177 results found
Huang C, Lu Y, Kong L, et al., 2023, Human milk oligosaccharides in milk of mothers with term and preterm delivery at different lactation stage, Carbohydrate Polymers, Vol: 321, ISSN: 0144-8617
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are structurally diverse unconjugated glycans, and play crucial roles in protecting infants from infections. Preterm birth is one of the leading causes of neonatal mortality, and preterm infants are particularly vulnerable and are in need of improved outcomes from breast-feeding due to the presence of bioactive HMOs. However, studies on specific difference in HMOs as a function of gestation time have been very limited. We established an approach to extract and analyze HMOs based on 96-well plate extraction and mass spectrometry, and determined maternal phenotypes through distinctive fragments in product-ion spectra. We enrolled 85 women delivering at different gestation times (25–41 weeks), and observed different HMOs correlating with gestation time based on 233 samples from the 85 donors. With the increase of postpartum age, we observed a regular changing trajectory of HMOs in composition and relative abundance, and found significant differences in HMOs secreted at different postpartum times. Preterm delivery induced more variations between participants with different phenotypes compared with term delivery, and more HMOs varied with postpartum age in the population of secretors. The sialylation level in mature milk decreased for women delivering preterm while such decrease was not observed for women delivering on term.
Sorin MN, Di Maio A, Silva LM, et al., 2023, Structural and functional analysis of natural capsid variants suggests sialic acid-independent entry of BK polyomavirus, Cell Reports, Vol: 42, Pages: 1-18, ISSN: 2211-1247
BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) is an opportunistic pathogen that uses the b-series gangliosides GD1b and GT1b as entry receptors. Here, we characterize the impact of naturally occurring VP1 mutations on ganglioside binding, VP1 protein structure, and virus tropism. Infectious entry of single mutants E73Q and E73A and the triple mutant A72V-E73Q-E82Q (VQQ) remains sialic acid dependent, and all three variants acquire binding to a-series gangliosides, including GD1a. However, the E73A and VQQ variants lose the ability to infect ganglioside-complemented cells, and this correlates with a clear shift of the BC2 loop in the crystal structures of E73A and VQQ. On the other hand, the K69N mutation in the K69N-E82Q variant leads to a steric clash that precludes sialic acid binding. Nevertheless, this mutant retains significant infectivity in 293TT cells, which is not dependent on heparan sulfate proteoglycans, implying that an unknown sialic acid-independent entry receptor for BKPyV exists.
Han K, Yue Y, Wang W, et al., 2023, Lewis x-carrying O-glycans are candidate modulators for conceptus attachment in pigs., Biology of Reproduction, Vol: 108, Pages: 292-303, ISSN: 0006-3363
Successful attachment of conceptus to the uterine luminal epithelium (LE) is crucial for establishing a functional placenta in pigs. However, the underlying mechanisms are yet to be elucidated. The uterine LE-conceptus interface is enriched in various glycoconjugates essential to implantation. Using MALDI-MS profiling, we identified for the first time the O-glycan repertoire in pig endometrium during the conceptus attachment stage. The expression pattern of blood group A, O(H), Lewis x, y, a, b (Lex, Ley, Lea, and Leb), the sialylated and sulfated Lex antigens in the uterine LE-conceptus interface was assessed using immunofluorescence assays. Notably, the Lex-carrying O-glycans exhibited a temporal-spatial expression pattern. They were absent in the endometrium on estrous cycle days but strongly and spatially presented in the conceptus and uterine LE to which the conceptus apposes during the early conceptus attachment stage. In addition, Lex-carrying O-glycans were co-localized with secreted phosphoprotein 1 (SPP1), a well-characterized factor that plays a role in promoting conceptus attachment through interacting with integrin αVβ3 and integrin αVβ6. Meanwhile, the immunoprecipitation assays revealed an interaction between the Lex-carrying O-glycans and SPP1, integrin αV, and integrin β6. Furthermore, we provided evidence that the β1,4-galactosyltransferase 1 (B4GALT1) gene is a potential regulator for Lex antigen expression in the uterine LE-conceptus interface during the early conceptus attachment stage. In conclusion, our findings show that Lex-carrying O-glycans, presumably dependent on B4GALT1 gene expression, might modulate conceptus attachment by interacting with the SPP1-integrin receptor complex in pigs.
