313 results found
Mijic A, Whyte J, Fisk D, et al., 2021, The Centre for Systems Engineering and Innovation – 2030 vision and 10-year celebration
The 2030 vision of the Centre is to bring Systems Engineering and Innovation to Civil Infrastructure by changing how cross-sector infrastructure challenges are addressedin an integrated way using principles of systems engineering to maximise resilience, safety and sustainability in an increasingly complex world.We want to better understand the environmental and societal impacts of infrastructure interventions under uncertainty. This requires a change in current approaches to infrastructure systems engineering: starting from the natural environmentand its resources, encompassing societaluse of infrastructure and the supporting infrastructure assets and services.We argue for modelling that brings natural as well as built environments within the system boundaries to better understand infrastructure and to better assess sustainability. We seethe work as relevant to both the academic community and to a wide range of industry and policy applications that are working on infrastructure transition pathways towards fair, safe and sustainable society.This vision was developed through discussions between academics in preparation for the Centre for Systems Engineering and Innovation (CSEI) 10 years celebration. These rich discussions about the future of the Centre were inspired by developing themes for a celebration event, through which we have summarised the first 10 years of the Centre’s work and our vision for the future and identified six emerging research areas.
Wang Y, Wang L, Lin S, et al., 2021, Effect of Working Experience on Air Traffic Controller Eye Movement, Engineering, ISSN: 2095-8099
Eye movement is an important indicator of information-seeking behavior and provides insight into cognitive strategies which are vital for decision-making. Various measures based on eye movements have been proposed to capture humans’ ability to process information in a complex environment. The effectiveness of these measures has not yet been fully explored in the field of air traffic management. This paper presents a comparative study on eye-movement measures in air traffic controllers with different levels of working experience. Two commonly investigated oculomotor behaviors, fixation and saccades, together with gaze entropy, are examined. By comparing the statistical properties of the relevant metrics, it is shown that working experience has a notable effect on eye-movement patterns. Both fixation and saccades differ between qualified and novice controllers, with the former type of controller employing more efficient searching strategies. These findings are useful in enhancing the quality of controller training and contributing to an understanding of the information-seeking mechanisms humans use when executing complex tasks
Sun R, Cheng Q, Xie F, et al., 2021, Combining Machine Learning and Dynamic Time Wrapping for Vehicle Driving Event Detection Using Smartphones, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS, Vol: 22, Pages: 194-207, ISSN: 1524-9050
Whyte J, Mijic A, Myers RJ, et al., 2020, A research agenda on systems approaches to infrastructure, Journal of Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems, Vol: 37, Pages: 214-233, ISSN: 1029-0249
At a time of system shocks, significant underlying challenges are revealed in current approaches to delivering infrastructure, including that infrastructure users in many societies feel distant from nature. We set out a research agenda on systems approaches to infrastructure, drawing on ten years of interdisciplinary work on operating infrastructure, infrastructure interventions and lifecycles. Research insights and directions on complexity, systems integration, data-driven systems engineering, infrastructure life-cycles, and the transition towards zero pollution are summarised. This work identifies a need to better understand the natural and societal impacts of infrastructure interventions under uncertainty. We argue for a change in current approaches to infrastructure: starting from the natural environment and its resources, encompassing societal use of infrastructure and the supporting infrastructure assets and services. To support such proposed new systems approaches to infrastructure, researchers need to develop novel modelling methods, forms of model integration, and multi-criteria indicators.
