344 results found
Cuthbertson L, Felton I, James P, et al., 2021, The fungal airway microbiome in cystic fibrosis and non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis, JOURNAL OF CYSTIC FIBROSIS, Vol: 20, Pages: 295-302, ISSN: 1569-1993
Feng Y-CA, Guo Y, Pain L, et al., 2020, Estimating cell-type-specific DNA methylation effects in heterogeneous cellular populations, EPIGENOMICS, Vol: 13, Pages: 87-97, ISSN: 1750-1911
Nakanishi T, Forgetta V, Handa T, et al., 2020, The undiagnosed disease burden associated with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency genotypes, EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY JOURNAL, Vol: 56, ISSN: 0903-1936
Zhang YZ, Brambilla C, Molyneaux PL, et al., 2020, Presence of pleomorphic features but not growth patterns improves prognostic stratification of epithelioid malignant pleural mesothelioma by 2-tier nuclear grade, Histopathology, Vol: 77, Pages: 423-436, ISSN: 0309-0167
AIMS: Nuclear grade has been recently validated as a powerful prognostic tool in epithelioid malignant pleural mesothelioma (E-MPM). In other studies histological parameters including pleomorphic features and growth patterns were also shown to exert prognostic impact. The primary aims of our study are (1) externally validate the prognostic role of pleomorphic features in E-MPM and (2) investigate if evaluating growth pattern in addition to 2-tier nuclear grade improves prognostication. METHODS AND RESULTS: 614 consecutive cases of E-MPM from our institution over a period of 15 years were retrospectively reviewed, of which 51 showed pleomorphic features. E-MPM with pleomorphic features showed significantly worse overall survival compared those without (5.4 months vs 14.7 months). Tumours with predominantly micropapillary pattern showed the worst survival (6.2 months) followed by solid (10.5 months), microcystic (15.3 months), discohesive (16.1 months), trabecular (17.6 months) and tubulo-papillary (18.6 months). Sub-classification of growth patterns into high grade (solid, micropapillary) and low grade (all others) led to good separation of overall survival (10.5 months vs. 18.0 months) but did not predict survival independent of 2-tier nuclear grade. A composite score comprised of growth pattern and 2-tier nuclear grade did not improve prognostication compared with nuclear grade alone. Intra-tumoural heterogeneity in growth patterns is ubiquitous. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the incorporation of E-MPM with pleomorphic features in the epithelioid subtype as a highly aggressive variant distinct from 2-tier nuclear grade. E-MPM demonstrates extensive heterogeneity in growth pattern but its evaluation does not offer additional prognostic utility to 2-tier nuclear grade.
Cookson WOCM, Moffatt MF, 2020, In the Wrong Place at the Wrong Time: Microbial Misplacement and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome, AMERICAN JOURNAL OF RESPIRATORY AND CRITICAL CARE MEDICINE, Vol: 201, Pages: 506-507, ISSN: 1073-449X
Zhang YZ, Brambilla C, Molyneaux PL, et al., 2020, Utility of nuclear grading system in epithelioid malignant pleural mesothelioma in biopsy-heavy setting, The American Journal of Surgical Pathology, Vol: 44, Pages: 347-356, ISSN: 0147-5185
Nuclear grading systems for epithelioid malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) have been proposed but it remains uncertain if they could be applied in a biopsy-heavy setting. Using the proposed system, we conducted an independent, external validation study using 563 consecutive cases of epithelioid MPM diagnosed at our institution between 2003 and 2017, of which 87% of patients underwent biopsies only. The median number of sites sampled was 1, with a median maximum tissue dimension of 17 mm (biopsy) and 150 mm (resection). The median overall survival (OS) was 14.7 months. The frequencies of grade I, II, and III tumors were 31% (132/563), 52% (292/563), and 17% (94/563). Grade I tumors were associated with the most favorable median OS (24.7 mo) followed by grades II (12.7 mo) and III (7.2 mo). The 2-tier nuclear grade separated tumors into low grade (19.3 mo) and high grade (8.9 mo). In multivariate analysis, 3-tier nuclear grade, 2-tier nuclear grade, and mitosis-necrosis score predicted OS independent of age, procedural type, solid-predominant growth pattern, necrosis, and atypical mitosis (all P<0.001 except 2-tier nuclear grade, P=0.001). In the scenario of a single- site biopsy with tissue dimension ≤10 mm, none but age (P=0.002) were independently predictive. Our data also suggested sampling 3 sites or a maximum tissue dimension of at least 20 mm from a single site is optimal for nuclear grade assessment. In conclusion our study confirmed the utility of nuclear grade in epithelioid MPM using a biopsy-heavy cohort provided the tissue sample met minimum dimensional criteria.
