BibTex format

author = {Munoz, Tejeda JM and Knoll, A},
title = {Water as an Environmentally Friendly Propellant for a Multi-functional Spacecraft Architecture},
url = {},
year = {2022}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - We propose water can be utilized as spacecraft propellant to dramatically reduce the environmental impact of constructing and operating a satellite. We present a multi-mode chemical-electrical propulsion system where water acts as the propellant for both high thrust chemical manoeuvres, and high specific impulse electrical manoeuvres. Such a system would allow the community to divest from traditional propellants such as hydrazine and xenon, reducing the production of highly toxic chemicals and dramatically reducing the carbon footprint of the propulsion system. Water has the lowest toxicity, carbon footprint and price of any current or proposed propellant and has demonstrated both feasibility and competitiveness in laboratory testing. The unique role it can play across multiple spacecraft subsystems suggests that the commercial adoption of water as a propellant will reduce cost and mass while also reducing the environmental impact of the satellites of tomorrow. This technology has the ability to enable the development of a modular, multi-functional, competitive and environmentally friendly spacecraft architecture.
AU - Munoz,Tejeda JM
AU - Knoll,A
PY - 2022///
TI - Water as an Environmentally Friendly Propellant for a Multi-functional Spacecraft Architecture
UR -
ER -