294 results found
Koysombat K, Abbara A, Dhillo WS, 2022, Current pharmacotherapy and future directions for neuroendocrine causes of female infertility, EXPERT OPINION ON PHARMACOTHERAPY, ISSN: 1465-6566
Mills E, Yang L, Abbara A, et al., 2022, Current Perspectives on Kisspeptins Role in Behaviour, Frontiers in Endocrinology, ISSN: 1664-2392
Patel B, S Dhillo W, 2022, Menopause review: Emerging treatments for menopausal symptoms., Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol, Vol: 81, Pages: 134-144
Vasomotor symptoms (VMS) affect 2 out of 3 women during menopause and are highly disruptive and intolerable. They exert a negative impact on a woman's physical and mental well-being and are considered a high clinical priority requiring effective treatment. Although hormone therapy remains the gold-standard treatment for hot flushes, it is associated with several side effects and contraindications. Furthermore, alternative treatments for VMS are currently less efficacious and have limited availability; therefore, a new medication to treat VMS would benefit millions of women worldwide. Neurokinin 3 receptor (NK3R) antagonists have recently been developed as novel therapeutic agents for the amelioration of VMS through their action on NK3 receptors within the hypothalamus and consequent regulation of the thermoregulatory centre. So far, three NK3R antagonists have been studied in menopausal women, which have demonstrated significant reductions in VMS frequency and severity and have shown their ability to transform patients' quality of life.
Jayasena CN, Dhillo WS, 2022, Secondary amplification of sperm DNA fragmentation for male infertility: hope for improved and affordable fertility testing in affected couples, Clinical Chemistry, Vol: 68, Pages: 489-490, ISSN: 0009-9147
Guzman S, Dragan M, Kwon H, et al., 2022, Targeting hepatic kisspeptin receptor ameliorates non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in a mouse model., Journal of Clinical Investigation, ISSN: 0021-9738
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the most common liver disease has become a silent worldwide pandemic. The incidence of NAFLD correlates with the rise in obesity, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. A hallmark feature of NAFLD is excessive hepatic fat accumulation or steatosis, due to dysregulated hepatic fat metabolism which can progress to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis and cirrhosis. Currently, there are no approved pharmacotherapies to treat this disease. Here we have identified that activation of the kisspeptin receptor (KISS1R) signaling pathway has therapeutic effects in NAFLD. Using high fat diet-fed mice, we demonstrated that a deletion of hepatic Kiss1r exacerbated hepatic steatosis. In contrast, enhanced stimulation of KISS1R protected against steatosis in wild-type C57BL/6J mice and decreased fibrosis using a diet-induced mouse model of NASH. Mechanistically, we found that hepatic KISS1R signaling activates the master energy regulator, AMPK, to thereby decrease lipogenesis and progression to NASH. In NAFLD patients and in HFD-fed mice, hepatic KISS1/KISS1R expression and plasma kisspeptin levels were elevated, suggesting a compensatory mechanism to reduce triglyceride synthesis. These findings establish KISS1R as a therapeutic target to treat NASH.
Garg A, Patel B, Abbara A, et al., 2022, Treatments targeting neuroendocrine dysfunction in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY, ISSN: 0300-0664
Comninos AN, Hansen MS, Courtney A, et al., 2022, Acute effects of kisspeptin administration on bone metabolism in healthy men, Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN: 0021-972X
CONTEXT: Osteoporosis results from disturbances in bone formation and resorption. Recent non-human data suggests that the reproductive hormone, kisspeptin, directly stimulates osteoblast differentiation in vitro and thus could have clinical therapeutic potential. However, the effects of kisspeptin on human bone metabolism are currently unknown. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of kisspeptin on human bone metabolism in vitro and in vivo. DESIGN: In vitro study: Mono- and co-cultures of human osteoblasts and osteoclasts treated with kisspeptin. Clinical study: Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, two-way crossover clinical study in twenty-six men investigating the effects of acute kisspeptin administration (90 minutes) on human bone metabolism, with blood sampling every 30 minutes to +90 minutes. PARTICIPANTS: In vitro study: Twelve male blood donors and eight patients undergoing hip replacement surgery. Clinical Study: Twenty-six healthy eugonadal men (age 26.8±5.8 years). INTERVENTION: Kisspeptin (versus placebo). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Changes in bone parameters and turnover markers. RESULTS: Incubation with kisspeptin in vitro increased alkaline phosphatase levels in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells by 41.1% (P=0.0022), and robustly inhibited osteoclastic resorptive activity by up to 53.4% (P<0.0001), in a dose-dependent manner. Kisspeptin administration to healthy men increased osteoblast activity, as evidenced by a 20.3% maximal increase in total osteocalcin (P=0.021) and 24.3% maximal increase in carboxylated osteocalcin levels (P=0.014). CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, these data provide the first human evidence that kisspeptin promotes osteogenic differentiation of osteoblast progenitors and inhibits bone resorption in vitro. Furthermore, kisspeptin acutely increases the bone formation marker osteocalcin but not resorption markers in healthy men, independent of downstream sex-steroid levels. Kisspeptin could therefore have clinical thera