Zhu Z, Guo Y, Shi H, et al., 2020, Shared genetic and experimental links between obesity-related traits and asthma subtypes in UK Biobank, JOURNAL OF ALLERGY AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY, Vol: 145, Pages: 537-549, ISSN: 0091-6749
Punjabi P, 2019, Discussion., American Association of Thoracic Surgery
Hoang LT, Domingo-Sabugo C, Starren ES, et al., 2019, Metabolomic, transcriptomic and genetic integrative analysis reveals important roles of adenosine diphosphate in haemostasis and platelet activation in non-small-cell lung cancer, Molecular Oncology, Vol: 13, Pages: 2406-2421, ISSN: 1574-7891
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer‐related deaths in the world. The most prevalent subtype, accounting for 85% of cases, is non‐small‐cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) and lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) are the most common subtypes. Despite recent advances in treatment, the low 5‐year survival rate of NSCLC patients (approximately 13%) reflects the lack of early diagnostic biomarkers and incomplete understanding of the underlying disease mechanisms. We hypothesized that integration of metabolomic, transcriptomic and genetic profiles of tumours and matched normal tissues could help to identify important factors and potential therapeutic targets that contribute to tumorigenesis. We integrated omics profiles in tumours and matched adjacent normal tissues of patients with LUSC (N = 20) and LUAD (N = 17) using multiple system biology approaches. We confirmed the presence of previously described metabolic pathways in NSCLC, particularly those mediating the Warburg effect. In addition, through our combined omics analyses we found that metabolites and genes that contribute to haemostasis, angiogenesis, platelet activation and cell proliferation were predominant in both subtypes of NSCLC. The important roles of adenosine diphosphate in promoting cancer metastasis through platelet activation and angiogenesis suggest this metabolite could be a potential therapeutic target.
Cuthbertson L, Oo SWC, Cox MJ, et al., 2019, Viral respiratory infections and the oropharyngeal bacterial microbiota in acutely wheezing children, PLOS ONE, Vol: 14, ISSN: 1932-6203
Sugier P-E, Sarnowski C, Granell R, et al., 2019, Genome-wide interaction study of early-life smoking exposure on time-to-asthma onset in childhood, Clinical and Experimental Allergy, Vol: 49, Pages: 1342-1351, ISSN: 0954-7894
BACKGROUND: Asthma, a heterogeneous disease with variable age of onset, results from the interplay between genetic and environmental factors. Early-life tobacco smoke (ELTS) exposure is a major asthma risk factor. Only a few genetic loci have been reported to interact with ELTS exposure in asthma. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to identify new loci interacting with ELTS exposure on time-to-asthma onset (TAO) in childhood. METHODS: We conducted genome-wide interaction analyses of ELTS exposure on time-to-asthma onset in childhood in five European-ancestry studies (totaling 8,273 subjects) using Cox proportional-hazard model. The results of all five genome-wide analyses were meta-analyzed. RESULTS: The 13q21 locus showed genome-wide significant interaction with ELTS exposure (P=4.3x10-8 for rs7334050 within KLHL1 with consistent results across the five studies). Suggestive interactions (P<5x10-6 ) were found at three other loci: 20p12 (rs13037508 within MACROD2; P=4.9x10-7 ), 14q22 (rs7493885 near NIN; P=2.9x10-6 ) and 2p22 (rs232542 near CYP1B1; P=4.1x10-6 ). Functional annotations and the literature showed that the lead SNPs at these four loci influence DNA methylation in the blood and are located nearby CpG sites reported to be associated with exposure to tobacco smoke components, which strongly support our findings. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: We identified novel candidate genes interacting with ELTS exposure on time-to-asthma onset in childhood. These genes have plausible biological relevance related to tobacco smoke exposure. Further epigenetic and functional studies are needed to confirm these findings and to shed light on the underlying mechanisms. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Singanayagam A, Glanville N, Cuthbertson L, et al., 2019, Inhaled corticosteroid suppression of cathelicidin drives dysbiosis and bacterial infection in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Science Translational Medicine, Vol: 11, Pages: 1-13, ISSN: 1946-6234
Bacterial infection commonly complicates inflammatory airway diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The mechanisms of increased infection susceptibility and how use of the commonly prescribed therapy inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) accentuates pneumonia risk in COPD are poorly understood. Here, using analysis of samples from patients with COPD, we show that ICS use is associated with lung microbiota disruption leading to proliferation of streptococcal genera, an effect that could be recapitulated in ICS-treated mice. To study mechanisms underlying this effect, we used cellular and mouse models of streptococcal expansion with Streptococcus pneumoniae, an important pathogen in COPD, to demonstrate that ICS impairs pulmonary clearance of bacteria through suppression of the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin. ICS impairment of pulmonary immunity was dependent on suppression of cathelicidin because ICS had no effect on bacterial loads in mice lacking cathelicidin (Camp-/-) and exogenous cathelicidin prevented ICS-mediated expansion of streptococci within the microbiota and improved bacterial clearance. Suppression of pulmonary immunity by ICS was mediated by augmentation of the protease cathepsin D. Collectively, these data suggest a central role for cathepsin D/cathelicidin in the suppression of antibacterial host defense by ICS in COPD. Therapeutic restoration of cathelicidin to boost antibacterial immunity and beneficially modulate the lung microbiota might be an effective strategy in COPD.
Ciano M, Mantellato G, Connolly M, et al., 2019, EGF receptor (EGFR) inhibition promotes a slow-twitch oxidative, over a fast-twitch, muscle phenotype, Scientific Reports, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2045-2322
A low quadriceps slow-twitch (ST), oxidative (relative to fast-twitch) fiber proportion is prevalent in chronic diseases such Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) and is associated with exercise limitation and poor outcomes. Benefits of an increased ST fiber proportion are demonstrated in genetically modified animals. Pathway analysis of published data of differentially expressed genes in mouse ST and FT fibers, mining of our microarray data and a qPCR analysis of quadriceps specimens from COPD patients and controls were performed. ST markers were quantified in C2C12 myotubes with EGF-neutralizing antibody, EGFR inhibitor or an EGFR-silencing RNA added. A zebrafish egfra mutant was generated by genome editing and ST fibers counted. EGF signaling was (negatively) associated with the ST muscle phenotype in mice and humans, and muscle EGF transcript levels were raised in COPD. In C2C12 myotubes, EGFR inhibition/silencing increased ST, including mitochondrial, markers. In zebrafish, egfra depletion increased ST fibers and mitochondrial content. EGF is negatively associated with ST muscle phenotype in mice, healthy humans and COPD patients. EGFR blockade promotes the ST phenotype in myotubes and zebrafish embryos. EGF signaling suppresses the ST phenotype, therefore EGFR inhibitors may be potential treatments for COPD-related muscle ST fiber loss.
