Imperial College London

DR YUTONG SAMUEL CAI

Faculty of MedicineSchool of Public Health

Honorary Research Fellow
 
 
 
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Contact

 

yutong.cai

 
 
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Location

 

155Wright Fleming WingSt Mary's Campus

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Summary

 

Publications

Publication Type
Year
to

41 results found

Zhang H, Fan Y, Han Y, Yan L, Zhou B, Chen W, Cai Y, Chan Q, Zhu T, Kelly FJ, Barratt B, AIRLESS Team Bet al., 2022, Partitioning indoor-generated and outdoor-generated PM2.5 from real-time residential measurements in urban and peri-urban Beijing, SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT, Vol: 845, ISSN: 0048-9697

Journal article

Roscoe C, Mackay C, Gulliver J, Hodgson S, Cai Y, Vineis P, Fecht Det al., 2022, Associations of private residential gardens versus other greenspace types with cardiovascular and respiratory disease mortality: observational evidence from UK Biobank, Environment International, Vol: 167, ISSN: 0160-4120

BackgroundLongitudinal evidence linking urban greenspace to reduced rates of all-cause and cause-specific mortality has mostly been established using greenness measures of limited specificity such as vegetation indices. Evidence on specific green space types, including private residential gardens is less well established.MethodsWe examined associations of greenspace with all-cause, non-injury, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and respiratory disease deaths in UK Biobank – a national prospective cohort of adults with linked Office for National Statistics mortality records. We included private residential gardens and other greenspace types e.g. public parks, sport facilities, using categories from Ordnance Survey MasterMap™ Greenspace. We used Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for individual and area-level covariates, and stratified analyses by sex, household income, and area-level deprivation. In sensitivity analyses, we further adjusted for air pollution, road-traffic noise, indirect tobacco smoke exposure, and physical activity, and restricted analyses to non-movers.ResultsIn 232,926 participants, we observed 13,586 all-cause, 13,159 non-injury, 2,796 cardiovascular (CVD), and 968 respiratory disease deaths. Private residential garden cover showed inverse associations with all-cause, non-injury, CVD, and chronic respiratory disease mortality, after adjustment for covariates and other types of greenspace, with hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals of 0.94 (0.91, 0.97), 0.95 (0.92, 0.97), 0.92 (0.86, 0.98) and 0.87 (0.78, 0.98), respectively, per interquartile range (IQR) increase in private residential garden cover (IQR = 21.6% increase within 100 m buffer). Other greenspace types showed weaker inverse associations with CVD and chronic respiratory disease mortality than private residential gardens. Sex, household income, and area level deprivation modified associations. Findings were robust to sensitivity analyses.ConclusionOur finding that priv

Journal article

Fisher T, Gibson H, Liu Y, Abdar M, Posa M, Salimi-Khorshidi G, Hassaine A, Cai Y, Rahimi K, Mamouei Met al., 2022, Uncertainty-Aware Interpretable Deep Learning for Slum Mapping and Monitoring, REMOTE SENSING, Vol: 14

Journal article

Mamouei M, Zhu Y, Nazarzadeh M, Hassaine A, Salimi-Khorshidi G, Cai Y, Rahimi Ket al., 2022, Investigating the association of environmental exposures and all-cause mortality in the UK Biobank using sparse principal component analysis, SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, Vol: 12, ISSN: 2045-2322

Journal article

Liang L, Cai Y, Lyu B, Zhang D, Chu S, Jing H, Rahimi K, Tong Zet al., 2022, Air pollution and hospitalization of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis in Beijing: a time-series study, RESPIRATORY RESEARCH, Vol: 23

Journal article

Lyu B, Cai Y, Sun Z, Li J, Liang Let al., 2022, Evaluating temporally decomposed associations between PM2.5 and hospitalisation risks of AECOPD: A case study in Beijing from 2010 to 2019, ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTION RESEARCH, Vol: 13, ISSN: 1309-1042

Journal article

Cai Y, 2021, Ambient pollen and air quality on children's lung function: is there a synergy?, THORAX, Vol: 76, Pages: 858-859, ISSN: 0040-6376

Journal article

Cai YS, Gibson H, Ramakrishnan R, Mamouei M, Rahimi Ket al., 2021, Ambient Air Pollution and Respiratory Health in Sub-Saharan African Children: A Cross-Sectional Analysis, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH AND PUBLIC HEALTH, Vol: 18