Chai W, Huang C, Hou M, et al., 2022, GIPS-mix for accurate identification of isomeric components in glycan mixtures using intelligent group-opting strategy, Analytical Chemistry, ISSN: 0003-2700
Chai W, 2022, Development of high-throughput UPLC-MS/MS using multiple reaction monitoring for quantitation of complex human milk oligosaccharides and application to large population survey of secretor status and Lewis blood group, Food Chemistry, Vol: 397, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 0308-8146
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) have attracted increasing attention due to the emerging evidence of their positive roles for infant’s health. A high-throughput method for absolute quantitation of the complex HMOs including multiple isomeric structures is important but very challenging, due to the highly divers nature and wide variation in content of HMOs from different individuals. Here we used UPLC-MS-MRM in the negative-ion mode for accurate quantitation of 23 complex HMOs in just 15 min. The selected oligosaccharides are in their native forms and include neutral and sialylated, fucosylated and non-fucosylated, linear and branched, and secretor and Lewis phenotype indicators. The well validated method with good sensitivity, recovery and reproducibility was then applied to a large population quantitative survey of 251 Chinese mothers from five different ethnic groups (Han, Zhuang, Hui, Mongolian and Tibetan) living in different geographical regions for their secretor’s status and Lewis phenotypes.
Zheng Y, Zhao J, Li J, et al., 2021, SARS-CoV-2 spike protein causes blood coagulation and thrombosis by competitive binding to heparan sulfate, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL MACROMOLECULES, Vol: 193, Pages: 1124-1129, ISSN: 0141-8130
McAllister N, Liu Y, Silva LM, et al., 2021, Chikungunya Virus Strains from Each Genetic Clade Bind Sulfated Glycosaminoglycans as Attachment Factors (vol 94, e01500-20, 2020), JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY, Vol: 95, ISSN: 0022-538X
Correia VG, Trovao F, Pinheiro BA, et al., 2021, Mapping Molecular Recognition of beta 1,3-1,4-Glucans by a Surface Glycan-Binding Protein from the Human Gut Symbiont Bacteroides ovatus, MICROBIOLOGY SPECTRUM, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2165-0497
Huang C, Tan Z, Zhao K, et al., 2021, The effect of N-glycosylation of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein on the virus interaction with the host cell ACE2 receptor, iScience, Vol: 24, Pages: 1-15, ISSN: 2589-0042
The densely glycosylated spike (S) protein highly exposed on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) surface mediates host cell entry by binding to the receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). However, the role of glycosylation has not been fully understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of different N-glycosylation of S1 protein on its binding to ACE2. Using real-time surface plasmon resonance assay the negative effects were demonstrated by the considerable increase of binding affinities of de-N-glycosylated S1 proteins produced from three different expression systems including baculovirus-insect, Chinese hamster ovarian and two variants of human embryonic kidney 293 cells. Molecular dynamic simulations of the S1 protein-ACE2 receptor complex revealed the steric hindrance and Coulombic repulsion effects of different types of N-glycans on the S1 protein interaction with ACE2. The results should contribute to future pathological studies of SARS-CoV-2 and therapeutic development of Covid-19, particularly using recombinant S1 proteins as models.
Gyapon-Quast F, Goicoechea de Jorge E, Malik T, et al., 2021, Defining the glycosaminoglycan interactions of complement factor H-related protein 5, Journal of Immunology, Vol: 207, Pages: 534-541, ISSN: 0022-1767
Complement activation is an important mediator of kidney injury in glomerulonephritis. Complement factor H (FH) and FH-related protein 5 (FHR-5) influence complement activation in C3 glomerulopathy and IgA nephropathy by differentially regulating glomerular complement. FH is a negative regulator of complement C3 activation. Conversely, FHR-5 in vitro promotes C3 activation either directly or by competing with FH for binding to complement C3b. The FH-C3b interaction is enhanced by surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and the FH-GAG interaction is well-characterized. In contrast, the contributions of carbohydrates to the interaction of FHR-5 and C3b are unknown. Using plate-based and microarray technologies we demonstrate that FHR-5 interacts with sulfated GAGs and that this interaction is influenced by the pattern and degree of GAG sulfation. The FHR-5-GAG interaction that we identified has functional relevance as we could show that the ability of FHR-5 to prevent binding of FH to surface C3b is enhanced by surface kidney heparan sulfate. Our findings are important in understanding the molecular basis of the binding of FHR-5 to glomerular complement and the role of FHR-5 in complement-mediated glomerular disease.