Sharma A, Jayasena CN, Dhillo WS, 2022, Regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis: pathophysiology of hypogonadism, Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America, Vol: 51, Pages: 29-45, ISSN: 0889-8529
Clarke S, Phylactou M, Patel B, et al., 2022, Preserved C-peptide in survivors of COVID-19: post-hoc analysis, Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism: a journal of pharmacology and therapeutics, Vol: 24, Pages: 570-574, ISSN: 1462-8902
Aceves-Martins M, Quinton R, Brazzelli M, et al., 2022, Identifying the outcomes important to men with hypogonadism: A qualitative evidence synthesis, Andrology, Vol: 10, ISSN: 2047-2919
OBJECTIVE: Men with male hypogonadism (MH) experience sexual dysfunction, which improves with testosterone replacement therapy (TRT). However, randomised controlled trials provide little consensus on functional and behavioural symptoms in hypogonadal men; these are often better captured by qualitative information from individual patient experience. METHODS: We systematically searched major electronic databases to identify qualitative data from men with hypogonadism, with or without TRT. Two independent authors performed the selection, extraction, and thematic analysis of data. Quality of eligible studies was assessed using the Critical Appraisals Skills Programme and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation-Confidence in the Evidence from Reviews of Qualitative research tools. RESULTS: We analysed data from five studies published in nine reports that assessed a total of 284 participants. Published data were only available within North America, with no ethnic minority or other underserved groups included. In addition to sexual dysfunction, men with MH experienced adverse changes in physical strength, perceptions of masculinity, cognitive function, and quality of life. The experience of MH appeared dependent on the source(s) of educational material. DISCUSSION: We propose a patient-centred approach to clinician interactions rather than focusing on discreet MH symptoms. Current evidence about the experience of MH is limited to North America and predominantly white ethnicity, which may not be broadly applicable to other geographic regions. Broadening our understanding of the MH experience may improve the targeting of information to patients. In addition, a multidisciplinary approach may better address symptoms neither attributable to MH nor alleviated by TRT.
Clarke SA, Abbara A, Dhillo WS, 2022, Impact of COVID-19 on the Endocrine System: A Mini-review, ENDOCRINOLOGY, Vol: 163, ISSN: 0013-7227
Phylactou M, Abbara A, Al-Memar M, et al., 2022, Changes in circulating kisspeptin levels during each trimester in women with antenatal complications, Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol: 107, Pages: e71-e83, ISSN: 0021-972X
ContextAntenatal complications such as hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP), fetal growth restriction (FGR), gestational diabetes (GDM), and preterm birth (PTB) are associated with placental dysfunction. Kisspeptin has emerged as a putative marker of placental function, but limited data exist describing circulating kisspeptin levels across all three trimesters in women with antenatal complications.ObjectiveTo assess whether kisspeptin levels are altered in women with antenatal complications.DesignWomen with antenatal complications (n=105) and those with uncomplicated pregnancies (n=265) underwent serial ultrasound scans and blood-sampling at least once during each trimester (March 2014 to March 2017).SettingEarly Pregnancy Assessment Unit at Hammersmith Hospital, UK.ParticipantsWomen with antenatal complications: HDP (n=32), FGR (n=17), GDM (n=35) and PTB (n=11), and 10 women with multiple complications, provided 373 blood samples, and a further 265 controls provided 930 samples.Main outcomeDifferences in circulating kisspeptin levels.ResultsThird trimester kisspeptin levels were higher than controls in HDP but lower in FGR. The odds of HDP adjusted for gestational age, maternal age, ethnicity, BMI, smoking and parity were increased by 30% (95%CI 16-47%; p<0.0001), and of FGR were reduced by 28% (95%CI 4-46%; p=0.025), for every 1 nmol/L increase in plasma kisspeptin. Multiple of gestation-specific median values of kisspeptin were higher in pregnancies affected by PTB (p=0.014), and lower in those affected by GDM (p=0.020), but not significantly on multivariable analysis.ConclusionWe delineate changes in circulating kisspeptin levels at different trimesters and evaluate the potential of kisspeptin as a biomarker for antenatal complications.