Journal article

Kupcikova Z, Fecht D, Ramakrishnan R, Clark C, Cai Yet al., 2021, Road traffic noise and cardiovascular disease risk factors in UK Biobank, European Heart Journal, Vol: 42, Pages: 2072-2084, ISSN: 0195-668X

Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the cross-sectional associations of modelled residential road traffic noise with cardiovascular disease risk factors [systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), C-reactive protein, triglycerides, glycated haemoglobin, and self-reported hypertension] in UK Biobank.Methods and results: The UK Biobank recruited 502 651 individuals aged 40–69 years across the UK during 2006–10. Road traffic noise (Lden and Lnight) exposure for 2009 was estimated at baseline address using a simplified version of the Common Noise Assessment Methods model. We used multivariable linear and logistic regression models, adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), smoking, alcohol intake, area- and individual-level deprivation, season of blood draw, length of time at residence, and nitrogen dioxide (main model), in an analytical sample size of over 370 000 participants. Exposure to road-traffic Lden >65 dB[A], as compared to ≤55 dB[A], was associated with 0.77% [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.60%, 0.95%], 0.49% (95% CI 0.32%, 0.65%), 0.79% (95% CI 0.11%, 1.47%), and 0.12% (95% CI −0.04%, 0.28%) higher SBP, DBP, triglycerides, and glycated haemoglobin, respectively. Removing BMI from the main model yielded significant positive associations with all five markers with elevated percent changes. The associations with SBP or DBP did not appear to be impacted by hypertension medication while a positive association with prevalent self-reported hypertension was seen in the non-medicated group who exposed to a Lden level of 60–65 dB[A] (odds ratio 1.07, 95% CI 1.00, 1.15).Conclusion: Exposure to road traffic noise >65 dB[A], independent of nitrogen dioxide, was associated with small but adverse changes in blood pressure and cardiovascular biochemistry.

Journal article

Zheng F, Cai Y, Han X, Ma Y, Hua R, Xie Let al., 2021, Reduced Lung Function and Cognitive Decline in Aging: A Longitudinal Cohort Study, ANNALS OF THE AMERICAN THORACIC SOCIETY, Vol: 18, Pages: 373-376, ISSN: 1546-3222

Journal article

van der Plaat DA, Rantala AK, Alif SM, Karadoğan D, Cai Y, Dumas Oet al., 2021, ERS International Congress 2020: highlights from the epidemiology and environment assembly, ERJ Open Research, Vol: 7, Pages: 1-9, ISSN: 2312-0541

In this article, early career members of the Epidemiology and Environment Assembly of the European Respiratory Society (ERS) summarise a selection of five sessions from the ERS 2020 Virtual International Congress. The topics covered include risk factors for chronic respiratory diseases over the life course, from early life origins to occupational exposures in adulthood, and the interplay between these risk factors, including gene–environment interactions. Novel results were also presented on smoking prevention and potential risks of vaping. Finally, the challenges and opportunities for epidemiological and environmental research brought by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic were a major topic of this year's congress.

Journal article

Cai Y, Ramakrishnan R, Rahimi K, 2021, Long-term exposure to traffic noise and mortality: A systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological evidence between 2000 and 2020, ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION, Vol: 269, ISSN: 0269-7491

Journal article

Chen Y, Hodgson S, Gulliver J, Granell R, Henderson AJ, Cai Y, Hansell ALet al., 2021, Trimester effects of source-specific PM10 on birth weight outcomes in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), Environmental Health, Vol: 1, ISSN: 1476-069X