Januszewski A, Zhang YZ, Chang W-C, et al., 2019, Impact of MET variants on PD-L1 expression in pleomorphic lung carcinoma, European Lung Cancer Congress (ELCC), Publisher: OXFORD UNIV PRESS, Pages: 1-1, ISSN: 0923-7534
Ahmed B, Cox M, Cuthbertson L, et al., 2019, Longitudinal development of the airway microbiota in infants with cystic fibrosis, Scientific Reports, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2045-2322
The pathogenesis of airway infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) is poorly understood. We performed a longitudinal study coupling clinical information with frequent sampling of the microbiota to identify changes in the airway microbiota in infancy that could underpin deterioration and potentially be targeted therapeutically. Thirty infants with CF diagnosed on newborn screening (NBS) were followed for up to two years. Two hundred and forty one throat swabs were collected as a surrogate for lower airway microbiota (median 35 days between study visits) in the largest longitudinal study of the CF oropharyngeal microbiota. Quantitative PCR and Illumina sequencing of the 16S rRNA bacterial gene were performed. Data analyses were conducted in QIIME and Phyloseq in R. Streptococcus spp. and Haemophilus spp. were the most common genera (55% and 12.5% of reads respectively) and were inversely related. Only beta (between sample) diversity changed with age (Bray Curtis r2 = 0.15, P = 0.03). Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas were rarely detected. These results suggest that Streptococcus spp. and Haemophilus spp., may play an important role in early CF. Whether they are protective against infection with more typical CF micro-organisms, or pathogenic and thus meriting treatment needs to be determined.
<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title><jats:sec><jats:title>Background</jats:title><jats:p>Normal airway microbial communities play a central role in respiratory health but are poorly characterized. Cigarette smoking is the dominant global environmental influence on lung function, and asthma has become the most prevalent chronic respiratory disease worldwide. Both conditions have major microbial components that are also poorly defined.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Methods</jats:title><jats:p>We investigated airway bacterial communities in a general population sample of 529 Australian adults. Posterior oropharyngeal swabs were analysed by sequencing of the 16S rRNA and methionine aminopeptidase genes. The microbiota were characterised according to their prevalence, abundance, and network memberships.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Findings</jats:title><jats:p>Microbial communities were similar across the population and were strongly organized into co-abundance networks. Smoking associated with diversity loss, negative effects on abundant taxa, profound alterations to network structure and expansion of <jats:italic>Streptococcus</jats:italic> spp. By contrast, the asthmatic microbiota were selectively affected by an increase in <jats:italic>Neisseria</jats:italic> spp. and by reduced numbers of low abundance but prevalent organisms.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Interpretation</jats:title><jats:p>Our study shows healthy airway microbiota are contained within a highly structured ecosystem, indicating balanced relationships between the microbiome and human host factors. The marked abnormalities in smokers may be pathogenic for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer. The narrow spectrum of abnormalities in asthmatics encourages investigation of damaging and
Dunning J, Blankley S, Hoang LT, et al., 2019, Author Correction: Progression of whole-blood transcriptional signatures from interferon-induced to neutrophil-associated patterns in severe influenza., Nature Immunology, Vol: 20, Pages: 373-373, ISSN: 1529-2908
In the version of this article initially published, a source of funding was not included in the Acknowledgements section. That section should include the following: P.J.M.O. was supported by EU FP7 PREPARE project 602525. The error has been corrected in the HTML and PDF version of the article.
Wootton DG, Cox MJ, Gloor GB, et al., 2019, A haemophilus sp. dominates the microbiota of sputum from UK adults with non-severe community acquired pneumonia and chronic lung disease, Scientific Reports, Vol: 9, ISSN: 2045-2322
The demographics and comorbidities of patients with community acquired pneumonia (CAP) vary enormously but stratified treatment is difficult because aetiological studies have failed to comprehensively identify the pathogens. Our aim was to describe the bacterial microbiota of CAP and relate these to clinical characteristics in order to inform future trials of treatment stratified by co-morbidity. CAP patients were prospectively recruited at two UK hospitals. We used 16S rRNA gene sequencing to identify the dominant bacteria in sputum and compositional data analysis to determine associations with patient characteristics. We analysed sputum samples from 77 patients and found a Streptococcus sp. and a Haemophilus sp. were the most relatively abundant pathogens. The Haemophilus sp. was more likely to be dominant in patients with pre-existing lung disease, and its relative abundance was associated with qPCR levels of Haemophilus influenzae. The most abundant Streptococcus sp. was associated with qPCR levels of Streptococcus pneumoniae but dominance could not be predicted from clinical characteristics. These data suggest chronic lung disease influences the microbiota of sputum in patients with CAP. This finding could inform a trial of stratifying empirical CAP antibiotics to target Haemophilus spp. in addition to Streptococcus spp. in those with chronic lung disease.
