172 results found
Steven RT, Niehaus M, Taylor AJ, et al., 2022, Atmospheric-Pressure Infrared Laser-Ablation Plasma- Postionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging of Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded (FFPE) and Fresh-Frozen Tissue Sections with No Sample Preparation, ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, Vol: 94, Pages: 9970-9974, ISSN: 0003-2700
- Author Web Link
- Citations: 3
Wu V, Tillner J, Jones E, et al., 2022, High resolution ambient MS imaging of biological samples by desorption electro-flow focussing ionization, Analytical Chemistry, Vol: 94, Pages: 10035-10044, ISSN: 0003-2700
In this study, we examine the suitability of desorption electro-flow focusing ionization (DEFFI) for mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) of biological tissue. We also compare the performance of desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) with and without the flow focusing setup. The main potential advantages of applying the flow focusing mechanism in DESI is its rotationally symmetric electrospray jet, higher intensity, more controllable parameters, and better portability due to the robustness of the sprayer. The parameters for DEFFI have therefore been thoroughly optimized, primarily for spatial resolution but also for intensity. Once the parameters have been optimized, DEFFI produces similar images to the existing DESI. MS images for mouse brain samples, acquired at a nominal pixel size of 50 μm, are comparable for both DESI setups, albeit the new sprayer design yields better sensitivity. Furthermore, the two methods are compared with regard to spectral intensity as well as the area of the desorbed crater on rhodamine-coated slides. Overall, the implementation of a flow focusing mechanism in DESI is shown to be highly suitable for imaging biological tissue and has potential to overcome some of the shortcomings experienced with the current geometrical design of DESI.
Inglese P, Huang HX, Wu V, et al., 2022, Mass recalibration for desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging using endogenous reference ions, BMC Bioinformatics, Vol: 23, Pages: 1-17, ISSN: 1471-2105
BackgroundMass spectrometry imaging (MSI) data often consist of tens of thousands of mass spectra collected from a sample surface. During the time necessary to perform a single acquisition, it is likely that uncontrollable factors alter the validity of the initial mass calibration of the instrument, resulting in mass errors of magnitude significantly larger than their theoretical values. This phenomenon has a two-fold detrimental effect: (a) it reduces the ability to interpret the results based on the observed signals, (b) it can affect the quality of the observed signal spatial distributions.ResultsWe present a post-acquisition computational method capable of reducing the observed mass drift by up to 60 ppm in biological samples, exploiting the presence of typical molecules with a known mass-to-charge ratio. The procedure, tested on time-of-flight and Orbitrap mass spectrometry analyzers interfaced to a desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) source, improves the molecular annotation quality and the spatial distributions of the detected ions.ConclusionThe presented method represents a robust and accurate tool for performing post-acquisition mass recalibration of DESI-MSI datasets and can help to increase the reliability of the molecular assignment and the data quality.
Strittmatter N, Richards FM, Race AM, et al., 2022, Method To Visualize the Intratumor Distribution and Impact of Gemcitabine in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma by Multimodal Imaging, ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, Vol: 94, Pages: 1795-1803, ISSN: 0003-2700
Strittmatter N, Kanvatirth P, Inglese P, et al., 2021, Holistic characterization of a salmonella typhimurium infection model using integrated molecular imaging., Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry, Vol: 32, Pages: 2791-2802, ISSN: 1044-0305
A more complete and holistic view on host-microbe interactions is needed to understand the physiological and cellular barriers that affect the efficacy of drug treatments and allow the discovery and development of new therapeutics. Here, we developed a multimodal imaging approach combining histopathology with mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) and same section imaging mass cytometry (IMC) to study the effects of Salmonella Typhimurium infection in the liver of a mouse model using the S. Typhimurium strains SL3261 and SL1344. This approach enables correlation of tissue morphology and specific cell phenotypes with molecular images of tissue metabolism. IMC revealed a marked increase in immune cell markers and localization in immune aggregates in infected tissues. A correlative computational method (network analysis) was deployed to find metabolic features associated with infection and revealed metabolic clusters of acetyl carnitines, as well as phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine plasmalogen species, which could be associated with pro-inflammatory immune cell types. By developing an IMC marker for the detection of Salmonella LPS, we were further able to identify and characterize those cell types which contained S. Typhimurium.