Chai W, Li C, Palma A, et al., 2021, Noncovalent microarrays from synthetic amino-terminating glycans: Implications in expanding glycan microarray diversity and platform comparison, Glycobiology, Vol: 31, Pages: 931-946, ISSN: 0959-6658
Glycan microarrays have played important roles in detection and specificity assignment of glycan recognition by proteins. However, the size and diversity of glycan libraries in current microarray systems are small compared to estimated glycomes, and these may lead to missed detection or incomplete assignment. For microarray construction, covalent and noncovalent immobilization are the two types of methods used, but a direct comparison of results from the two platforms is required. Here we develop a chemical strategy to prepare lipid-linked probes from both naturally derived aldehyde-terminating and synthetic amino-terminating glycans that addresses the two aspects: expansion of sequence-defined glycan libraries and comparison of the two platforms. We demonstrate the specific recognition by plant and mammalian lectins, carbohydrate-binding modules and antibodies and the overall similarities from the two platforms. Our results provide new knowledge on unique glycan-binding specificities for the immune receptor Dectin-1 toward β-glucans and the interaction of rotavirus P adhesive protein with mucin O-glycan cores.
Li J, Jiang M, Zhou J, et al., 2021, Characterization of rat and mouse acidic milk oligosaccharides based on hydrophilic interaction chromatography coupled with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry, Carbohydrate Polymers, Vol: 259, ISSN: 0144-8617
Oligosaccharides are one of the most important components in mammalian milk. Milk oligosaccharides can promote colonization of gut microbiota and protect newborns from infections. The diversity and structures of MOs differ among mammalian species. MOs in human and farm animals have been well-documented. However, the knowledge on MOs in rat and mouse have been very limited even though they are the most-widely used models for studies of human physiology and disease. Herein, we use a high-sensitivity online solid-phase extraction and HILIC coupled with electrospray tandem mass spectrometry to analyze the acidic MOs in rat and mouse. Among the fifteen MOs identified, twelve were reported for the first time in rat and mouse together with two novel sulphated oligosaccharides. The complete list of acidic oligosaccharides present in rat and mouse milk is the baseline information of these animals and should contribute to biological/biomedical studies using rats and mice as models.
Murugesan G, Correia VG, Palma AS, et al., 2021, Siglec-15 recognition of sialoglycans on tumor cell lines can occur independently of sialyl Tn antigen expression, GLYCOBIOLOGY, Vol: 31, Pages: 44-54, ISSN: 0959-6658
McAllister N, Liu Y, Silva LM, et al., 2020, Chikungunya virus strains from each genetic clade bind sulfated glycosaminoglycans as attachment factors, Journal of Virology, Vol: 94, ISSN: 0022-538X
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an arthritogenic alphavirus that causes debilitating musculoskeletal disease. CHIKV displays broad cell, tissue, and species tropism, which may correlate with the attachment factors and entry receptors used by the virus. Cell-surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) have been identified as CHIKV attachment factors. However, the specific types of GAGs and potentially other glycans to which CHIKV binds and whether there are strain-specific differences in GAG binding is not fully understood. To identify the types of glycans bound by CHIKV, we conducted glycan microarray analyses and discovered that CHIKV preferentially binds GAGs. Microarray results also indicate that sulfate groups on GAGs are essential for CHIKV binding and that CHIKV binds most strongly to longer GAG chains of heparin and heparan sulfate. To determine whether GAG-binding capacity varies among CHIKV strains, a representative strain from each genetic clade was tested. While all strains directly bound to heparin and chondroitin sulfate in ELISAs and depended on heparan sulfate for efficient cell-binding and infection, we observed some variation by strain. Enzymatic removal of cell-surface GAGs and genetic ablation that diminishes GAG expression reduced CHIKV binding and infectivity of all strains. Collectively, these data demonstrate that GAGs are the preferred glycan bound by CHIKV, enhance our understanding of the specific GAG moieties required for CHIKV binding, define strain differences in GAG engagement, and provide further evidence for a critical function of GAGs in CHIKV cell attachment and infection.IMPORTANCE Alphavirus infections are a global health threat, contributing to outbreaks of disease in many parts of the world. Recent epidemics caused by CHIKV, an arthritogenic alphavirus, resulted in more than 8.5 million cases as the virus has spread into new geographic regions, including the Western Hemisphere. CHIKV causes disease in the majority of people infected, leading
