), Publisher: Elsevier (Cell Press), Pages: 34-34, ISSN: 1525-0024
Yoon S, Huang K-W, Reebye V, et al., 2016, Aptamer-Drug Conjugates of Active Metabolites of Nucleoside Analogs and Cytotoxic Agents Inhibit Pancreatic Tumor Cell Growth, MOLECULAR THERAPY-NUCLEIC ACIDS, Vol: 6, Pages: 80-88, ISSN: 2162-2531
Aptamer-drug conjugates (ApDCs) have the potential to improve the therapeutic index of traditional chemotherapeutic agents due to their ability to deliver cytotoxic drugs specifically to cancer cells while sparing normal cells. This study reports on the conjugation of cytotoxic drugs to an aptamer previously described by our group, the pancreatic cancer RNA aptamer P19. To this end, P19 was incorporated with gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), or conjugated to monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE) and derivative of maytansine 1 (DM1). The ApDCs P19-dFdCMP and P19-5FdUMP were shown to induce the phosphorylation of histone H2AX on Ser139 (γ-H2AX) and significantly inhibited cell proliferation by 51%–53% in PANC-1 and by 54%–34% in the gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cell line AsPC-1 (p ≤ 0.0001). P19-MMAE and P19-DM1 caused mitotic G2/M phase arrest and inhibited cell proliferation by up to 56% in a dose-dependent manner when compared to the control group (p ≤ 0.001). In addition, the cytotoxicity of P19-MMAE and P19-DM1 in normal cells and the control human breast cancer cell line MCF7 was minimal. These results suggest that this approach may be useful in decreasing cytotoxic side effects in non-tumoral tissue.
Mintz P, Sætrom P, Reebye V, et al., 2016, MicroRNA-181a* targets Nanog in a subpopulation of CD34+ cells isolated from peripheral blood, Molecular Therapy - Nucleic Acids, Vol: 1, ISSN: 2162-2531
Exploiting the properties of stem cells by microRNA (miRNA) profiling offers an attractive approach to identify new regulators of stem cell fate. Although numerous miRNA have been screened from hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), the targets corresponding to many of these miRNA have not yet been fully elucidated. By miRNA profiling in a subpopulation of CD34+ cells isolated from peripheral blood, we have identified eight clusters of miRNA that were differentially expressed. Further analysis of one of the clusters by bioinformatics revealed that a miRNA, miR-181a*, which is highly expressed in the adherent CD34+ cells, affects the expression levels of Nanog, a stem cell surrogate marker. We show specifically by reporter assay and mutational analysis that miR-181a* targets a seedless 3′ compensatory site in the 3′UTR of Nanog and affects gene expression. We demonstrate that inhibiting miR-181a* upregulates the Nanog expression level, in addition to an increase in alkaline phosphatase activity. Our studies suggest that miR-181a* may be important in controlling the expression level of Nanog in a subpopulation of CD34+ cells.
Reebye V, Saetrom P, Mintz PJ, et al., 2016, A short-activating RNA oligonucleotide targeting the islet beta-cell transcriptional factor MafA in CD34(+) cells, MOLECULAR THERAPY-NUCLEIC ACIDS, Vol: 2, ISSN: 2162-2531
Upon functional loss of insulin producing islet β-cells, some patients with diabetes become dependent on life-long insulin supplementation therapy. Bioengineering surrogate insulin producing cells is an alternative replacement strategy. We have developed a novel approach using short-activating RNA oligonucleotides to differentiate adult human CD34+ cells into insulin-secreting cells. By transfecting RNA to increase transcript levels of the master regulator of insulin biosynthesis, v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog A (MafA), several pancreatic endodermal genes were upregulated during the differentiation procedure. These included Pancreatic and duodenal homeobox gene-1 (PDX1), Neurogenin 3, NeuroD, and NK6 homeobox 1 (NKx6-1). Differentiated CD34+ cells also expressed glucokinase, glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP1R), sulfonylurea receptor-1 (SUR1) and phogrin'all essential for glucose sensitivity and insulin secretion. The differentiated cells appropriately processed C-peptide and insulin in response to increasing glucose stimulation as shown by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis, western blotting, and immunofluorescence staining. We provide a new approach using short-activating RNA in developing insulin producing surrogate cells for treating diabetes.
