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  • Journal article
    Arthurs OJ, Guy A, Thayyil S, Wade A, Jones R, Norman W, Scott R, Robertson NJ, Jacques TS, Chong W, Gunny R, Saunders D, Olsen OE, Owens CM, Offiah AC, Chitty LS, Taylor AM, Sebire NJet al., 2015,

    Comparison of diagnostic performance for perinatal and paediatric post-mortem imaging: CT versus MRI

    , European Radiology, Vol: 26, Pages: 2327-2336, ISSN: 1432-1084
  • Journal article
    Lally P, PAULIAH S, MONTALDO P, CHABAN B, Oliveira V, Bainbridge A, Soe A, Pattnayak S, Clarke P, Satodia P, Harigopal S, Abernethy LJ, Turner MA, Huertas Ceballos A, Shankaran S, THAYYIL Set al., 2015,

    Magnetic Resonance Biomarkers in Neonatal Encephalopathy (MARBLE): A Prospective Multi-Country Study

    , BMJ Open, Vol: 5, ISSN: 2044-6055

    Despite cooling adverse outcomes are seen in upto half of the surviving infants after neonatal encephalopathy. A number of novel adjunct drug therapies with cooling have been shown to be highly neuroprotective in animal studies, and are currently awaiting clinical translation. Riggorous evaluation of these therapies in phase II trials using surrogate magnetic resonance biomarkers may speed up thier bench to bedside translation. A recent systematic review of single centres studies have suggested that Magnetic resonance spectroscopy biomarkers offers the best promise, however the prognostic accuracy of these biomarkers in cooled encephalopathic babies in a multicentre setting using different MR scan makes is not known.

  • Journal article
    Ibrahim T, Few K, Greenwood R, Smith C, Malcolm P, Johnson G, Lally P, Thayyil S, Clarke Pet al., 2015,

    'Feed and wrap' or sedate and immobilise for neonatal brain MRI?

  • Journal article
    Soo A, Taha S, Lally P, Kirmi O, Jones B, Thayyil Set al., 2015,

    Assessment of optic nerve development using post-mortem Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in fetuses and newborns

    , Prenatal Diagnosis, Vol: 35, Pages: 1262-1264, ISSN: 0197-3851

    What's already known about this topic?Biometric studies of fetal orbit and lens development have been shown to correlate with gestational age.No available data on optic nerve measurements in fetuses/neonates.What does this study add?Normal fetal/neonatal optic nerve diameter measurements for gestational age as measured on post‐mortem MRI scans.

  • Journal article
    Arthurs OJ, Thayyil S, Pauliah SS, Jacques TS, Chong WK, Gunny R, Saunders D, Addison S, Lally P, Cady E, Jones R, Norman W, Scott R, Robertson NJ, Wade A, Chitty L, Taylor AM, Sebire NJet al., 2015,

    Diagnostic accuracy and limitations of post-mortem MRI for neurological abnormalities in fetuses and children

    , CLINICAL RADIOLOGY, Vol: 70, Pages: 872-880, ISSN: 0009-9260
  • Journal article
    Montaldo P, Chaban B, Lally PJ, Sebire NJ, Taylor AM, Thayyil Set al., 2015,

    Quantification of ante-mortem hypoxic ischemic brain injury by post-mortem cerebral magnetic resonance imaging in neonatal encephalopathy

    , European Journal of Paediatric Neurology, Vol: 19, Pages: 665-671, ISSN: 1090-3798

    Post-mortem (PM) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly used as an alternative to conventional autopsy in babies dying from neonatal encephalopathy. However, the confounding effect of post-mortem changes on the detection of ante-mortem ischemic injury is unclear. We examined whether quantitative MR measurements can accurately distinguish ante-mortem ischemic brain injury from artifacts using post-mortem MRI.Methods:We compared PM brain MRI (1.5 T Siemens, Avanto) in 7 infants who died with neonatal encephalopathy (NE) of presumed hypoxic-ischemic origin with 7 newborn infants who had sudden unexplained neonatal death (SUND controls) without evidence of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury at autopsy. We measured apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs), T1-weighted signal intensity ratios (SIRs) compared to vitreous humor and T2 relaxation times from 19 predefined brain areas typically involved in neonatal encephalopathy.Results:There were no differences in mean ADC values, SIRs on T1-weighted images or T2 relaxation times in any of the 19 predefined brain areas between NE and SUND infants. All MRI images showed loss of cortical gray/white matter differentiation, loss of the normal high signal intensity (SI) in the posterior limb of the internal capsule on T1-weighted images, and high white matter SI on T2-weighted images.Conclusion:Normal post-mortem changes may be easily mistaken for ante-mortem ischemic injury, and current PM MRI quantitative assessment cannot reliably distinguish these. These findings may have important implications for appropriate interpretation of PM imaging findings, especially in medico-legal practice.

  • Book chapter
    Montaldo P, Montaldo L, Chaban B, Thayyil Set al., 2015,

    Perinatal infection as risk factor of neonatal encephalopathy

    , Asphyxia: Risk Factors, Prevalence and Neurological Impacts, Pages: 55-72, ISBN: 9781634822251

    © 2015 by Nova Science Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved. Fetal exposure to inflammation and infection has been shown to increase brain vulnerability to hypoxia-ischemia via stimulation of immune and inflammatory responses, chemotaxis, toll-like receptors and cell death. Perinatal infection is a potentially modifiable, risk factor for encephalopathy that has been linked to adverse outcomes. Nevertheless, the exact role of perinatal infection among neonates with a history of encephalopathy, is not yet completely understood. Emerging experimental data suggest that hypothermia may not be neuroprotective after a bacterial lipopolysaccharide-sensitized encephalopathy brain injury whereas it can be neuroprotective if a bacterial lipopolysaccharide-sensitized encephalopathy is not present. Hence, therapeutic hypothermia in the presence of infection might even be deleterious as hypothermia may impair innate immune function, including neutrophil migration and function. This chapter aims to discuss how an infective insult can affect the vulnerability of the neonatal brain to the hypoxic damage. We review whether newborns with encephalopathy and signs of neonatal sepsis are associated with a higher risk of neonatal brain injury and worse long-term neurodevelopmental outcome. Finally, we highlight new therapeutic strategies in this scenario.

  • Journal article
    Montaldo P, Pauliah SS, Lally PJ, Olson L, Thayyil Set al., 2015,

    Cooling in a low-resource environment: Lost in translation

    , SEMINARS IN FETAL & NEONATAL MEDICINE, Vol: 20, Pages: 72-79, ISSN: 1744-165X
  • Journal article
    Arthurs OJ, Thayyil S, Owens CM, Olsen OE, Wade A, Addison S, Jones R, Norman W, Scott RJ, Robertson NJ, Taylor AM, Chittyi LS, Sebire NJet al., 2015,

    Diagnostic accuracy of post mortem MRI for abdominal abnormalities in foetuses and children

    , EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY, Vol: 84, Pages: 474-481, ISSN: 0720-048X
  • Journal article
    Maaskant JM, Vermeulen H, Apampa B, Fernando B, Ghaleb MA, Neubert A, Thayyil S, Soe Aet al., 2015,

    Interventions for reducing medication errors in children in hospital


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