Metodiev MD, Steven RT, Loizeau X, et al., 2021, Modality Agnostic Model for Spatial Resolution in Mass Spectrometry Imaging: Application to MALDI MSI Data, ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, Vol: 93, Pages: 15295-15305, ISSN: 0003-2700
- Author Web Link
- Citations: 1
Pruski P, Dos Santos Correia G, Lewis H, et al., 2021, Direct on-swab metabolic profiling of vaginal microbiome host interactions during pregnancy and preterm birth, Nature Communications, Vol: 12, ISSN: 2041-1723
The pregnancy vaginal microbiome contributes to risk of preterm birth, the primary cause of death in children under 5 years of age. Here we describe direct on-swab metabolic profiling by Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (DESI-MS) for sample preparation-free characterisation of the cervicovaginal metabolome in two independent pregnancy cohorts (VMET, n = 160; 455 swabs; VMET II, n = 205; 573 swabs). By integrating metataxonomics and immune profiling data from matched samples, we show that specific metabolome signatures can be used to robustly predict simultaneously both the composition of the vaginal microbiome and host inflammatory status. In these patients, vaginal microbiota instability and innate immune activation, as predicted using DESI-MS, associated with preterm birth, including in women receiving cervical cerclage for preterm birth prevention. These findings highlight direct on-swab metabolic profiling by DESI-MS as an innovative approach for preterm birth risk stratification through rapid assessment of vaginal microbiota-host dynamics.
Capece D, D'Andrea D, Begalli F, et al., 2021, Enhanced triacylglycerol catabolism by Carboxylesterase 1 promotes aggressive colorectal carcinoma., Journal of Clinical Investigation, ISSN: 0021-9738
The ability to adapt to low-nutrient microenvironments is essential for tumor-cell survival and progression in solid cancers, such as colorectal carcinoma (CRC). Signaling by the NF-κB transcription-factor pathway associates with advanced disease stages and shorter survival in CRC patients. NF-κB has been shown to drive tumor-promoting inflammation, cancer-cell survival and intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) dedifferentiation in mouse models of CRC. However, whether NF-κB affects the metabolic adaptations that fuel aggressive disease in CRC patients is unknown. Here, we identified carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) as an essential NF-κB-regulated lipase linking obesity-associated inflammation with fat metabolism and adaptation to energy stress in aggressive CRC. CES1 promoted CRC-cell survival via cell-autonomous mechanisms that fuel fatty-acid oxidation (FAO) and prevent the toxic build-up of triacylglycerols. We found that elevated CES1 expression correlated with worse outcomes in overweight CRC patients. Accordingly, NF-κB drove CES1 expression in CRC consensus molecular subtype (CMS)4, associated with obesity, stemness and inflammation. CES1 was also upregulated by gene amplifications of its transcriptional regulator, HNF4A, in CMS2 tumors, reinforcing its clinical relevance as a driver of CRC. This subtype-based distribution and unfavourable prognostic correlation distinguished CES1 from other intracellular triacylglycerol lipases and suggest CES1 could provide a route to treat aggressive CRC.