Sharma A, Ul-Haq Z, Sindi E, et al., 2021, Clinical characteristics and comorbidities associated with testosterone prescribing in men, CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY, Vol: 96, Pages: 227-235, ISSN: 0300-0664
Izzi-Engbeaya C, Forlano R, Mullish BH, et al., 2021, Outcomes of postmenopausal women with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), Society for Endocrinology BES 2021, Pages: 58-58
Guzman S, Dragan M, Kwon H, et al., 2021, KISSPEPTIN RECEPTOR: NEW TARGET TO TREAT NONALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER DISEASE, Publisher: WILEY, Pages: 1074A-1075A, ISSN: 0270-9139
Mills EG, Yang L, Nielsen MF, et al., 2021, The Relationship Between Bone and Reproductive Hormones Beyond Estrogens and Androgens (vol 42, pg 691, 2021), ENDOCRINE REVIEWS, Vol: 42, Pages: 872-872, ISSN: 0163-769X
Abbara A, Dhillo WS, 2021, Targeting Elevated GnRH Pulsatility to Treat Polycystic Ovary Syndrome, JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY & METABOLISM, Vol: 106, Pages: E4275-E4277, ISSN: 0021-972X
Wernig F, Jayasena CN, Dhillo WS, 2021, Carcinoid syndrome and neuroendocrine tumours, Medicine (United Kingdom), Vol: 49, Pages: 544-547, ISSN: 1357-3039
Neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) arise from neuroendocrine cells of the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, bronchi or other rare primary sites and comprise a variety of different tumour types. NETs can be associated with a variety of clinical syndromes. For instance, classic symptoms of carcinoid syndrome, such as flushing and diarrhoea, occur because of the release of hormones, including serotonin, tachykinins and peptide hormones. However, most NETs are non-secretory in nature and are detected incidentally or through compression of surrounding structures. Liver metastasis has usually already occurred at the time of diagnosis. Surgery can be curative if disease is entirely localized. Injections of somatostatin analogues are the mainstay of non-surgical treatment for well-differentiated NETs. Surgical debulking and embolization techniques are useful to reduce tumour bulk in patients who remain symptomatic despite medical treatment. Peptide receptor radionucleotide therapy using radiolabelled somatostatin analogues has recently been shown to prolong progression-free survival. Furthermore, several novel agents, such as everolimus or sunitinib, have emerged in the treatment of patients with metastatic disease. This article aims to summarize the pathophysiology and clinical features of NETs, with a focus on carcinoid syndrome. It also discusses recent advances in clinical management of NETs.
Phylactou M, Abbara A, Al-Memar M, et al., 2021, Performance of plasma kisspeptin as a biomarker for miscarriage improves with gestation during the first trimester, Fertility and Sterility, Vol: 116, Pages: 809-819, ISSN: 0015-0282
ObjectiveTo compare the performance of kisspeptin and beta human chorionic gonadotropin (βhCG), both alone and in combination, as biomarkers for miscarriage throughout the first trimester.DesignProspective, nested case-control study.SettingTertiary Centre, Queen Charlotte Hospital, London, United Kingdom.Patient(s)Adult women who had miscarriages (n = 95, 173 samples) and women with healthy pregnancies (n = 265, 557 samples).Intervention(s)The participants underwent serial ultrasound scans and blood sampling for measurement of plasma kisspeptin and βhCG levels during the first trimester.Main Outcome Measure(s)The ability of plasma kisspeptin and βhCG levels to distinguish pregnancies complicated by miscarriage from healthy pregnancies unaffected by miscarriage.Result(s)Gestation-adjusted levels of circulating kisspeptin and βhCG were lower in samples from women with miscarriages than in women with healthy pregnancies by 79% and 70%, respectively. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for identifying miscarriage during the first trimester was 0.874 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.844–0.904) for kisspeptin, 0.859 (95% CI 0.820–0.899) for βhCG, and 0.916 (95% CI 0.886–0.946) for the sum of the two markers. The performance of kisspeptin in identifying miscarriage improved with increasing length of gestation, whereas that of βhCG worsened. A decision matrix incorporating kisspeptin, βhCG, and gestational age had 83% to 87% accuracy for the prediction of miscarriage.Conclusion(s)Plasma kisspeptin is a promising biomarker for miscarriage and provides additional value to βhCG alone, especially during later gestational weeks of the first trimester.