Zhang Y, Willis-Owen S, Spiegel S, et al., 2019, The ORMDL3 asthma gene regulates ICAM1 and has multiple effects on cellular inflammation, American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Vol: 199, Pages: 478-488, ISSN: 1073-449X
Rationale: Polymorphisms on chromosome 17q21 confer the major genetic susceptibility to childhood-onset asthma. Risk alleles positively correlate with ORMDL3 expression. The locus influences disease severity and the frequency of human rhinovirus (HRV) initiated exacerbations. ORMDL3 is known to regulate sphingolipid synthesis by binding serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT), but its role in inflammation is incompletely understood. Objectives: To investigate the role of ORMDL3 in cellular inflammation. Methods: We modelled time-series of IL1B-induced inflammation in A549 cells, using cytokine production as outputs and testing effects of ORMDL3 siRNA knockdown, ORMDL3 overexpression, and the SPT inhibitor myriocin. We replicated selected findings in normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells. Cytokine and metabolite levels were analysed by ANOVA. Transcript abundances were analysed by group means parameterisation, controlling the false discovery rate (FDR) below 0.05. Measurements and Main Results: Silencing ORMDL3 led to steroid-independent reduction of IL6 and IL8 release and reduced ER stress after IL1B. Overexpression and myriocin conversely augmented cytokine release. Knockdown reduced expression of genes regulating host-pathogen interactions, stress responses and ubiquitination: in particular ORMDL3 knockdown strongly reduced expression of the HRV receptor ICAM1. Silencing led to changes in levels of transcripts and metabolites integral to glycolysis. Increased levels of ceramides and the immune mediator sphingosine-1-P (S1P) were also observed. Conclusions: The results show ORMDL3 has pleiotropic effects during cellular inflammation, consistent with its substantial genetic influence on childhood asthma. Actions on ICAM1 provide a mechanism for the locus to confer susceptibility to HRV-induced asthma.
Cowman SA, James P, Wilson R, et al., 2018, Profiling mycobacterial communities in pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease, PLoS ONE, Vol: 13, ISSN: 1932-6203
The diagnosis of pulmonary non-tuberculous mycobacterial disease (pNTM) is dependent on the isolation of NTM in culture, which is prone to overgrowth and contamination and may not capture the diversity of mycobacteria present, including rare or unidentified species. This study aimed to develop a culture independent method of detecting and identifying mycobacteria from sputum samples using partial sequencing of the hsp65 gene. DNA was extracted from sputum samples from subjects with pNTM and disease controls. Multiplexed partial sequencing of the hsp65 gene was performed using the Illumina MiSeq and custom primers. A reference database of hsp65 sequences was created for taxonomy assignment. Sequencing results were obtained from 42 subjects (31 cases, 11 controls). Mycobacterial sequences were identified in all subjects. In 90.5% of samples more than one species was found (median 5.5). The species isolated in culture was detected by sequencing in 81% of subjects and was the most abundant species in 62%. The sequencing of NTM from clinical samples reveals a far greater diversity than conventional culture and suggests NTM are present as communities rather than a single species. NTM were found to be present even in the absence of isolation in culture or clinical disease.