Manoli E, Mason S, Ford L, et al., 2021, Validation of ultrasonic harmonic scalpel for real-time tissue identification using rapid evaporative ionization mass spectrometry, Analytical Chemistry, Vol: 93, Pages: 5906-5916, ISSN: 0003-2700
In this study, we integrate rapid evaporative ionization mass spectrometry (REIMS) with the Harmonic scalpel, an advanced laparoscopic surgical instrument that utilizes ultrasound energy to dissect and coagulate tissues. It provides unparalleled manipulation capability to surgeons and has superseded traditional electrosurgical tools particularly in abdominal surgery, but is yet to be validated with REIMS. The REIMS platform coupled with the Harmonic device was shown to produce tissue-specific lipid profiles through the analysis of porcine tissues in both negative and positive ionization modes. Comparison with other methods of electrosurgical dissection, such as monopolar electrosurgery and CO2 laser, showed spectral differences in the profile dependent on the energy device used. The Harmonic device demonstrated major spectral differences in the phospholipid region of m/z 600–1000 compared with the monopolar electrosurgical and CO2 laser-generated spectra. Within the Harmonic REIMS spectra, high intensities of diglycerides and triglycerides were observed. In contrast, monopolar electrosurgical and laser spectra demonstrated high abundances of glycerophospholipids. The Harmonic scalpel was able to differentiate between the liver, muscle, colon, and small intestine, demonstrating 100% diagnostic accuracy. The validation of the Harmonic device–mass spectrometry combination will allow the platform to be used safely and robustly for real-time in vivo surgical tissue identification in a variety of clinical applications.
Dannhorn A, Ling S, Powell S, et al., 2021, Evaluation of UV-C Decontamination of Clinical Tissue Sections for Spatially Resolved Analysis by Mass Spectrometry Imaging (MSI), ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, Vol: 93, Pages: 2767-2775, ISSN: 0003-2700
- Author Web Link
- Citations: 2
Sands CJ, Gómez-Romero M, Correia G, et al., 2021, Representing the metabolome with high fidelity: range and response as quality control factors in LC-MS-based global profiling., Analytical Chemistry, Vol: 93, Pages: 1924-1933, ISSN: 0003-2700
Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is a powerful and widely used technique for measuring the abundance of chemical species in living systems. Its sensitivity, analytical specificity, and direct applicability to biofluids and tissue extracts impart great promise for the discovery and mechanistic characterization of biomarker panels for disease detection, health monitoring, patient stratification, and treatment personalization. Global metabolic profiling applications yield complex data sets consisting of multiple feature measurements for each chemical species observed. While this multiplicity can be useful in deriving enhanced analytical specificity and chemical identities from LC-MS data, data set inflation and quantitative imprecision among related features is problematic for statistical analyses and interpretation. This Perspective provides a critical evaluation of global profiling data fidelity with respect to measurement linearity and the quantitative response variation observed among components of the spectra. These elements of data quality are widely overlooked in untargeted metabolomics yet essential for the generation of data that accurately reflect the metabolome. Advanced feature filtering informed by linear range estimation and analyte response factor assessment is advocated as an attainable means of controlling LC-MS data quality in global profiling studies and exemplified herein at both the feature and data set level.
Paraskevaidi M, Cameron SJS, Whelan E, et al., 2020, Laser-assisted rapid evaporative ionisation mass spectrometry (LA-REIMS) as a metabolomics platform in cervical cancer screening, EBioMedicine, Vol: 60, ISSN: 2352-3964
BackgroundThe introduction of high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) testing as part of primary cervical screening is anticipated to improve sensitivity, but also the number of women who will screen positive. Reflex cytology is the preferred triage test in most settings but has limitations including moderate diagnostic accuracy, lack of automation, inter-observer variability and the need for clinician-collected sample. Novel, objective and cost-effective approaches are needed.MethodsIn this study, we assessed the potential use of an automated metabolomic robotic platform, employing the principle of laser-assisted Rapid Evaporative Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (LA-REIMS) in cervical cancer screening.FindingsIn a population of 130 women, LA-REIMS achieved 94% sensitivity and 83% specificity (AUC: 91.6%) in distinguishing women testing positive (n = 65) or negative (n = 65) for hrHPV. We performed further analysis according to disease severity with LA-REIMS achieving sensitivity and specificity of 91% and 73% respectively (AUC: 86.7%) in discriminating normal from high-grade pre-invasive disease.InterpretationThis automated high-throughput technology holds promise as a low-cost and rapid test for cervical cancer screening and triage. The use of platforms like LA-REIMS has the potential to further improve the accuracy and efficiency of the current national screening programme.