Shang W-L, Chen Y, Bi H, et al., 2020, Statistical Characteristics and Community Analysis of Urban Road Networks, Complexity, Vol: 2020, Pages: 1-21, ISSN: 1076-2787
<jats:p>Urban road networks are typical complex systems, which are crucial to our society and economy. In this study, topological characteristics of a number of urban road networks purely based on physical roads rather than routes of vehicles or buses are investigated in order to discover underlying unique structural features, particularly compared to other types of transport networks. Based on these topological indices, correlations between topological indices and small-worldness of urban road networks are also explored. The finding shows that there is no significant small-worldness for urban road networks, which is apparently different from other transport networks. Following this, community detection of urban road networks is conducted. The results reveal that communities and hierarchy of urban road networks tend to follow a general nature rule.</jats:p>
Wang H, Quan W, Ochieng WY, 2020, Smart road stud based two-lane traffic surveillance, JOURNAL OF INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS, Vol: 24, Pages: 480-493, ISSN: 1547-2450
Escribano Macias J, Goldbeck N, Hsu P-Y, et al., 2020, Endogenous stochastic optimisation for relief distribution assisted with unmanned aerial vehicles, OR SPECTRUM, Vol: 42, Pages: 1089-1125, ISSN: 0171-6468
Shang W-L, Chen Y, Song C, et al., 2020, Robustness Analysis of Urban Road Networks from Topological and Operational Perspectives, Mathematical Problems in Engineering, Vol: 2020, Pages: 1-12, ISSN: 1024-123X
<jats:p>This study comprehensively analyses the robustness of urban road networks through topological indices based on the complex network theory and operational indices based on traffic assignment theory: User Equilibrium (UE), System Optimum (SO), and Price of Anarchy (POA). Analysing topological indices may pin down the most important nodes for URNs from the perspective of connectivity, while more sophisticated operational indices are helpful to examine the importance of nodes for URNs by taking into account link capacity, travel demand, and drivers’ behaviour. The previous way is calculated in a static way, which reduces the computation times and increases the efficiency for quick assessment of the robustness of URNs, while the latter is in a dynamic way, namely, calculating is based on removal of individual nodes, although this way is more likely to capture realistic meanings but consumes huge amount of time. The efforts made in this study try to find the relationship between topological and operational indices so as to assist the assessment of robustness of URNs to local disruptions. Seven realistic urban road networks such as Sioux Falls and Anaheim are used as network examples, and results show that different indices reflect robustness characteristics of urban road networks from different ways, and rank correlations between any two indices are poor although small network such as Sioux Falls have better correlations than others.</jats:p>
Ochieng W, Nascimento F, Majumdar A, 2020, Predictive Safety Through Survey Interviewing - Developing a Task-Based Hazard Identification Survey Process in Offshore Helicopter Operations, Advances in Human Aspects of Transportation Proceedings of the AHFE 2020 Virtual Conference on Human Aspects of Transportation, July 16-20, 2020, USA, Editors: Stenton, Publisher: Springer Nature, ISBN: 9783030509439
Offshore helicopters play a vital role in energy production worldwide and must be operated safely. Safety is underpinned by hazard identification, which aspires to be predictive and remain operationally relevant. A process to elicit pilots’ operational hazard knowledge in a predictive manner is currently absent. This paper redresses this by developing a Task-Based Hazard Identification Survey Process which, through Talk-Through interviewing, collects data from a statistically representative sample of pilots based in specified regions. A factual and exhaustive hazards’ template is formed, to which various statistical methods are applied. Subjected to multiple validation and reliability checks, the process delivers on the aspiration to be predictive on safety.
Ochieng W, Nascimento F, Majumdar A, 2020, redictive Safety Through Survey Interviewing - Developing a Task-Based Hazard Identification Survey Process in Offshore Helicopter Operations, Advances in Human Aspects of Transportation Proceedings of the AHFE 2020 Virtual Conference on Human Aspects of Transportation, July 16-20, 2020, USA, Editors: Stanton, Publisher: Springer Nature, ISBN: 9783030509439
This book discusses the latest advances in the research and development, design, operation, and analysis of transportation systems and their corresponding infrastructures.
Sun R, Wang G, Fan Z, et al., 2020, An Integrated Urban Positioning Algorithm Using Matching, Particle Swam Optimized Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System and a Spatial City Model, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, Vol: 69, Pages: 4842-4854, ISSN: 0018-9545
Yu Y, Han K, Ochieng W, 2020, Day-to-day dynamic traffic assignment with imperfect information, bounded rationality and information sharing, Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Vol: 114, Pages: 59-83, ISSN: 0968-090X
Elhajj M, Ochieng WY, 2020, Urban bus positioning: Location based services and high level system architecture, Case Studies on Transport Policy, Vol: 8, Pages: 12-21, ISSN: 2213-624X
Today’s urban transport systems are dominated by private vehicles, which are significant contributors to traffic congestion and pollution. This is expected to increase as the urban population grows, predicted to account for about 68% of the world’s population by 2050. In comparison to private cars, transport systems dominated by buses produce lower traffic congestion and emissions. Therefore, improvements in bus operation activities most of which require information on bus location (i.e. location based services) should facilitate urban transport sustainability.However, to date there is no agreement globally on the location based services, their location requirements and technologies to deliver significant improvement in bus operations. Therefore, this paper creates for the first time, a comprehensive list of bus operation services and specifies the performance requirements. These are considered together with challenging spatio-temporal characteristics of the urban environment to specify a high-level location determination system architecture for urban bus operations. The services, their requirements, standards and positioning system architecture are essential for the formulation of appropriate policies, regulation, service provision, and development and procurement of urban bus positioning systems.
