Imperial College London

Professor WE (Bill) Lee FREng

Faculty of EngineeringInstitute for Security Science & Technology

Co-Director of Institute for Security Science and Technology



+44 (0)20 7594 6733w.e.lee Website




Ms Denise McGurk +44 (0)20 7594 8864




Central LibrarySouth Kensington Campus






BibTex format

author = {Gasparrini, C and Podor, R and Horlait, D and Chater, R and Lee, W},
doi = {10.1007/s11085-016-9672-6},
journal = {Oxidation of Metals},
pages = {509--519},
title = {Zirconium carbide oxidation: Maltese Cross formation and interface characterization},
url = {},
volume = {88},
year = {2016}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - Oxidation of dense hot pressed ZrC specimens from 1073 –1473 K was investigated using an in-situtechnique:HT-ESEM. Cuboid specimens were monitored on the surface and on edges and corners during oxidation in order to understand the influence of crack formation and propagation on the Maltese cross shapedevelopmentof the oxide. The oxidation mechanism comprisedthree steps: (1) delamination of sample edges,(2) crack formation at corners and (3) crackpropagation towards the inner core and formation of microcracks parallel to the interfacethat increase the accessible surface areafollowed by a drastic volume expansion.The microcrackpattern is found to berepetitive as if a cyclicdebonding of the interfaceoccurred. Characterization of the interface by TEM and HRTEMrevealed the interface between ZrC and ZrO2 tocomprise a 2μm thick amorphouscarbonmatrix with ZrO2nanocrystals embedded in it.
AU - Gasparrini,C
AU - Podor,R
AU - Horlait,D
AU - Chater,R
AU - Lee,W
DO - 10.1007/s11085-016-9672-6
EP - 519
PY - 2016///
SN - 1573-4889
SP - 509
TI - Zirconium carbide oxidation: Maltese Cross formation and interface characterization
T2 - Oxidation of Metals
UR -
UR -
VL - 88
ER -