Van Meulebroek L, Cameron S, Plekhova V, et al., 2020, Rapid LA-REIMS and comprehensive UHPLC-HRMS for metabolic phenotyping of feces, TALANTA, Vol: 217, ISSN: 0039-9140
- Author Web Link
- Citations: 9
Dannhorn A, Kazanc E, Ling S, et al., 2020, Universal Sample Preparation Unlocking Multimodal Molecular Tissue Imaging, ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY, Vol: 92, Pages: 11080-11088, ISSN: 0003-2700
- Author Web Link
- Citations: 29
Tzafetas M, Mitra A, Paraskevaidi M, et al., 2020, The intelligent knife (iKnife) and its intraoperative diagnostic advantage for the treatment of cervical disease (vol 117, pg 7338, 2020), PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, Vol: 117, Pages: 18892-18892, ISSN: 0027-8424
Koundouros N, Karali E, Tripp A, et al., 2020, Metabolic fingerprinting links oncogenic PIK3CA with enhanced arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids, Cell, Vol: 181, Pages: 1596-1611.e27, ISSN: 0092-8674
Oncogenic transformation is associated with profound changes in cellular metabolism, but whether tracking these can improve disease stratification or influence therapy decision-making is largely unknown. Using the iKnife to sample the aerosol of cauterized specimens, we demonstrate a new mode of real-time diagnosis, coupling metabolic phenotype to mutant PIK3CA genotype. Oncogenic PIK3CA results in an increase in arachidonic acid and a concomitant overproduction of eicosanoids, acting to promote cell proliferation beyond a cell-autonomous manner. Mechanistically, mutant PIK3CA drives a multimodal signaling network involving mTORC2-PKCζ-mediated activation of the calcium-dependent phospholipase A2 (cPLA2). Notably, inhibiting cPLA2 synergizes with fatty acid-free diet to restore immunogenicity and selectively reduce mutant PIK3CA-induced tumorigenicity. Besides highlighting the potential for metabolic phenotyping in stratified medicine, this study reveals an important role for activated PI3K signaling in regulating arachidonic acid metabolism, uncovering a targetable metabolic vulnerability that largely depends on dietary fat restriction.
Abbassi-Ghadi N, Antonowicz S, McKenzie J, et al., 2020, De novo lipogenesis alters the phospholipidome of esophageal adenocarcinoma, Cancer Research, Vol: 80, Pages: 2764-2774, ISSN: 0008-5472
The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma is rising, survival remains poor, and new tools to improve early diagnosis and precise treatment are needed. Cancer phospholipidomes quantified with mass spectrometry imaging can support objective diagnosis in minutes using a routine frozen tissue section. However, whether mass spectrometry imaging can objectively identify primary esophageal adenocarcinoma is currently unknown and represents a significant challenge, as this microenvironment is complex with phenotypically similar tissue-types. Here we used desorption electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry imaging (DESI-MSI) and bespoke chemometrics to assess the phospholipidomes of esophageal adenocarcinoma and relevant control tissues. Multivariable models derived from phospholipid profiles of 117 patients were highly discriminant for esophageal adenocarcinoma both in discovery (area-under-curve = 0.97) and validation cohorts (AUC = 1). Among many other changes, esophageal adenocarcinoma samples were markedly enriched for polyunsaturated phosphatidylglycerols with longer acyl chains, with stepwise enrichment in pre-malignant tissues. Expression of fatty acid and glycerophospholipid synthesis genes was significantly upregulated, and characteristics of fatty acid acyls matched glycerophospholipid acyls. Mechanistically, silencing the carbon switch ACLY in esophageal adenocarcinoma cells shortened GPL chains, linking de novo lipogenesis to the phospholipidome. Thus, DESI-MSI can objectively identify invasive esophageal adenocarcinoma from a number of pre-malignant tissues and unveils mechanisms of phospholipidomic reprogramming. These results call for accelerated diagnosis studies using DESI-MSI in the upper gastrointestinal endoscopy suite as well as functional studies to determine how polyunsaturated phosphatidylglycerols contribute to esophageal carcinogenesis.