Huang C, Wang H, Bu D, et al., 2020, Multistage mass spectrometry with intelligent precursor selection for N-glycan branching pattern analysis, CARBOHYDRATE POLYMERS, Vol: 237, ISSN: 0144-8617
Huang C, Sun S, Yan J, et al., 2020, Identification of carbohydrate peripheral epitopes important for recognition by positive-ion MALDI multistage mass spectrometry, CARBOHYDRATE POLYMERS, Vol: 229, ISSN: 0144-8617
Vendele I, Willment JA, Silva LM, et al., 2020, Mannan detecting C-type lectin receptor probes recognise immune epitopes with diverse chemical, spatial and phylogenetic heterogeneity in fungal cell walls, PLoS Pathogens, Vol: 16, Pages: 1-29, ISSN: 1553-7366
During the course of fungal infection, pathogen recognition by the innate immune system is critical to initiate efficient protective immune responses. The primary event that triggers immune responses is the binding of Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs), which are expressed at the surface of host immune cells, to Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs) located predominantly in the fungal cell wall. Most fungi have mannosylated PAMPs in their cell walls and these are recognized by a range of C-type lectin receptors (CTLs). However, the precise spatial distribution of the ligands that induce immune responses within the cell walls of fungi are not well defined. We used recombinant IgG Fc-CTLs fusions of three murine mannan detecting CTLs, including dectin-2, the mannose receptor (MR) carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs) 4–7 (CRD4-7), and human DC-SIGN (hDC-SIGN) and of the β-1,3 glucan-binding lectin dectin-1 to map PRR ligands in the fungal cell wall of fungi grown in vitro in rich and minimal media. We show that epitopes of mannan-specific CTL receptors can be clustered or diffuse, superficial or buried in the inner cell wall. We demonstrate that PRR ligands do not correlate well with phylogenetic relationships between fungi, and that Fc-lectin binding discriminated between mannosides expressed on different cell morphologies of the same fungus. We also demonstrate CTL epitope differentiation during different phases of the growth cycle of Candida albicans and that MR and DC-SIGN labelled outer chain N-mannans whilst dectin-2 labelled core N-mannans displayed deeper in the cell wall. These immune receptor maps of fungal walls of in vitro grown cells therefore reveal remarkable spatial, temporal and chemical diversity, indicating that the triggering of immune recognition events originates from multiple physical origins at the fungal cell surface.
Ribeiro DO, Viegas A, Pires VMR, et al., 2019, Molecular basis for the preferential recognition of beta 1,3-1,4-glucans by the family 11 carbohydrate-binding module from Clostridium thermocellum, The Federation of European Biochemical Societies (FEBS) Journal, Vol: 287, Pages: 2723-2743, ISSN: 1742-464X
Understanding the specific molecular interactions between proteins and β1,3-1,4-mixed-linked d-glucans is fundamental to harvest the full biological and biotechnological potential of these carbohydrates and of proteins that specifically recognize them. The family 11 carbohydrate-binding module from Clostridium thermocellum (CtCBM11) is known for its binding preference for β1,3-1,4-mixed-linked over β1,4-linked glucans. Despite the growing industrial interest of this protein for the biotransformation of lignocellulosic biomass, the molecular determinants of its ligand specificity are not well defined. In this report, a combined approach of methodologies was used to unravel, at a molecular level, the ligand recognition of CtCBM11. The analysis of the interaction by carbohydrate microarrays and NMR and the crystal structures of CtCBM11 bound to β1,3-1,4-linked glucose oligosaccharides showed that both the chain length and the position of the β1,3-linkage are important for recognition, and identified the tetrasaccharide Glcβ1,4Glcβ1,4Glcβ1,3Glc sequence as a minimum epitope required for binding. The structural data, along with site-directed mutagenesis and ITC studies, demonstrated the specificity of CtCBM11 for the twisted conformation of β1,3-1,4-mixed-linked glucans. This is mediated by a conformation–selection mechanism of the ligand in the binding cleft through CH-π stacking and a hydrogen bonding network, which is dependent not only on ligand chain length, but also on the presence of a β1,3-linkage at the reducing end and at specific positions along the β1,4-linked glucan chain. The understanding of the detailed mechanism by which CtCBM11 can distinguish between linear and mixed-linked β-glucans strengthens its exploitation for the design of new biomolecules with improved capabilities and applications in health and agriculture.
