Imperial College London


Faculty of EngineeringDepartment of Computing

Professor of Applied Quantitative Analysis



+44 (0)20 7594 8331w.knottenbelt Website




E363ACE ExtensionSouth Kensington Campus






BibTex format

author = {Kelly, J and Knottenbelt, WJ},
journal = {CoRR},
title = {Does disaggregated electricity feedback reduce domestic electricity consumption? A systematic review of the literature},
url = {},
volume = {abs/1605.00962},
year = {2016}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - We examine 12 studies on the efficacy of disaggregated energy feedback. The average electricity reduction across these studies is 4.5%. However, 4.5% may be a positively-biased estimate of the savings achievable across the entire population because all 12 studies are likely to be prone to opt-in bias hence none test the effect of disaggregated feedback on the general population. Disaggregation may not be required to achieve these savings: Aggregate feedback alone drives 3% reductions; and the 4 studies which directly compared aggregate feedback against disaggregated feedback found that aggregate feedback is at least as effective as disaggregated feedback, possibly because web apps are viewed less often than in-home-displays (in the short-term, at least) and because some users do not trust fine-grained disaggregation (although this may be an issue with the specific user interface studied). Disaggregated electricity feedback may help a motivated sub-group of the population to save more energy but fine-grained disaggregation may not be necessary to achieve these energy savings. Disaggregation has many uses beyond those discussed in this paper but, on the specific question of promoting energy reduction in the general population, there is no robust evidence that current forms of disaggregated energy feedback are more effective than aggregate energy feedback. The effectiveness of disaggregated feedback may increase if the general population become more energy-conscious (e.g. if energy prices rise or concern about climate change deepens); or if users' trust in fine-grained disaggregation improves; or if innovative new approaches or alternative disaggregation strategies (e.g. disaggregating by behaviour rather than by appliance) out-perform existing feedback. We also discuss opportunities for new research into the effectiveness of disaggregated feedback.
AU - Kelly,J
AU - Knottenbelt,WJ
PY - 2016///
TI - Does disaggregated electricity feedback reduce domestic electricity consumption? A systematic review of the literature
T2 - CoRR
UR -
VL - abs/1605.00962
ER -