Tzafetas M, Mitra A, Paraskevaidi M, et al., 2020, The intelligent-Knife (i-Knife) and its intraoperative diagnostic advantage for the treatment of cervical disease, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of USA, Vol: 117, Pages: 7338-7346, ISSN: 0027-8424
Clearance of surgical margins in cervical cancer prevents the need for adjuvant chemoradiation and allows fertility preservation. In this study, we determined the capacity of the rapid evaporative ionization mass spectrometry (REIMS), also known as intelligent knife (iKnife), to discriminate between healthy, preinvasive, and invasive cervical tissue. Cervical tissue samples were collected from women with healthy, human papilloma virus (HPV) ± cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), or cervical cancer. A handheld diathermy device generated surgical aerosol, which was transferred into a mass spectrometer for subsequent chemical analysis. Combination of principal component and linear discriminant analysis and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator was employed to study the spectral differences between groups. Significance of discriminatory m/z features was tested using univariate statistics and tandem MS performed to elucidate the structure of the significant peaks allowing separation of the two classes. We analyzed 87 samples (normal = 16, HPV ± CIN = 50, cancer = 21 patients). The iKnife discriminated with 100% accuracy normal (100%) vs. HPV ± CIN (100%) vs. cancer (100%) when compared to histology as the gold standard. When comparing normal vs. cancer samples, the accuracy was 100% with a sensitivity of 100% (95% CI 83.9 to 100) and specificity 100% (79.4 to 100). Univariate analysis revealed significant MS peaks in the cancer-to-normal separation belonging to various classes of complex lipids. The iKnife discriminates healthy from premalignant and invasive cervical lesions with high accuracy and can improve oncological outcomes and fertility preservation of women treated surgically for cervical cancer. Larger in vivo research cohorts are required to validate these findings.
Gowers G-OF, Cameron SJS, Perdones-Montero A, et al., 2019, Off-colony screening of biosynthetic libraries by rapid laser-enabled mass spectrometry, ACS Synthetic Biology, Vol: 8, Pages: 2566-2575, ISSN: 2161-5063
Leveraging advances in DNA synthesis and molecular cloning techniques, synthetic biology increasingly makes use of large construct libraries to explore large design spaces. For biosynthetic pathway engineering the ability to screen these libraries for a variety of metabolites of interest is essential. If the metabolite of interest or the metabolic phenotype is not easily measurable, screening soon becomes a major bottleneck involving time-consuming culturing, sample preparation, and extraction. To address this, we demonstrate the use of automated Laser-Assisted Rapid Evaporative Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (LA-REIMS) - a form of ambient laser desorption ionisation mass spectrometry - to perform rapid mass spectrometry analysis direct from agar plate yeast colonies without sample preparation or extraction. We use LA-REIMS to assess production levels of violacein and betulinic acid directly from yeast colonies at a rate of 6 colonies per minute. We then demonstrate the throughput enabled by LA-REIMS by screening over 450 yeast colonies in under 4 hours, while simultaneously generating recoverable glycerol stocks of each colony in real-time. This showcases LA-REIMS as a pre-screening tool to complement downstream quantification methods such as LCMS. Through pre-screening several hundred colonies with LA-REIMS, we successfully isolate and verify a strain with a 2.5-fold improvement in betulinic acid production. Finally, we show that LA-REIMS can detect 20 out of a panel of 27 diverse biological molecules, demonstrating the broad applicability of LA-REIMS to metabolite detection. The rapid and automated nature of LA-REIMS makes this a valuable new technology to complement existing screening technologies currently employed in academic and industrial workflows.