BackgroundEvidence suggests that exposure to particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM10) is associated with reduced birth weight, but information is limited on the sources of PM10 and exposure misclassification from assigning exposures to place of residence at birth.MethodsTrimester and source-specific PM10 exposures (PM10 from road source, local non-road source, and total source) in pregnancy were estimated using dispersion models and a full maternal residential history for 12,020 births from the Avon longitudinal study of parents and children (ALSPAC) cohort in 1990–1992 in the Bristol area. Information on birth outcomes were obtained from birth records. Maternal sociodemographic and lifestyle factors were obtained from questionnaires. We used linear regression models for continuous outcomes (birth weight, head circumference (HC), and birth length (BL) and logistic regression models for binary outcomes (preterm birth (PTB), term low birth weight (TLBW) and small for gestational age (SGA)). Sensitivity analysis was performed using multiple imputation for missing covariate data.ResultsAfter adjustment, interquartile range increases in source specific PM10 from traffic were associated with 17 to 18% increased odds of TLBW in all pregnancy periods. We also found odds of TLBW increased by 40% (OR: 1.40, 95%CI: 1.12, 1.75) and odds of SGA increased by 18% (OR: 1.18, 95%CI: 1.05, 1.32) per IQR (6.54 μg/m3) increase of total PM10 exposure in the third trimester.ConclusionThis study adds to evidence that maternal PM10 exposures affect birth weight, with particular concern in relation to exposures to PM10 from road transport sources; results for total PM10 suggest greatest effect in the third trimester. Effect size estimates relate to exposures in the 1990s and are higher than those for recent studies – this may relate to reduced exposure misclassification through use of full residential history information, changes in

Journal article

Cai Y, Zijlema WL, Sorgjerd EP, Doiron D, de Hoogh K, Hodgson S, Wolffenbuttel B, Gulliver J, Hansell AL, Nieuwenhuijsen M, Rahimi K, Kvaloy Ket al., 2020, Impact of road traffic noise on obesity measures: Observational study of three European cohorts, ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH, Vol: 191, ISSN: 0013-9351

Journal article

Chatzidiakou L, Krause A, Han Y, Chen W, Yan L, Popoola OAM, Kellaway M, Wu Y, Liu J, Hu M, Barratt B, Kelly FJ, Zhu T, Jones RLet al., 2020, Using low-cost sensor technologies and advanced computational methods to improve dose estimations in health panel studies: results of the AIRLESS project, Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology, Vol: 30, Pages: 981-989, ISSN: 1559-0631

BackgroundAir pollution epidemiology has primarily relied on fixed outdoor air quality monitoring networks and static populations.MethodsTaking advantage of recent advancements in sensor technologies and computational techniques, this paper presents a novel methodological approach that improves dose estimations of multiple air pollutants in large-scale health studies. We show the results of an intensive field campaign that measured personal exposures to gaseous pollutants and particulate matter of a health panel of 251 participants residing in urban and peri-urban Beijing with 60 personal air quality monitors (PAMs). Outdoor air pollution measurements were collected in monitoring stations close to the participants’ residential addresses. Based on parameters collected with the PAMs, we developed an advanced computational model that automatically classified time-activity-location patterns of each individual during daily life at high spatial and temporal resolution.ResultsApplying this methodological approach in two established cohorts, we found substantial differences between doses estimated from outdoor and personal air quality measurements. The PAM measurements also significantly reduced the correlation between pollutant species often observed in static outdoor measurements, reducing confounding effects.ConclusionsFuture work will utilise these improved dose estimations to investigate the underlying mechanisms of air pollution on cardio-pulmonary health outcomes using detailed medical biomarkers in a way that has not been possible before.

Journal article

Cai Y, Hansell AL, Granell R, Blangiardo M, Zottoli M, Fecht D, Gulliver J, Henderson AJ, Elliott Pet al., 2020, Prenatal, early-life and childhood exposure to air pollution and lung function: the ALSPAC cohort, American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Vol: 202, Pages: 112-123, ISSN: 1073-449X

RATIONALE: Exposure to air pollution during intrauterine development and through childhood may have lasting effects on respiratory health. OBJECTIVES: To investigate lung function at ages 8 and 15 years in relation to air pollution exposures during pregnancy, infancy and childhood in a UK population-based birth cohort. METHODS: Individual exposures to source-specific particulate matter with diameter ≤10µm (PM10) during each trimester, 0-6 months, 7-12 months (1990-1993) and up to age 15 years (1991-2008) were examined in relation to %predicted Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) at ages 8(N=5,276) and 15(N=3,446) years, usinglinear regression models adjusted for potential confounders. A profile regression model was used to identify sensitive time periods. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We did not find clear evidence for a sensitive exposure period for PM10 from road-traffic: at age 8 years, 1µg/m3 higher exposure during the first trimester was associated with lower %predicted of FEV1(-0.826, 95%CI:-1.357 to -0.296) and FVC(-0.817, 95%CI:-1.357 to -0.276), but similar associations were seen for exposures for other trimesters, 0-6 months, 7-12 months, and 0-7 years. Associations were stronger among boys, children whose mother had a lower education level or smoked during pregnancy. For PM10 from all sources, the third trimester was associated with lower %predicted of FVC (-1.312, 95%CI: -2.100 to -0.525). At age 15 years, no adverse associations were seen with lung function. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to road-traffic PM10 during pregnancy may result in small but significant reductions in lung function at age 8 years.