Garcia AD, Lidwien AMS, Bossers A, et al., 2018, Indoor airborne microbiota composition associated with asthma and atopy in rural children, 28th International Congress of the European-Respiratory-Society (ERS), Publisher: EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY SOC JOURNALS LTD, ISSN: 0903-1936
Tregoning JS, Mallia P, Webber J, et al., 2018, Role of airway glucose in bacterial infections in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Vol: 142, Pages: 815-823.e6, ISSN: 0091-6749
BackgroundPatients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have increased susceptibility to respiratory tract infection, which contributes to disease progression and mortality, but mechanisms of increased susceptibility to infection remain unclear.ObjectivesThe aim of this study was to determine whether glucose concentrations were increased in airway samples (nasal lavage fluid, sputum, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid) from patients with stable COPD and to determine the effects of viral infection on sputum glucose concentrations and how airway glucose concentrations relate to bacterial infection.MethodsWe measured glucose concentrations in airway samples collected from patients with stable COPD and smokers and nonsmokers with normal lung function. Glucose concentrations were measured in patients with experimentally induced COPD exacerbations, and these results were validated in patients with naturally acquired COPD exacerbations. Relationships between sputum glucose concentrations, inflammatory markers, and bacterial load were examined.ResultsSputum glucose concentrations were significantly higher in patients with stable COPD compared with those in control subjects without COPD. In both experimental virus-induced and naturally acquired COPD exacerbations, sputum and nasal lavage fluid glucose concentrations were increased over baseline values. There were significant correlations between sputum glucose concentrations and sputum inflammatory markers, viral load, and bacterial load. Airway samples with higher glucose concentrations supported more Pseudomonas aeruginosa growth in vitro.ConclusionsAirway glucose concentrations are increased in patients with stable COPD and further increased during COPD exacerbations. Increased airway glucose concentrations might contribute to bacterial infections in both patients with stable and those with exacerbated COPD. This has important implications for the development of nonantibiotic therapeutic strategies for the prev
Willis-Owen SAG, Thompson AR, Kemp P, et al., 2018, COPD is accompanied by co-ordinated transcriptional perturbation in the quadriceps affecting the mitochondria and extracellular matrix, Scientific Reports, Vol: 8, ISSN: 2045-2322
Skeletal muscle dysfunction is a frequent extra-pulmonary manifestation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) with implications for both quality of life and survival. The underlying biology nevertheless remains poorly understood. We measured global gene transcription in the quadriceps using Affymetrix HuGene1.1ST arrays in an unselected cohort of 79 stable COPD patients in secondary care and 16 healthy age- and gender-matched controls. We detected 1,826 transcripts showing COPD-related variation. Eighteen exhibited ≥2fold changes (SLC22A3, FAM184B, CDKN1A, FST, LINC01405, MUSK, PANX1, ANKRD1, C12orf75, MYH1, POSTN, FRZB, TNC, ACTC1, LINC00310, MYH3, MYBPH and AREG). Thirty-one transcripts possessed previous reported evidence of involvement in COPD through genome-wide association, including FAM13A. Network analysis revealed a substructure comprising 6 modules of co-expressed genes. We identified modules with mitochondrial and extracellular matrix features, of which IDH2, a central component of the mitochondrial antioxidant pathway, and ABI3BP, a proposed switch between proliferation and differentiation, represent hubs respectively. COPD is accompanied by coordinated patterns of transcription in the quadriceps involving the mitochondria and extracellular matrix and including genes previously implicated in primary disease processes.
Ahmed B, Cox MJ, Cuthbertson L, et al., 2018, Comparison of the upper and lower airway microbiota in children with chronic lung diseases, PLoS ONE, Vol: 13, ISSN: 1932-6203
RationaleThe lower airway microbiota is important in normal immunological development and chronic lung diseases (CLDs). Young children cannot expectorate and because of the uncertainty whether upper airway samples reflect the lower airway microbiota, there have been few longitudinal paediatric studies to date.ObjectivesTo assess whether throat swabs (TS) and cough swabs (CS) are representative of the lower airway microbiota.MethodsTS, CS, bronchoalveolar lavage and bronchial brushings were prospectively collected from 49 children undergoing fibreoptic bronchoscopy for CLDs. Bacterial DNA was extracted and the 16S rRNA gene V4 region sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq.Results5.97 million high quality reads were obtained from 168 samples (47 TS, 37 CS, 42 BALF and 42 bronchial brushings). CS sequenced poorly. At a community level, no difference in alpha diversity (richness, evenness or Shannon Diversity Index) was seen between lower airway samples and TS (P > 0.05). Less than 6.31% of beta diversity variation related to sampling method for TS (P = 0.001). Variation between pathologies and individual patients was greater (20%, 54% respectively P ≤ 0.001) than between TS and lower airway samples. There was strong correlation in the relative abundance of genera between samples (r = 0.78, P < 0.001). Similarity between upper and lower airway samples was observed to be less for individuals where one sample type was dominated by a single organism.ConclusionsAt the community structure level, TS correlate with lower airway samples and distinguish between different CLDs. TS may be a useful sample for the study of the differences in longitudinal changes in the respiratory microbiota between different CLDs. Differences are too great however for TS to be used for clinical decision making.