Cameron SJS, Alexander JL, Bolt F, et al., 2019, Evaluation of direct from sample metabolomics of human feces using rapid evaporative ionization mass spectrometry, Analytical Chemistry, Vol: 91, Pages: 13448-13457, ISSN: 0003-2700
Mass spectrometry is a powerful tool in the investigation of the human fecal metabolome. However, current approaches require time-consuming sample preparation, chromatographic separations, and consequently long analytical run times. Rapid evaporative ionization mass spectrometry (REIMS) is a method of ambient ionization mass spectrometry and has been utilized in the metabolic profiling of a diverse range of biological materials, including human tissue, cell culture lines, and microorganisms. Here, we describe the use of an automated, high-throughput REIMS robotic platform for direct analysis of human feces. Through the analysis of fecal samples from five healthy male participants, REIMS analytical parameters were optimized and used to assess the chemical information obtainable using REIMS. Within the fecal samples analyzed, bile acids, including primary, secondary, and conjugate species, were identified, and phospholipids of possible bacterial origin were detected. In addition, the effect of storage conditions and consecutive freeze/thaw cycles was determined. Within the REIMS mass spectra, the lower molecular weight metabolites, such as fatty acids, were shown to be significantly affected by storage conditions for prolonged periods at temperatures above −80 °C and consecutive freeze/thaw cycles. However, the complex lipid region was shown to be unaffected by these conditions. A further cohort of 50 fecal samples, collected from patients undergoing bariatric surgery, were analyzed using the optimized REIMS parameters and the complex lipid region mass spectra used for multivariate modeling. This analysis showed a predicted separation between pre- and post-surgery specimens, suggesting that REIMS analysis can detect biological differences, such as microbiome-level differences, which have traditionally been reliant upon methods utilizing extensive sample preparations and chromatographic separations and/or DNA sequencing.
Ogrinc N, Saudemont P, Balog J, et al., 2019, Water-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry for minimally invasive in vivo and real-time surface analysis using SpiderMass, NATURE PROTOCOLS, Vol: 14, Pages: 3162-3182, ISSN: 1754-2189
- Author Web Link
- Open Access Link
- Citations: 22
Tzafetas M, Mitra A, Kalliala I, et al., 2019, THE IKNIFE AND ITS APPLICATION FOR THE TREATMENT OF CERVICAL ABNORMALITIES, Publisher: BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, Pages: A589-A589, ISSN: 1048-891X
Marcus D, Savage A, Balog J, et al., 2019, ENDOMETRIAL CANCER: CAN THE IKNIFE DIAGNOSE ENDOMETRIAL CANCER?, Publisher: BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, Pages: A100-A101, ISSN: 1048-891X
- Author Web Link
- Citations: 5
Mason S, Manoli E, Poynter L, et al., 2019, Mass spectrometry transanal minimally invasive surgery (MS-TAMIS) to promote organ preservation in rectal cancer, Surgical Endoscopy: surgical and interventional techniques, Vol: 34, Pages: 3618-3625, ISSN: 0930-2794
BACKGROUND: Transanal minimally invasive surgery (TAMIS) is deployed for organ preservation in early rectal cancer and significant rectal polyps. Rapid evaporative ionisation mass spectrometry (REIMS) provides biochemical tissue analysis, which could be applied intraoperatively to give real-time tissue feedback to the surgeon and decrease the risk of an involved margin. However, the accuracy and feasibility of this approach have not been established. METHODS: In this prospective observational study, patients undergoing resection of rectal adenomas or carcinomas were recruited. An electrosurgical handpiece analysed tissues ex vivo using diathermy, with the aerosol aspirated into a Xevo G2-S ToF mass spectrometer. The relative abundance of lipids underwent predictive statistical modelling and leave-one-patient-out cross-validation. The outcomes of interest were the ability of REIMS to differentiate normal, adenomatous and cancerous tissue, or any disease subtype from normal. REIMS was coupled with TAMIS for in vivo sampling, assessing the accuracy of tissue recognition and distinguishing bowel wall layers. RESULTS: Forty-seven patients were included, yielding 266 spectra (121 normal, 109 tumour and 36 adenoma). REIMS differentiates normal, adenomatous and cancerous rectal tissues with 86.8% accuracy, and normal and adenomatous tissue with 92.4% accuracy and 91.4% accuracy when differentiating disease from normal. We have performed the first five in-man mass spectrometry augmented TAMIS (MS-TAMIS). In real time, MS-TAMIS can differentiate rectal mucosa and submucosa based on their relative abundance of triglycerides and glycerophospholipids. The ex vivo accuracy distinguishing diseased and normal tissues is maintained in vivo at 90%, with negative predictive value of 95%. The system identified a deep and lateral involved tumour margin during TAMIS. CONCLUSIONS: REIMS distinguishes rectal tissue types based on underlying lipid biology, and this can be translated in vivo