Gao T, Yan J, Liu C-C, et al., 2019, Chemoenzymatic Synthesis of O-Mannose Glycans Containing Sulfated or Nonsulfated HNK-1 Epitope, JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY, Vol: 141, Pages: 19351-19359, ISSN: 0002-7863
Sun X, Dang L, Li D, et al., 2019, Structural Basis of Glycan Recognition in Globally Predominant Human P Rotavirus, VIROLOGICA SINICA, Vol: 35, Pages: 156-170, ISSN: 1674-0769
Wu N, Silva LM, Liu Y, et al., 2019, Glycan Markers of Human Stem Cells Assigned with Beam Search Arrays., Mol Cell Proteomics, Vol: 18, Pages: 1981-2002, ISSN: 1535-9476
Glycan antigens recognized by monoclonal antibodies have served as stem cell markers. To understand regulation of their biosynthesis and their roles in stem cell behavior precise assignments are required. We have applied state-of-the-art glycan array technologies to compare the glycans bound by five antibodies that recognize carbohydrates on human stem cells. These are: FC10.2, TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81, anti-i and R-10G. Microarray analyses with a panel of sequence-defined glycans corroborate that FC10.2, TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81 recognize the type 1-(Galβ-3GlcNAc)-terminating backbone sequence, Galβ-3GlcNAcβ-3Galβ-4GlcNAcβ-3Galβ-4GlcNAc, and anti-i, the type 2-(Galβ-4GlcNAc) analog, Galβ-4GlcNAcβ-3Galβ-4GlcNAcβ-3Galβ-4GlcNAc, and we determine substituents they can accommodate. They differ from R-10G, which requires sulfate. By Beam Search approach, starting with an antigen-positive keratan sulfate polysaccharide, followed by targeted iterative microarray analyses of glycan populations released with keratanases and mass spectrometric monitoring, R-10G is assigned as a mono-sulfated type 2 chain with 6-sulfation at the penultimate N-acetylglucosamine, Galβ-4GlcNAc(6S)β-3Galβ-4GlcNAcβ-3Galβ-4GlcNAc. Microarray analyses using newly synthesized glycans corroborate the assignment of this unique determinant raising questions regarding involvement as a ligand in the stem cell niche.