Sun R, Zhang W, Zheng J, et al., 2020, GNSS/INS Integration with Integrity Monitoring for UAV No-fly Zone Management, REMOTE SENSING, Vol: 12
Sun R, Wang G, Zhang W, et al., 2020, A gradient boosting decision tree based GPS signal reception classification algorithm, APPLIED SOFT COMPUTING, Vol: 86, ISSN: 1568-4946
Goldbeck N, Angeloudis P, Ochieng W, 2020, Optimal supply chain resilience with consideration of failure propagation and repair logistics, Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Vol: 133, Pages: 1-20, ISSN: 1366-5545
The joint optimisation of investments in capacity and repair capability of production and logistics systems at risk of being damaged is an important aspect of supply chain resilience that is not sufficiently addressed by state-of-the-art modelling approaches. Furthermore, logistical issues of procuring repair resources impact speed of recovery but are not considered in most existing models. This paper presents a novel multi-stage stochastic programming model that optimizes pre-disruption investment decisions, as well as post-disruption dynamic adjustment of supply chain operations and allocation of repair resources. A case study demonstrates how the method can quantify the effects of pooling repair resources.
Escribano Macias J, Angeloudis P, Ochieng W, 2020, Optimal hub selection for rapid medical deliveries using unmanned aerial vehicles, Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, Vol: 110, Pages: 56-80, ISSN: 0968-090X
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are being increasingly deployed in humanitarian response operations. Beyond regulations, vehicle range and integration with the humanitarian supply chain inhibit their deployment. To address these issues, we present a novel bi-stage operational planning approach that consists of a trajectory optimisation algorithm (that considers multiple flight stages), and a hub selection-routing algorithm that incorporates a new battery management heuristic. We apply the algorithm to a hypothetical response mission in Taiwan after the Chi-Chi earthquake of 1999 considering mission duration and distribution fairness. Our analysis indicates that UAV fleets can be used to provide rapid relief to populations of 20,000 individuals in under 24 h. Additionally, the proposed methodology achieves significant reductions in mission duration and battery stock requirements with respect to conservative energy estimations and other heuristics.
Yin J, Ma Y, Tian W, et al., 2020, Impact Analysis of Demand Management on Runway Configuration in Metroplex Airports, IEEE Access, Vol: 8, Pages: 66189-66212
Shang W-L, Chen Y, Ochieng WY, 2020, Resilience Analysis of Transport Networks by Combining Variable Message Signs With Agent-Based Day-to-Day Dynamic Learning, IEEE Access, Vol: 8, Pages: 104458-104468
Yang L, van Dam KH, Majumdar A, et al., 2019, Integrated design of transport infrastructure and public spaces considering human behavior: A review of state-of-the-art methods and tools, FRONTIERS OF ARCHITECTURAL RESEARCH, Vol: 8, Pages: 429-453, ISSN: 2095-2635
Huang M, Ochieng WY, Nie H, et al., 2019, Main Wheel Prerotation and Ground Taxi Driven by Electric Taxi System, Journal of Aerospace Engineering, Vol: 32, Pages: 04019088-04019088, ISSN: 0893-1321
Goldbeck N, Angeloudis P, Ochieng W, 2019, Resilience assessment for interdependent urban infrastructure systems using dynamic network flow models, Reliability Engineering and System Safety, Vol: 188, Pages: 62-79, ISSN: 0951-8320
Critical infrastructure systems are becoming increasingly interdependent, which can exacerbate the impacts of disruptive events through cascading failures, hindered asset repairs and network congestion. Current resilience assessment methods fall short of fully capturing such interdependency effects as they tend to model asset reliability and network flows separately and often rely on static flow assignment methods. In this paper, we develop an integrated, dynamic modelling and simulation framework that combines network and asset representations of infrastructure systems and models the optimal response to disruptions using a rolling planning horizon. The framework considers dependencies pertaining to failure propagation, system-of-systems architecture and resources required for operating and repairing assets. Stochastic asset failure is captured by a scenario tree generation algorithm whereas the redistribution of network flows and the optimal deployment of repair resources are modelled using a minimum cost flow approach. A case study on London’s metro and electric power networks shows how the proposed methodology can be used to assess the resilience of city-scale infrastructure systems to a local flooding incident and estimate the value of the resilience loss triangle for different levels of hazard exposure and repair capabilities.