Journal article

Song P, Fang Z, Wang H, Cai Y, Rahimi K, Zhu Y, Fowkes FGR, Fowkes FJI, Rudan Iet al., 2020, Global and regional prevalence, burden and risk factors for carotid atherosclerosis: a systematic review and modelling analysis, The Lancet Global Health, Vol: 8, Pages: e721-e729, ISSN: 2214-109X

BackgroundEstimation of the epidemiological burden of carotid atherosclerosis can serve as a basis for prevention and management of cardiovascular disease. We aimed to provide the first estimation on the prevalence, number of cases, and risk factors for carotid atherosclerosis in the general population globally and regionally.MethodsIn this systematic review, meta-analysis, and modelling study, we searched PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, Global Health, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure for articles published from database inception until May 7, 2019, with no language restrictions, for population-based studies that quantified prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis by means of increased carotid intima-media thickness, carotid plaque, and carotid stenosis. Studies were eligible if they included bilaterally scanned carotid arteries using ultrasonography and defined increased carotid intima-media thickness as a thickness of 1·0 mm or more, carotid plaque as a focal carotid intima-media thickness of 1·5 mm or more encroaching into the lumen or at least 0·5 mm or 50% compared with the surrounding carotid intima-media thickness values, and carotid stenosis as 50% or more stenosis. Studies were excluded if the sample was not representative of the general population. We also included studies identified in our previous systematic review and meta-analysis of the prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis in China. We estimated age-specific and sex-specific prevalences of increased carotid intima-media thickness, carotid plaque, and carotid stenosis. We used UN population data to generate the number of people affected in 2000, 2015, and 2020. We did random-effects meta-analyses to assess the effects of risk factors for increased carotid intima-media thickness and carotid plaque. We derived regional numbers of people living with increased carotid intima-media thickness and carotid plaque in 2015 using a risk factors-based model by WHO region. All analyses were d

Journal article

EguiluzGracia I, Mathioudakis AG, Bartel S, Vijverberg SJH, Fuertes E, Comberiati P, Cai YS, Tomazic PV, Diamant Z, Vestbo J, Galan C, Hoffmann Bet al., 2020, The need for clean air: the way air pollution and climate change affect allergic rhinitis and asthma, Allergy, Vol: 75, Pages: 2170-2184, ISSN: 0105-4538

Air pollution and climate change have a significant impact on human health and well‐being and contribute to the onset and aggravation of allergic rhinitis and asthma among other chronic respiratory diseases. In Westernized countries, households have experienced a process of increasing insulation and individuals tend to spend most of their time indoors. These sequelae implicate a high exposure to indoor allergens (house dust mites, pets, molds, etc.), tobacco smoke and other pollutants, which have an impact on respiratory health. Outdoor air pollution derived from traffic and other human activities not only has a direct negative effect on human health but also enhances the allergenicity of some plants and contributes to global warming. Climate change modifies the availability and distribution of plant‐ and fungal‐derived allergens and increases the frequency of extreme climate events. This review summarizes the effects of indoor air pollution, outdoor air pollution and subsequent climate change on asthma and allergic rhinitis in children and adults and addresses the policy adjustments and lifestyle changes required to mitigate their deleterious effects.

Journal article

Doiron D, de Hoogh K, Probst-Hensch N, Fortier I, Cai Y, De Matteis S, Hansell Aet al., 2019, Air pollution, lung function and COPD: results from the population-based UK Biobank study, European Respiratory Journal, Vol: 54, ISSN: 0903-1936