Huang C, Yan J, Zhan L, et al., 2019, Linkage and sequence analysis of neutral oligosaccharides by negative-ion MALDI tandem mass spectrometry with laser-induced dissociation, ANALYTICA CHIMICA ACTA, Vol: 1071, Pages: 25-35, ISSN: 0003-2670
Cong X, Sun X-M, Qi J-X, et al., 2019, GII.13/21 Noroviruses Recognize Glycans with a Terminal beta-Galactose via an Unconventional Glycan Binding Site, JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY, Vol: 93, ISSN: 0022-538X
Yan J, Ding J, Jin G, et al., 2019, Profiling of Human Milk Oligosaccharides for Lewis Epitopes and Secretor Status by Electrostatic Repulsion Hydrophilic Interaction Chromatography Coupled with Negative-Ion Electrospray Tandem Mass Spectrometry, ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, Vol: 91, Pages: 8199-8206, ISSN: 0003-2700
Li Z, Chai W, 2019, Mucin O-glycan microarrays, CURRENT OPINION IN STRUCTURAL BIOLOGY, Vol: 56, Pages: 187-197, ISSN: 0959-440X
Chandra N, Liu Y, Liu J-X, et al., 2019, Sulfated glycosaminoglycans as viral decoy receptors for human adenovirus type 37, Viruses, Vol: 11, ISSN: 1999-4915
Glycans on plasma membranes and in secretions play important roles in infection by many viruses. Species D human adenovirus type 37 (HAdV-D37) is a major cause of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC) and infects target cells by interacting with sialic acid (SA)-containing glycans via the fiber knob domain of the viral fiber protein. HAdV-D37 also interacts with sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), but the outcome of this interaction remains unknown. Here, we investigated the molecular requirements of HAdV-D37 fiber knob:GAG interactions using a GAG microarray and demonstrated that fiber knob interacts with a broad range of sulfated GAGs. These interactions were corroborated in cell-based assays and by surface plasmon resonance analysis. Removal of heparan sulfate (HS) and sulfate groups from human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells by heparinase III and sodium chlorate treatments, respectively, reduced HAdV-D37 binding to cells. Remarkably, removal of HS by heparinase III enhanced the virus infection. Our results suggest that interaction of HAdV-D37 with sulfated GAGs in secretions and on plasma membranes prevents/delays the virus binding to SA-containing receptors and inhibits subsequent infection. We also found abundant HS in the basement membrane of the human corneal epithelium, which may act as a barrier to sub-epithelial infection. Collectively, our findings provide novel insights into the role of GAGs as viral decoy receptors and highlight the therapeutic potential of GAGs and/or GAG-mimetics in HAdV-D37 infection.
Li S, Li J, Mao G, et al., 2019, Fucosylated chondroitin sulfate from Isostichopus badionotus alleviates metabolic syndromes and gut microbiota dysbiosis induced by high-fat and high-fructose diet, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF BIOLOGICAL MACROMOLECULES, Vol: 124, Pages: 377-388, ISSN: 0141-8130
Sun S, Huang C, Wang Y, et al., 2018, Toward Automated Identification of Glycan Branching Patterns Using Multistage Mass Spectrometry with Intelligent Precursor Selection, ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, Vol: 90, Pages: 14412-14422, ISSN: 0003-2700
Loureiro LR, Sousa DP, Ferreira D, et al., 2018, Novel monoclonal antibody L2A5 specifically targeting sialyl-Tn and short glycans terminated by alpha-2–6 sialic acids, Scientific Reports, Vol: 8, ISSN: 2045-2322
Incomplete O-glycosylation is a feature associated with malignancy resulting in the expression of truncated glycans such as the sialyl-Tn (STn) antigen. Despite all the progress in the development of potential anti-cancer antibodies, their application is frequently hindered by low specificities and cross-reactivity. In this study, a novel anti-STn monoclonal antibody named L2A5 was developed by hybridoma technology. Flow cytometry analysis showed that L2A5 specifically binds to sialylated structures on the cell surface of STn-expressing breast and bladder cancer cell lines. Moreover, immunoblotting assays demonstrated reactivity to tumour-associated O-glycosylated proteins, such as MUC1. Tumour recognition was further observed using immunohistochemistry assays, which demonstrated a high sensitivity and specificity of L2A5 mAb towards cancer tissue, using bladder and colorectal cancer tissues. L2A5 staining was exclusively tumoural, with a remarkable reactivity in invasive and metastasis sites, not detectable by other anti-STn mAbs. Additionally, it stained 20% of cases of triple-negative breast cancers, suggesting application in diseases with unmet clinical needs. Finally, the fine specificity was assessed using glycan microarrays, demonstrating a highly specific binding of L2A5 to core STn antigens and additional ability to bind 2–6-linked sialyl core-1 probes. In conclusion, this study describes a novel anti-STn antibody with a unique binding specificity that can be applied for cancer diagnostic and future development of new antibody-based therapeutic applications.
Sun X, Li D, Qi J, et al., 2018, Glycan Binding Specificity and Mechanism of Human and Porcine P/P Rotavirus VP8*s, JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY, Vol: 92, ISSN: 0022-538X
This data is extracted from the Web of Science and reproduced under a licence from Thomson Reuters. You may not copy or re-distribute this data in whole or in part without the written consent of the Science business of Thomson Reuters.