Abou Sherif S, Newman R, Haboosh S, et al., 2021, Investigating the potential of clinical and biochemical markers to differentiate between functional hypothalamic amenorrhoea and polycystic ovarian syndrome: A retrospective observational study, CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY, Vol: 95, Pages: 618-627, ISSN: 0300-0664
Phylactou M, Clarke S, Patel B, et al., 2021, Clinical and biochemical discriminants between functional hypothalamic amenorrhoea (FHA) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), Clinical Endocrinology, Vol: 95, Pages: 239-252, ISSN: 0300-0664
BackgroundSecondary oligo/amenorrhoea occurs in 3%–5% of women of reproductive age. The two most common causes are polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) (2%–13%) and functional hypothalamic amenorrhoea (FHA) (1%–2%). Whilst both conditions have distinct pathophysiology and their diagnosis is supported by guidelines, in practice, differentiating these two common causes of menstrual disturbance is challenging. Moreover, both diagnoses are qualified by the need to first exclude other causes of menstrual disturbance.AimTo review clinical, biochemical and radiological parameters that could aid the clinician in distinguishing PCOS and FHA as a cause of menstrual disturbance.ResultsFHA is uncommon in women with BMI > 24 kg/m2, whereas both PCOS and FHA can occur in women with lower BMIs. AMH levels are markedly elevated in PCOS; however, milder increases may also be observed in FHA. Likewise, polycystic ovarian morphology (PCOM) is more frequently observed in FHA than in healthy women. Features that are differentially altered between PCOS and FHA include LH, androgen, insulin, AMH and SHBG levels, endometrial thickness and cortisol response to CRH. Other promising diagnostic tests with the potential to distinguish these two conditions pending further study include assessment of 5‐alpha‐reductase activity, leptin, INSL3, kisspeptin and inhibin B levels.ConclusionFurther data directly comparing the discriminatory potential of these markers to differentiate PCOS and FHA in women with secondary amenorrhoea would be of value in defining an objective probability for PCOS or FHA diagnosis.
Abbara A, Clarke SA, Dhillo WS, 2021, Clinical Potential of Kisspeptin in Reproductive Health, TRENDS IN MOLECULAR MEDICINE, Vol: 27, Pages: 807-823, ISSN: 1471-4914
Comninos A, Yang L, OCallaghan J, et al., 2021, Kisspeptin modulates gamma-aminobutyric acid levels in the human brain, Psychoneuroendocrinology, Vol: 129, Pages: 1-5, ISSN: 0306-4530
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a key inhibitory neurotransmitter that has been implicated in the aetiology of common mood and behavioural disorders. By employing proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in man, we demonstrate that administration of the reproductive neuropeptide, kisspeptin, robustly decreases GABA levels in the limbic system of the human brain; specifically the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). This finding defines a novel kisspeptin-activated GABA pathway in man, and provides important mechanistic insights into the mood and behaviour-altering effects of kisspeptin seen in rodents and humans. In addition, this work has therapeutic implications as it identifies GABA-signalling as a potential target for the escalating development of kisspeptin-based therapies for common reproductive disorders of body and mind.
Clarke S, Phylactou M, Patel B, et al., 2021, Normal adrenal and thyroid function in patients who survive COVID-19 infection, Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol: 106, Pages: 2208-2220, ISSN: 0021-972X
ContextThe COVID-19 pandemic continues to exert an immense burden on global health services. Moreover, up to 63% of patients experience persistent symptoms, including fatigue, after acute illness. Endocrine systems are vulnerable to the effects of COVID-19 as many glands express the ACE2 receptor, used by the SARS-CoV-2 virion for cellular access. However, the effects of COVID-19 on adrenal and thyroid gland function after acute COVID-19 remain unknown. ObjectivesOur objectives were to evaluate adrenal and thyroid gland function in COVID-19 survivors. DesignA prospective, observational study was undertaken. SettingClinical Research Facility, Imperial College NHS Healthcare Trust. ParticipantsSeventy patients ≥ 18 years at least 3 months after diagnosis of COVID-19 were included. InterventionParticipants attended a research study visit (08:00-09:30), during which a short Synacthen test (250 µg IV bolus), and thyroid function assessments were performed.ResultsAll patients had a peak cortisol ≥450 nmol/l after Synacthen, consistent with adequate adrenal reserve. Basal and peak serum cortisol did not differ according to disease severity or history of dexamethasone treatment during COVID-19. There was no difference in baseline or peak cortisol after Synacthen or in thyroid function tests, or thyroid status, in patients with fatigue (n=44) compared to those without (n=26).ConclusionsAdrenal and thyroid function ≥3 months after presentation with COVID-19 was preserved. Whilst a significant proportion of patients experienced persistent fatigue, their symptoms were not accounted for by alterations in adrenal or thyroid function. These findings have important implications for the clinical care of patients after COVID-19.
