Imperial College London

Prof. William Wisden F. Med. Sci.

Faculty of Natural SciencesDepartment of Life Sciences

Chair in Molecular Neuroscience



+44 (0)20 7594 9744w.wisden Website CV




401BSir Ernst Chain BuildingSouth Kensington Campus






BibTex format

author = {Ma, S and Hangya, B and Leonard, CS and Wisden, W and Gundlach, AL},
doi = {10.1016/j.neubiorev.2017.07.009},
journal = {Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews},
pages = {21--33},
title = {Dual-transmitter systems regulating arousal, attention, learning and memory.},
url = {},
volume = {85},
year = {2017}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - An array of neuromodulators, including monoamines and neuropeptides, regulate most behavioural and physiological traits. In the past decade, dramatic progress has been made in mapping neuromodulatory circuits, in analysing circuit dynamics, and interrogating circuit function using pharmacogenetic, optogenetic and imaging methods This review will focus on several distinct neural networks (acetylcholine/GABA/glutamate; histamine/GABA; orexin/glutamate; and relaxin-3/GABA) that originate from neural hubs that regulate wakefulness and related attentional and cognitive processes, and highlight approaches that have identified dual transmitter roles in these behavioural functions. Modulation of these different neural networks might be effective treatments of diseases related to arousal/sleep dysfunction and of cognitive dysfunction in psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders.
AU - Ma,S
AU - Hangya,B
AU - Leonard,CS
AU - Wisden,W
AU - Gundlach,AL
DO - 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2017.07.009
EP - 33
PY - 2017///
SN - 0149-7634
SP - 21
TI - Dual-transmitter systems regulating arousal, attention, learning and memory.
T2 - Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
UR -
VL - 85
ER -