Ambient air pollution increases the risk of respiratory mortality but evidence for impacts on lung function and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)is less well established. The aim was toevaluatewhether ambient air pollution isassociated with lung function andCOPD, and explore potential vulnerability factors. We used UK Biobank data on 303,887 individuals aged 40-69 years, with complete covariate data and valid lung function measures. Cross-sectional analysesexamined associations ofLand Use Regression-based estimates ofparticulate matter (PM2.5, PM1035and PMcoarse) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations withforced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), the FEV1/FVC ratio, and COPD (FEV1/FVC 37< lower limit of normal). Effect modificationwas investigated for sex, age, obesity, smoking status, household income, asthma status, and occupations previously linked to COPD.40Higher exposures to each pollutant weresignificantly associated with lower lung function. A 5 μg/m3increase in PM2.5concentrationwas associated with lower FEV1(-83.13 mL [95%CI: -92.50, -73.75]) and FVC (-62.62 mL [95%CI:-73.91, -51.32]). COPD prevalence was associated with higher concentrations of PM2.5 (OR 1.52 [95%CI: 1.,1.62], per 5 μg/m3),PM10 (OR 1.08 [95%CI: 1.00,1.16], per 5 μg/m3), andNO2(OR 1.12 [95%CI: 1.10, 1.14], per 10 μg/m3), but not with PMcoarse.Stronger lung functionassociations were 46seenfor males, individuals from lower income households,and ‘at-risk’ occupations, and higher COPD associations for obese, lower income,and non-asthmatic participants. Ambient air pollution wasassociated with lowerlung function and increased COPD prevalencein this large study.

Journal article

Liang L, Cai Y, Barratt B, Lyu B, Chan Q, Hansell AL, Xie W, Zhang D, Kelly FJ, Tong Zet al., 2019, Associations between daily air quality and hospitalisations for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Beijing, 2013-17: an ecological analysis, Lancet Planet Health, Vol: 3, Pages: e270-e279, ISSN: 2542-5196

BACKGROUND: Air pollution in Beijing has been improving through implementation of the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan (2013-17), but its implications for respiratory morbidity have not been directly investigated. We aimed to assess the potential effects of air-quality improvements on respiratory health by investigating the number of cases of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) advanced by air pollution each year. METHODS: Daily city-wide concentrations of PM10, PM2.5, PMcoarse (particulate matter >2.5-10 mum diameter), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O3) in 2013-17 were averaged from 35 monitoring stations across Beijing. A generalised additive Poisson time-series model was applied to estimate the relative risks (RRs) and 95% CIs for hospitalisation for acute exacerbation of COPD associated with pollutant concentrations. FINDINGS: From Jan 18, 2013, to Dec 31, 2017, 161 613 hospitalisations for acute exacerbation of COPD were recorded. Mean ambient concentrations of SO2 decreased by 68% and PM2.5 decreased by 33% over this 5-year period. For each IQR increase in pollutant concentration, RRs for same-day hospitalisation for acute exacerbation of COPD were 1.029 (95% CI 1.023-1.035) for PM10, 1.028 (1.021-1.034) for PM2.5, 1.018 (1.013-1.022) for PMcoarse, 1.036 (1.028-1.044) for NO2, 1.019 (1.013-1.024) for SO2, 1.024 (1.018-1.029) for CO, and 1.027 (1.010-1.044) for O3 in the warm season (May to October). Women and patients aged 65 years or older were more susceptible to the effects of these pollutants on hospitalisation risk than were men and patients younger than 65 years. In 2013, there were 12 679 acute exacerbations of COPD cases that were advanced by PM2.5 pollution above the expected number of cases if daily PM2.5 concentrations had not exceeded the WHO target (25 mug/m(3)), whereas the respective figure in 2017 was 7377 cases. INTERPRETATION: Despite improveme

Journal article

Cai Y, Hansell A, Hodgson S, Elliott P, Fecht D, Gulliver J, Key T, de Hoogh K, Hveem K, Morley D, Vienneau D, Blangiardo Met al., 2018, Road traffic noise, air pollution and incident cardiovascular disease: a joint analysis of the HUNT, EPIC-Oxford and UK Biobank cohorts, Environment International, ISSN: 0160-4120