Sun R, Hsu L-T, Xue D, et al., 2019, GPS Signal Reception Classification Using Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System, JOURNAL OF NAVIGATION, Vol: 72, Pages: 685-701, ISSN: 0373-4633
Ye B, Yong T, Shortle J, et al., 2019, Sensitivity analysis of potential capacity and safety of flow corridor to self-separation parameters, AERONAUTICAL JOURNAL, Vol: 123, Pages: 56-78, ISSN: 0001-9240
Wang H, Gu C, Ochieng WY, 2019, Vehicle Trajectory Reconstruction for Signalized Intersections with Low-Frequency Floating Car Data, JOURNAL OF ADVANCED TRANSPORTATION, ISSN: 0197-6729
Yin J, Ma Y, Hu Y, et al., 2018, Dynamic runway configurations and flexible arrival/departure tradeoffs in metroplex airports, IEEE/AIAA 37th Digital Avionics Systems Conference, Publisher: IEEE
Runway system is central to airport capacity. Its inefficient ultilization has been identified as a major source of airport congestions. This paper analyzes the patterns of demand- capacity imbalance and design a series of flexible strategies for air traffic demand management (ATDM), and then optimize runway configurations in metroplex (i.e. multi-airport system) airports, under a set of tradeoff settings for arrival and departure priorities. An optimization model with 4 imbalance cases, 11 tradeoff scenarios and 2 configuration strategies, are proposed to minimize the flight holding cost and the number of adjusted flights. The proposed evolutionary algorithm can obtain close-to optimal results with a very low computational cost. A case study of the Shanghai metroplex airports shows that, compared with the traditional static strategy, the proposed dynamic strategy can significantly reduce the number of adjusted flights. The proposed framework in this paper can be applied on pre-tactical (i.e. one-day planning) as well as tactical (i.e. 2-h rolling horizon) levels, to keep the balance between high demand and limited capacity through flexible ATDM options.
Koudis GS, Hu SJ, Majumdar A, et al., 2018, The impact of single engine taxiing on aircraft fuel consumption and pollutant emissions, Aeronautical Journal, Vol: 122, Pages: 1967-1984, ISSN: 0001-9240
Optimisation of aircraft ground operations to reduce airport emissions can reduce resultant local air quality impacts. Single engine taxiing (SET), where only half of the installed number of engines are used for the majority of the taxi duration, offers the opportunity to reduce fuel consumption, and emissions of NOX, CO and HC. Using 3510 flight data records, this paper develops a model for SET operations and presents a case study of London Heathrow, where we show that SET is regularly implemented during taxi-in. The model predicts fuel consumption and pollutant emissions with greater accuracy than previous studies that used simplistic assumptions. Without SET during taxi-in, fuel consumption and pollutant emissions would increase by up to 50%. Reducing the time before SET is initiated to the 25th percentile of recorded values would reduce fuel consumption and pollutant emissions by 7–14%, respectively, relative to current operations. Future research should investigate the practicalities of reducing the time before SET initialisation so that additional benefits of reduced fuel loadings, which would decrease fuel consumption across the whole flight, can be achieved.
Psyllou E, Majumdar A, Ochieng W, 2018, A Review of Navigation Involving General Aviation Pilots Flying under Visual Flight Rules, JOURNAL OF NAVIGATION, Vol: 71, Pages: 1130-1142, ISSN: 0373-4633
Ainalis D, Achurra-Gonzalez P, Gaudin A, et al., 2018, Ultra-Capacitor based kinetic energy recovery system for heavy goods vehicles, 15th International Symposium on Heavy Vehicle Transport Technology, Publisher: International Forum for Heavy Vehicle Transport & Technology
The Climate Change Act 2008 commits the UK to reduce the Greenhouse Gas emissions by 80% by 2050 relative to 1990 levels. While Heavy Goods Vehicles and buses contribute about 4% of the total Greenhouse Gas emissions in the UK, these emissions only decrease by 10% between 1990 and 2015. Urban areas are particularly susceptible to emissions and can have a significant impact upon the health of residents. For Heavy Goods Vehicles, braking losses are one of the most significant losses. A Kinetic Energy Recovery System can help reduce these emissions, and increase fuel efficiency by up to 30 %. This paper describes an InnovateUK funded project aimed at evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of a retrofitted Kinetic Energy Recovery System on Heavy Goods Vehicles through an operational trial, controlled emissions and fuel tests, and numerical modelling. A series of preliminary results using a numerical vehicle model is compared with operational data, along with simulations comparing the fuel efficiency of a Heavy Goods Vehicle with and without the KERS.
Han K, Graham D, Ochieng W, 2018, M20/A20 Congestion Prediction with Post-Brexit Border Delays, M20/A20 Congestion Prediction with Post-Brexit Border Delays
This research was commissioned by the BBC Inside Out South East program. It aims to quantify the congestion impact on M20/A20 of potential check time increase at Port of Dover and Eurotunnel (in Folkestone) in a post-Brexit scenario. We focus on a 40-mile segment of the M20/A20 motorway between Maidstone and Dover, with local access to Ashford and Folkestone. We consider outbound lorries and passenger vehicles that use the ferry and tunnel to cross the Straight of Dover, as well as traffic with local origins and destinations. Traffic simulations were conducted with assumptions regarding the check times at Dover and Eurotunnel for both current and post-Brexit scenarios. The impact of vehicle queuing at these locations was assessed in terms of queue length, travel time, and disruption to local traffic. The findings show that even one or two minutes of extra check times at the borders are accompanied by a dramatic increase of congestion on the motorways as well as local streets, with queues extending up to 30 miles from Dover/Eurotunnel towards Maidstone and travel time approaching 5 hours in peak times.
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