Willis-Owen SAG, Cookson WOC, Moffatt MF, 2018, The Genetics and Genomics of Asthma, ANNUAL REVIEW OF GENOMICS AND HUMAN GENETICS, VOL 19, Vol: 19, Pages: 223-246, ISSN: 1527-8204
Singanayagam A, Glanville N, Girkin J, et al., 2018, Corticosteroid suppression of antiviral immunity increases bacterial loads and mucus production in COPD exacerbations, Nature Communications, Vol: 9, Pages: 1-16, ISSN: 2041-1723
Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) have limited efficacy in reducing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations and increase pneumonia risk, through unknown mechanisms. Rhinoviruses precipitate most exacerbations and increase susceptibility to secondary bacterial infections. Here, we show that the ICS fluticasone propionate (FP) impairs innate and acquired antiviral immune responses leading to delayed virus clearance and previously unrecognised adverse effects of enhanced mucus, impaired antimicrobial peptide secretion and increased pulmonary bacterial load during virus-induced exacerbations. Exogenous interferon-β reverses these effects. FP suppression of interferon may occur through inhibition of TLR3- and RIG-I virus-sensing pathways. Mice deficient in the type I interferon-α/β receptor (IFNAR1−/−) have suppressed antimicrobial peptide and enhanced mucin responses to rhinovirus infection. This study identifies type I interferon as a central regulator of antibacterial immunity and mucus production. Suppression of interferon by ICS during virus-induced COPD exacerbations likely mediates pneumonia risk and raises suggestion that inhaled interferon-β therapy may protect.
Dunning J, Blankley S, Hoang LT, et al., 2018, Progression of whole-blood transcriptional signatures from interferon-induced to neutrophil-associated patterns in severe influenza, Nature Immunology, Vol: 19, Pages: 625-635, ISSN: 1529-2916
Transcriptional profiles and host-response biomarkers are used increasingly to investigate the severity, subtype and pathogenesis of disease. We now describe whole-blood mRNA signatures and concentrations of local and systemic immunological mediators in 131 adults hospitalized with influenza, from whom extensive clinical and investigational data were obtained by MOSAIC investigators. Signatures reflective of interferon-related antiviral pathways were common up to day 4 of symptoms in patients who did not require mechanical ventilator support; in those who needed mechanical ventilation, an inflammatory, activated-neutrophil and cell-stress or death (‘bacterial’) pattern was seen, even early in disease. Identifiable bacterial co-infection was not necessary for this ‘bacterial’ signature but was able to enhance its development while attenuating the early ‘viral’ signature. Our findings emphasize the importance of timing and severity in the interpretation of host responses to acute viral infection and identify specific patterns of immune-system activation that might enable the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic tools for severe influenza.