Background: This study aimed to investigate the effects of long-term exposure to road traffic noiseand air pollutionon incident cardiovascular disease (CVD)in three large cohorts: HUNT, EPIC-Oxford and UK Biobank. Methods: In pooled complete-casesample of the three cohorts from Norway and the United Kingdom(N=355,732), 21,081 incident all CVD cases including 5,259ischemic heart disease (IHD)and 2,871cerebrovascular cases were ascertained between baseline (1993-2010)and end of follow-up (2008-2013)through medical recordlinkage. Annual mean 24-hour weighted road traffic noise(Lden) and air pollution (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm [PM10],≤2.5 μm [PM2.5]andnitrogen 39dioxide[NO2])exposure at baseline address was modelled using a simplified version of the Common Noise Assessment Methods in Europe (CNOSSOS-EU)and European-wide Land Use Regression models.Individual-level covariate data were harmonised and physically pooled across the three cohorts. Analysis was via Cox proportional hazard model with mutual adjustmentsforboth noise and air pollution andpotential confounders. Results: No significant associations were found between annual mean Ldenand incidentCVD,IHD or cerebrovascular disease in the overall populationexcept that the association withincident IHD was significantamong current-smokers.In the fully adjusted models including adjustmentfor Lden, an interquartile range (IQR) higher PM10(4.1μg/m3) or PM2.5(1.4μg/m3) was associated witha5.8% (95%CI: 2.5%-9.3%) and 3.7% (95%CI: 0.2%-7.4%) higherrisk for all incident CVD respectively. No significant associations were found between NO2and any of the CVD outcomes. Conclusions: We found suggestive evidence of a possible association between road traffic noise and incident IHD, consistent with current literature. Long-term particulate air pollution exposure, even at concentrations below current European air quality standards, w

Journal article

Gulliver J, Elliott P, Hansell A, Cai Y, McCrea A, Garwood K, Fecht D, Briggs Det al., 2018, Local- and regional-scale air pollution modelling (PM10) and exposure assessment for pregnancy trimesters, infancy, and childhood to age 15 years: Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents And Children (ALSPAC)., Environment International, Vol: 113, Pages: 10-19, ISSN: 0160-4120

We established air pollution modelling to study particle (PM10) exposures during pregnancy and infancy (1990–1993) through childhood and adolescence up to age ~15 years (1991–2008) for the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents And Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort. For pregnancy trimesters and infancy (birth to 6 months; 7 to 12 months) we used local (ADMS-Urban) and regional/long-range (NAME-III) air pollution models, with a model constant for local, non-anthropogenic sources. For longer exposure periods (annually and the average of birth to age ~8 and to age ~15 years to coincide with relevant follow-up clinics) we assessed spatial contrasts in local sources of PM10 with a yearly-varying concentration for all background sources. We modelled PM10 (μg/m3) for 36,986 address locations over 19 years and then accounted for changes in address in calculating exposures for different periods: trimesters/infancy (n = 11,929); each year of life to age ~15 (n = 10,383). Intra-subject exposure contrasts were largest between pregnancy trimesters (5th to 95th centile: 24.4–37.3 μg/m3) and mostly related to temporal variability in regional/long-range PM10. PM10 exposures fell on average by 11.6 μg/m3 from first year of life (mean concentration = 31.2 μg/m3) to age ~15 (mean = 19.6 μg/m3), and 5.4 μg/m3 between follow-up clinics (age ~8 to age ~15). Spatial contrasts in 8-year average PM10 exposures (5th to 95th centile) were relatively low: 25.4–30.0 μg/m3 to age ~8 years and 20.7–23.9 μg/m3 from age ~8 to age ~15 years. The contribution of local sources to total PM10 was 18.5%–19.5% during pregnancy and infancy, and 14.4%–17.0% for periods leading up to follow-up clinics. Main roads within the study area contributed on average ~3.0% to total PM10 exposures in all periods; 9.5% of address locations were within 50 m of a main road. Exposure estimates will be used in a number of planned epidemiological studies.

Journal article

Doiron D, de Hoogh K, Probst-Hensch N, Mbatchou S, Eeftens M, Cai Y, Schindler C, Fortier I, Hodgson S, Gaye A, Stolk R, Hansell Aet al., 2017, Residential Air Pollution and Associations with Wheeze and Shortness of Breath in Adults: A Combined Analysis of Cross-Sectional Data from Two Large European Cohorts., Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol: 125, ISSN: 0091-6765