Smith WD, Cameron SJ, Fletcher OL, et al., 2019, PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA METABOLOME DIFFERENCES BETWEEN CF AND NON-CF BRONCHIECTASIS DETECTED USING DIRECT-FROM-SAMPLE MASS SPECTROMETRY, Pediatric Pulmonology, Publisher: WILEY, Pages: S313-S313, ISSN: 8755-6863
Jones EA, Simon D, Karancsi T, et al., 2019, Matrix Assisted Rapid Evaporative Ionization Mass Spectrometry., Anal Chem, Vol: 91, Pages: 9784-9791
Rapid evaporative ionization mass spectrometry (REIMS) is a highly versatile technique allowing the sampling of a range of biological solid or liquid samples with no sample preparation. The cost of such a direct approach is that certain sample types provide only moderate amounts of chemical information. Here, we introduce a matrix assisted version of the technique (MA-REIMS), where an aerosol of a pure solvent, such as isopropanol, is mixed with the sample aerosol generated by rapid evaporation of the sample, and it is shown to enhance the signal intensity obtained from a REIMS sampling event by over 2 orders of magnitude. Such an increase greatly expands the scope of the technique, while providing additional benefits such as reducing the fouling of the REIMS source and allowing for a simple method of constant introduction of a calibration correction compound for accurate mass measurements. A range of experiments are presented in order to investigate the processes that occur within this modified approach, and applications where such enhancements are critical, such as intrasurgical tissue identification, are discussed.
McGill D, Chekmeneva E, Lindon J, et al., 2019, Application of novel solid phase extraction-NMR protocols for metabolic profiling of human urine, Faraday Discussions, Vol: 218, Pages: 395-416, ISSN: 1359-6640
Metabolite identification and annotation procedures are necessary for the discovery of biomarkers indicative of phenotypes or disease states, but these processes can be bottlenecked by the sheer complexity of biofluids containing thousands of different compounds. Here we describe low-cost novel SPE-NMR protocols utilising different cartridges and conditions, on both natural and artifical urine mixtures, which produce unique retention profiles useful to metabolic profiling. We find that different SPE methods applied to biofluids such as urine can be used to selectively retain metabolites based on compound taxonomy or other key functional groups, reducing peak overlap through concentration and fractionation of unknowns and hence promising greater control over the metabolite annotation/identification process.
Mason SE, Poynter L, Takats Z, et al., 2019, Optical technologies for endoscopic real-time histologic assessment of colorectal polyps: a meta-analysis, American Journal of Gastroenterology, Vol: 114, Pages: 1219-1230, ISSN: 1572-0241
OBJECTIVES: Accurate, real-time, endoscopic risk stratification of colorectal polyps would improve decision-making and optimize clinical efficiency. Technologies to manipulate endoscopic optical outputs can be used to predict polyp histology in vivo; however, it remains unclear how accuracy has progressed and whether it is sufficient for routine clinical implementation. METHODS: A meta-analysis was conducted by searching MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. Studies were included if they prospectively deployed an endoscopic optical technology for real-time in vivo prediction of adenomatous colorectal polyps. Polyposis and inflammatory bowel diseases were excluded. Bayesian bivariate meta-analysis was performed, presenting 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: One hundred two studies using optical technologies on 33,123 colorectal polyps were included. Digital chromoendoscopy differentiated neoplasia (adenoma and adenocarcinoma) from benign polyps with sensitivity of 92.2% (90.6%-93.9% CI) and specificity of 84.0% (81.5%-86.3% CI), with no difference between constituent technologies (narrow-band imaging, Fuji intelligent Chromo Endoscopy, iSCAN) or with only diminutive polyps. Dye chromoendoscopy had sensitivity of 92.7% (90.1%-94.9% CI) and specificity of 86.6% (82.9%-89.9% CI), similarly unchanged for diminutive polyps. Spectral analysis of autofluorescence had sensitivity of 94.4% (84.0%-99.1% CI) and specificity of 50.9% (13.2%-88.8% CI). Endomicroscopy had sensitivity of 93.6% (85.3%-98.3% CI) and specificity of 92.5% (81.8%-98.1% CI). Computer-aided diagnosis had sensitivity of 88.9% (74.2%-96.7% CI) and specificity of 80.4% (52.6%-95.7% CI). Prediction confidence and endoscopist experience alone did not significantly improve any technology. The only subgroup to demonstrate a negative predictive value for adenoma above 90% was digital chromoendoscopy, making high confidence predictions of diminutive recto-sigmoid polyps. Chronologic meta-analyses show a