Salem V, Demetriou L, Behary P, et al., 2021, Weight loss by low calorie diet versus gastric bypass surgery in people with diabetes results in divergent brain activation patterns: an functional MRI study, Diabetes Care, Vol: 44, Pages: 1842-1851, ISSN: 0149-5992
OBJECTIVE: Weight loss achieved with very-low-calorie diets (VLCDs) can produce remission of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but weight regain very often occurs with reintroduction of higher calorie intakes. In contrast, bariatric surgery produces clinically significant and durable weight loss, with diabetes remission that translates into reductions in mortality. We hypothesized that in patients living with obesity and prediabetes/T2D, longitudinal changes in brain activity in response to food cues as measured using functional MRI would explain this difference.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Sixteen participants underwent gastric bypass surgery, and 19 matched participants undertook a VLCD (meal replacement) for 4 weeks. Brain responses to food cues and resting-state functional connectivity were assessed with functional MRI pre- and postintervention and compared across groups.RESULTS: We show that Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) results in three divergent brain responses compared with VLCD-induced weight loss: 1) VLCD resulted in increased brain reward center food cue responsiveness, whereas in RYGB, this was reduced; 2) VLCD resulted in higher neural activation of cognitive control regions in response to food cues associated with exercising increased cognitive restraint over eating, whereas RYGB did not; and 3) a homeostatic appetitive system (centered on the hypothalamus) is better engaged following RYGB-induced weight loss than VLCD.CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these findings point to divergent brain responses to different methods of weight loss in patients with diabetes, which may explain weight regain after a short-term VLCD in contrast to enduring weight loss after RYGB.
Izzi-Engbeaya C, Dhillo WS, 2021, Emerging roles for kisspeptin in metabolism, JOURNAL OF PHYSIOLOGY-LONDON, Vol: 600, Pages: 1079-1088, ISSN: 0022-3751
Zaman S, Almazrouei R, Sam AH, et al., 2021, Synacthen stimulation test following unilateral adrenalectomy needs to be interpreted with caution, Frontiers in Endocrinology, Vol: 12, Pages: 1-7, ISSN: 1664-2392
Background: Cortisol levels in response to stress are highly variable. Baseline and stimulated cortisol levels are commonly used to determine adrenal function following unilateral adrenalectomy. We report the results of synacthen stimulation testing following unilateral adrenalectomy in a tertiary referral center.Methods: Data were collected retrospectively for 36 patients who underwent synacthen stimulation testing one day post unilateral adrenalectomy. None of the patients had clinical signs of hypercortisolism preoperatively. No patient received pre- or intraoperative steroids. Patients with overt Cushing’s syndrome were excluded.Results: The median age was 58 (31-79) years. Preoperatively, 16 (44%) patients had a diagnosis of pheochromocytoma, 12 (33%) patients had primary aldosteronism and 8 (22%) patients had non-functioning adenomas with indeterminate/atypical imaging characteristics necessitating surgery. Preoperative overnight dexamethasone suppression test results revealed that 6 of 29 patients failed to suppress cortisol to <50 nmol/L. Twenty (56%) patients achieved a stimulated cortisol ≥450 nmol/L at 30 minutes and 28 (78%) at 60 minutes. None of the patients developed clinical adrenal insufficiency necessitating steroid replacement.Conclusions: Synacthen stimulation testing following unilateral adrenalectomy using standard stimulated cortisol cut-off values would wrongly label many patients adrenally insufficient and may lead to inappropriate prescriptions of steroids to patients who do not need them.
Mills EG, Yang L, Nielsen MF, et al., 2021, The Relationship Between Bone and Reproductive Hormones Beyond Estrogens and Androgens, ENDOCRINE REVIEWS, Vol: 42, Pages: 691-719, ISSN: 0163-769X
Yang L, Demetriou L, Wall MB, et al., 2021, The Effects of Kisspeptin on Brain Response to Food Images and Psychometric Parameters of Appetite in Healthy Men, JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY & METABOLISM, Vol: 106, Pages: E1837-E1848, ISSN: 0021-972X
Pawsey S, Mills EG, Ballantyne E, et al., 2021, Elinzanetant (NT-814), a Neurokinin 1,3 Receptor Antagonist, Reduces Estradiol and Progesterone in Healthy Women, JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ENDOCRINOLOGY & METABOLISM, Vol: 106, Pages: E3221-E3234, ISSN: 0021-972X
This data is extracted from the Web of Science and reproduced under a licence from Thomson Reuters. You may not copy or re-distribute this data in whole or in part without the written consent of the Science business of Thomson Reuters.