BACKGROUND: Research examining associations between air pollution exposure and respiratory symptoms in adults has generally been inconclusive. This may be related in part to sample size issues, which also preclude analysis in potentially vulnerable subgroups. OBJECTIVES: We estimated associations between air pollution exposures and the prevalence of wheeze and shortness of breath using harmonized baseline data from two very large European cohorts, Lifelines (2006-2013) and UK Biobank (2006-2010). Our aim was also to determine whether the relationship between air pollution and respiratory symptom prevalence differed between individuals with different characteristics. METHODS: Cross-sectional analyses explored associations between prevalence of self-reported wheeze and shortness of breath and annual mean particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <2.5μm, 2.5-10μm, and <10μm (PM2.5, PMcoarse, and PM10, respectively) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations at place of residence using logistic regression. Subgroup analyses and tests for interaction were performed for age, sex, smoking status, household income, obesity status, and asthma status. RESULTS: All PM exposures were associated with respiratory symptoms based on single-pollutant models, with the largest associations seen for PM2.5 with prevalence of wheezing {odds ratio (OR)=1.16 per 5μg/m³ [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11, 1.21]} and shortness of breath [OR=1.61 per 5μg/m³ (95% CI: 1.45, 1.78)]. The association between shortness of breath and a 5-μg/m³ increment in PM2.5 was significantly higher for individuals from lower-[OR=1.73 (95% CI: 1.52, 1.97)] versus higher-income households [OR=1.31 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.55); p-interaction=0.005), whereas the association between PM2.5 and wheeze was limited to lower-income participants [OR=1.30 (95% CI: 1.22, 1.38) vs. OR=1.02; (95% CI: 0.96, 1.08); p-interaction<0.001]. Exposure to NO2 also showed positive associations with

Journal article

Cai Y, Hodgson S, Blangiardo M, Gulliver J, Morley D, Vienneau D, de Hoogh K, Key T, Hveem K, Elliott P, Hansell Aet al., 2017, Road traffic noise and incident cardiovascular disease: a joint analysis of HUNT, EPIC-Oxford and UK Biobank, ICBEN 2017 Proceedings

Aims: This study aimed to investigate the effects of long-term exposure to road traffic noise on incident CVD in three large cohorts: HUNT, EPIC-Oxford and UK Biobank. Methods: In a complete-case sample (N=361,699), 4,014 IHD and 2,109 cerebrovascular incident cases were ascertained between baseline (1993-2010) and end of follow-up (2008-2015) through medical record linkage. Annual mean road traffic noise exposure was modelled at baseline address. Individual-level covariate data were harmonised and data were pooled. Analyses used Cox proportional hazards model with adjustments for confounders, including air pollution. Results: For an interquartile range (IQR) (3.9 dBA) higher daytime noise, a non-significant association with incident IHD was seen (Hazard ratio (HR): 1.015, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.989-1.042), fully adjusted. Statistically significant associations and interaction terms were seen in obese individuals (HR: 1.099, 95%CI: 1.029-1.174), and current-smokers (HR: 1.054, 95%CI: 1.007-1.103). No associations were found for ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. Conclusions: Our study strengthens the evidence base for an effect of road traffic noise on incident IHD, whilst the association with incident stroke remains unclear.

Journal article

Hansell A, Cai Y, Gulliver J, 2017, Cardiovascular Health Effects of Road Traffic Noise, Environmental Impacts of Road Vehicles Past, Present and Future, Publisher: Issues in Environmental Scienc, ISBN: 9781782628927

This book is a comprehensive source of authoritative information for students studying pollution, and for policy-makers concerned with vehicle emissions and road traffic impacts more generally.

Book chapter

Cai Y, Hansell A, Blangiardo M, Burton P, de Hoogh K, Doiron D, Fortier I, Gulliver J, Hveem K, Mbatchou S, Morley D, Stolk R, Zijlema W, Elliott P, Hodgson Set al., 2017, Long-term exposure to road traffic noise, ambient air pollution and cardiovascular risk factors in the HUNT and Lifelines cohorts, European Heart Journal, Vol: 38, Pages: 2290-2296, ISSN: 1522-9645