Sugier P-E, Brossard M, Sarnowski C, et al., 2018, A novel role for ciliary function in atopy: ADGRV1 and DNAH5 interactions, JOURNAL OF ALLERGY AND CLINICAL IMMUNOLOGY, Vol: 141, Pages: 1659-1667.e11, ISSN: 0091-6749
BackgroundAtopy, an endotype underlying allergic diseases, has a substantial genetic component.ObjectiveOur goal was to identify novel genes associated with atopy in asthma-ascertained families.MethodsWe implemented a 3-step analysis strategy in 3 data sets: the Epidemiological Study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma (EGEA) data set (1660 subjects), the Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean study data set (1138 subjects), and the Medical Research Council (MRC) data set (446 subjects). This strategy included a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genome-wide association study (GWAS), the selection of related gene pairs based on statistical filtering of GWAS results, and text-mining filtering using Gene Relationships Across Implicated Loci and SNP-SNP interaction analysis of selected gene pairs.ResultsWe identified the 5q14 locus, harboring the adhesion G protein–coupled receptor V1 (ADGRV1) gene, which showed genome-wide significant association with atopy (rs4916831, meta-analysis P value = 6.8 × 10−9). Statistical filtering of GWAS results followed by text-mining filtering revealed relationships between ADGRV1 and 3 genes showing suggestive association with atopy (P ≤ 10−4). SNP-SNP interaction analysis between ADGRV1 and these 3 genes showed significant interaction between ADGRV1 rs17554723 and 2 correlated SNPs (rs2134256 and rs1354187) within the dynein axonemal heavy chain 5 (DNAH5) gene (Pmeta-int = 3.6 × 10−5 and 6.1 × 10−5, which met the multiple-testing corrected threshold of 7.3 × 10−5). Further conditional analysis indicated that rs2134256 alone accounted for the interaction signal with rs17554723.ConclusionBecause both DNAH5 and ADGRV1 contribute to ciliary function, this study suggests that ciliary dysfunction might represent a novel mechanism underlying atopy. Combining GWAS and epistasis analysis driven by statistical and knowledge-based evidence represents a promising approach for identifying ne
Xu C-J, Soderhall C, Bustamante M, et al., 2018, DNA methylation in childhood asthma: an epigenome-wide meta-analysis, LANCET RESPIRATORY MEDICINE, Vol: 6, Pages: 379-388, ISSN: 2213-2600
BackgroundDNA methylation profiles associated with childhood asthma might provide novel insights into disease pathogenesis. We did an epigenome-wide association study to assess methylation profiles associated with childhood asthma.MethodsWe did a large-scale epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) within the Mechanisms of the Development of ALLergy (MeDALL) project. We examined epigenome-wide methylation using Illumina Infinium Human Methylation450 BeadChips (450K) in whole blood in 207 children with asthma and 610 controls at age 4–5 years, and 185 children with asthma and 546 controls at age 8 years using a cross-sectional case-control design. After identification of differentially methylated CpG sites in the discovery analysis, we did a validation study in children (4–16 years; 247 cases and 2949 controls) from six additional European cohorts and meta-analysed the results. We next investigated whether replicated CpG sites in cord blood predict later asthma in 1316 children. We subsequently investigated cell-type-specific methylation of the identified CpG sites in eosinophils and respiratory epithelial cells and their related gene-expression signatures. We studied cell-type specificity of the asthma association of the replicated CpG sites in 455 respiratory epithelial cell samples, collected by nasal brushing of 16-year-old children as well as in DNA isolated from blood eosinophils (16 with asthma, eight controls [age 2–56 years]) and compared this with whole-blood DNA samples of 74 individuals with asthma and 93 controls (age 1–79 years). Whole-blood transcriptional profiles associated with replicated CpG sites were annotated using RNA-seq data of subsets of peripheral blood mononuclear cells sorted by fluorescence-activated cell sorting.Findings27 methylated CpG sites were identified in the discovery analysis. 14 of these CpG sites were replicated and passed genome-wide significance (p<1·14 × 10−7) after meta-analysi
Cowman SA, Jacob J, Hansell DM, et al., 2018, Whole blood gene expression in pulmonary non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection, American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology, Vol: 58, Pages: 510-518, ISSN: 1044-1549
RATIONALE: The factors predisposing towards the development of pulmonary non-tuberculous mycobacterial disease (pNTM) and influencing disease progression remain unclear. Impaired immune responses have been reported in individuals with pNTM but data are limited and inconsistent. OBJECTIVES: To use gene expression profiling to examine the host response to pNTM. METHODS: Microarray analysis of whole blood gene expression was performed on 25 subjects with pNTM and 27 uninfected controls with respiratory disease. Gene expression results were compared to phenotypic variables and survival data. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Compared with uninfected controls, pNTM was associated with down-regulation of 213 transcripts enriched for terms related to T cell signalling including IFNG. Reduced IFNG expression was associated with more severe CT changes and impaired lung function. Mortality was associated with the expression of transcripts related to the innate immune response and inflammation, whereas transcripts related to T and B cell function were associated with improved survival. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that pNTM is associated with an aberrant immune response which may reflect an underlying propensity to infection, or result from NTM infection itself. There were important differences in the immune response associated with survival and mortality in pNTM.
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