Blakey D, Reebye V, Voutila J, et al., 2016, Small activating RNA to CEBPA as a novel therapeutic approach to treat patients with liver cancer, 28th EORTC-NCI-AACR Symposium on Molecular Targets and Cancer Therapeutics, Publisher: Elsevier, Pages: S149-S149, ISSN: 0959-8049
Reebye V, Huang K-W, Czysz K, et al., 2016, Hepatocellular Nuclear Factor 4 alpha (HNF-4 alpha) activation by saRNA rescues dyslipidemia and promotes favorable metabolic profile in a high fat diet (HFD) fed rat model., 67th Annual Meeting of the American-Association-for-the-Study-of-Liver-Diseases (AASLD), Publisher: Wiley, Pages: 794A-794A, ISSN: 1527-3350
Reebye V, Voutila J, Blakey D, et al., 2016, The clinical candidate MTL-CEBPA leads to significant reduction in ascites and improvement in overall survival in a CCl4-induced acute liver failure model., 67th Annual Meeting of the American-Association-for-the-Study-of-Liver-Diseases (AASLD), Publisher: Wiley, Pages: 1045A-1046A, ISSN: 0270-9139
Yoon S, Huang KW, Reebye V, et al., 2016, Targeted delivery of C/EBPα -saRNA by pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma-specific RNA aptamers inhibits tumor growth in vivo, Molecular Therapy, Vol: 24, Pages: 1106-1116, ISSN: 1525-0024
The 5-year survival rate for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains dismal despite current chemotherapeutic agents and inhibitors of molecular targets. As the incidence of PDAC constantly increases, more effective multidrug approaches must be made. Here, we report a novel method of delivering antitumorigenic therapy in PDAC by upregulating the transcriptional factor CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-α (C/EBPα), recognized for its antiproliferative effects. Small activating RNA (saRNA) duplexes designed to increase C/EBPα expression were linked onto PDAC-specific 2′-Fluropyrimidine RNA aptamers (2′F-RNA) - P19 and P1 for construction of a cell type–specific delivery vehicle. Both P19- and P1-C/EBPα-saRNA conjugates increased expression of C/EBPα and significantly suppressed cell proliferation. Tail vein injection of the saRNA/aptamer conjugates in PANC-1 and in gemcitabine-resistant AsPC-1 mouse-xenografts led to reduced tumor size with no observed toxicity. To exploit the specificity of the P19/P1 aptamers for PDAC cells, we also assessed if conjugation with Cy3 would allow it to be used as a diagnostic tool on archival human pancreatic duodenectomy tissue sections. Scoring pattern from 72 patients suggested a positive correlation between high fluorescent signal in the high mortality patient groups. We propose a novel aptamer-based strategy for delivery of targeted molecular therapy in advanced PDAC where current modalities fail.
Reebye V, Voutila J, Huang K-W, et al., 2015, Systemic administration of a novel development candidate, MTL-CEBPA, up-regulates the liver-enriched transcription factor C/EBP-α and reverses CCl4-induced liver failure in vivo, The 66th Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases, Publisher: Wiley, Pages: 269A-270A, ISSN: 1527-3350
Mintz PJ, Huang K-W, Reebye V, et al., 2014, Exploiting human CD34(+) stem cell-conditioned medium for tissue repair, Molecular Therapy, Vol: 22, Pages: 149-159, ISSN: 1525-0016
Despite the progress in our understanding of genes essential for stem cell regulation and development, little is known about the factors secreted by stem cells and their effect on tissue regeneration. In particular, the factors secreted by human CD34+ cells remain to be elucidated. We have approached this challenge by performing a cytokine/growth factor microarray analysis of secreted soluble factors in medium conditioned by adherent human CD34+ cells. Thirty-two abundantly secreted factors have been identified, all of which are associated with cell proliferation, survival, tissue repair, and wound healing. The cultured CD34+ cells expressed known stem cell genes such as Nanog, Oct4, Sox2, c-kit, and HoxB4. The conditioned medium containing the secreted factors prevented cell death in liver cells exposed to liver toxin in vitro via inhibition of the caspase-3 signaling pathway. More importantly, in vivo studies using animal models of liver damage demonstrated that injection of the conditioned medium could repair damaged liver tissue (significant reduction in the necroinflammatory activity), as well as enable the animals to survive. Thus, we demonstrate that medium conditioned by human CD34+ cells has the potential for therapeutic repair of damaged tissue in vivo.
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