AimsBlood biochemistry may provide information on associations between road traffic noise, air pollution, and cardiovascular disease risk. We evaluated this in two large European cohorts (HUNT3, Lifelines).Methods and resultsRoad traffic noise exposure was modelled for 2009 using a simplified version of the Common Noise Assessment Methods in Europe (CNOSSOS-EU). Annual ambient air pollution (PM10, NO2) at residence was estimated for 2007 using a Land Use Regression model. The statistical platform DataSHIELD was used to pool data from 144 082 participants aged ≥20 years to enable individual-level analysis. Generalized linear models were fitted to assess cross-sectional associations between pollutants and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), blood lipids and for (Lifelines only) fasting blood glucose, for samples taken during recruitment in 2006–2013. Pooling both cohorts, an inter-quartile range (IQR) higher day-time noise (5.1 dB(A)) was associated with 1.1% [95% confidence interval (95% CI: 0.02–2.2%)] higher hsCRP, 0.7% (95% CI: 0.3–1.1%) higher triglycerides, and 0.5% (95% CI: 0.3–0.7%) higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL); only the association with HDL was robust to adjustment for air pollution. An IQR higher PM10 (2.0 µg/m3) or NO2 (7.4 µg/m3) was associated with higher triglycerides (1.9%, 95% CI: 1.5–2.4% and 2.2%, 95% CI: 1.6–2.7%), independent of adjustment for noise. Additionally for NO2, a significant association with hsCRP (1.9%, 95% CI: 0.5–3.3%) was seen. In Lifelines, an IQR higher noise (4.2 dB(A)) and PM10 (2.4 µg/m3) was associated with 0.2% (95% CI: 0.1–0.3%) and 0.6% (95% CI: 0.4–0.7%) higher fasting glucose respectively, with both remaining robust to adjustment for air/noise pollution.ConclusionLong-term exposures to road traffic noise and ambient air pollution were associated with blood biochemistry, providing a possible link b

Journal article

Cai Y, Hodgson S, Blangiardo M, De Hoogh K, Morley D, Gulliver J, Hveem K, Elliott P, Hansell Aet al., 2017, Ambient Air Pollution, Traffic Noise And Adult-Onset Asthma: The Hunt Study, Norway, International Conference of the American-Thoracic-Society (ATS), Publisher: American Thoracic Society, ISSN: 1073-449X

Conference paper

Zijlema W, Cai Y, Doiron D, Mbatchou S, Fortier I, Gulliver J, de Hoogh K, Morley D, Hodgson S, Elliott P, Key T, Kongsgard H, Hveem K, Gaye A, Burton P, Hansell A, Stolk R, Rosmalen Jet al., 2017, Corrigendum to "Road traffic noise, blood pressure and heart rate: Pooled analyses of harmonized data from 88,336 participants" [Envrion. Res. 151 (2016) 804-813], Environmental Research, Vol: 152, Pages: 520-520, ISSN: 0013-9351

Journal article

Cai Y, Zijlema WL, Doiron D, Blangiardo M, Burton PR, Fortier I, Gaye A, Gulliver J, de Hoogh K, Hveem K, Mbatchou S, Morley DW, Stolk RP, Elliott P, Hansell AL, Hodgson Set al., 2016, Ambient air pollution, traffic noise and adult asthma prevalence: a BioSHaRE approach, European Respiratory Journal, Vol: 49, ISSN: 0903-1936

We investigated the effects of both ambient air pollution and traffic noise on adult asthma prevalence, using harmonised data from three European cohort studies established in 2006–2013 (HUNT3, Lifelines and UK Biobank).Residential exposures to ambient air pollution (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter <=10 µm (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)) were estimated by a pan-European Land Use Regression model for 2007. Traffic noise for 2009 was modelled at home addresses by adapting a standardised noise assessment framework (CNOSSOS-EU). A cross-sectional analysis of 646 731 participants aged >=20 years was undertaken using DataSHIELD to pool data for individual-level analysis via a “compute to the data” approach. Multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to assess the effects of each exposure on lifetime and current asthma prevalence.PM10 or NO2 higher by 10 µg·m-3 was associated with 12.8% (95% CI 9.5–16.3%) and 1.9% (95% CI 1.1–2.8%) higher lifetime asthma prevalence, respectively, independent of confounders. Effects were larger in those aged >=50 years, ever-smokers and less educated. Noise exposure was not significantly associated with asthma prevalence.This study suggests that long-term ambient PM10 exposure is associated with asthma prevalence in western European adults. Traffic noise is not associated with asthma prevalence, but its potential to impact on asthma exacerbations needs further investigation.Long-term ambient PM10 exposure is associated with asthma prevalence in three European adult cohorts http://ow.ly/En4b3049S7X

Journal article

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