Whiley L, Chekmeneva E, Berry DJ, et al., 2019, Systematic isolation and structure elucidation of urinary metabolites optimized for the analytical-scale molecular profiling laboratory, Analytical Chemistry, Vol: 91, Pages: 8873-8882, ISSN: 0003-2700
Annotation and identification of metabolite biomarkers is critical for their biological interpretation in metabolic phenotyping studies, presenting a significant bottleneck in the successful implementation of untargeted metabolomics. Here, a systematic multi-step protocol was developed for the purification and de novo structural elucidation of urinary metabolites. The protocol is most suited for instances where structure elucidation and metabolite annotation are critical for the downstream biological interpretation of metabolic phenotyping studies. First, a bulk urine pool was desalted using ion-exchange resins enabling large-scale fractionation using precise iterations of analytical scale chromatography. Primary urine fractions were collected and assembled into a “fraction bank” suitable for long-term laboratory storage. Secondary and tertiary fractionations exploited differences in selectivity across a range of reversed-phase chemistries, achieving the purification of metabolites of interest yielding an amount of material suitable for chemical characterisation. To exemplify the application of the systematic workflow in a diverse set of cases, four metabolites with a range of physico-chemical properties were selected and purified from urine and subjected to chemical formula and structure elucidation by respective magnetic resonance mass spectrometry (MRMS) and NMR analyses. Their structures were fully assigned as teterahydropentoxyline, indole-3-acetic-acid-O-glucuronide, p-cresol glucuronide, and pregnanediol-3-glucuronide. Unused effluent was collected, dried and returned to the fraction bank, demonstrating the viability of the system for repeat use in metabolite annotation with a high degree of efficiency.
Poynter L, Mirnezami R, Galea D, et al., 2019, Network mapping of molecular biomarkers influencing radiation response in rectal cancer, Clinical Colorectal Cancer, Vol: 18, Pages: e210-e222, ISSN: 1533-0028
IntroductionPre-operative radiotherapy (RT) has an important role in the management of locally advanced rectal cancer (RC). Tumour regression following RT shows marked variability and robust molecular methods are needed with which to predict likely response. The aim of this study was to review the current published literature and employ Gene Ontology (GO) analysis to define key molecular biomarkers governing radiation response in RC.MethodsA systematic review of electronic bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, Embase) was performed for original articles published between 2000 and 2015. Biomarkers were then classified according to biological function and incorporated into a hierarchical GO tree. Both significant and non-significant results were included in the analysis. Significance was binarized based on uni- and multivariate statistics. Significance scores were calculated for each biological domain (or node), and a direct acyclic graph was generated for intuitive mapping of biological pathways and markers involved in rectal cancer radiation response.Results72 individual biomarkers, across 74 studies, were identified through review. On highest order classification, molecular biomarkers falling within the domains of response to stress, cellular metabolism and pathways inhibiting apoptosis were found to be the most influential in predicting radiosensitivity.ConclusionsHomogenising biomarker data from original articles using controlled GO terminology demonstrates that cellular mechanisms of response to radiotherapy in RC - in particular the metabolic response to radiotherapy - may hold promise in developing radiotherapeutic biomarkers with which to predict, and in the future modulate, radiation response.
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