Below is a list of all relevant publications authored by Robotics Forum members.


BibTex format

author = {Russell, F and Takeda, Y and Kormushev, P and Vaidyanathan, R and Ellison, P},
doi = {10.1109/LRA.2021.3062355},
journal = {IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters},
pages = {2563--2570},
title = {Stiffness modulation in a humanoid robotic leg and knee},
url = {},
volume = {6},
year = {2021}

RIS format (EndNote, RefMan)

AB - Stiffness modulation in walking is critical to maintain static/dynamic stability as well as minimize energy consumption and impact damage. However, optimal, or even functional, stiffness parameterization remains unresolved in legged robotics.We introduce an architecture for stiffness control utilizing a bioinspired robotic limb consisting of a condylar knee joint and leg with antagonistic actuation. The joint replicates elastic ligaments of the human knee providing tuneable compliance for walking. It further locks out at maximum extension, providing stability when standing. Compliance and friction losses between joint surfaces are derived as a function of ligament stiffness and length. Experimental studies validate utility through quantification of: 1) hip perturbation response; 2) payload capacity; and 3) static stiffness of the leg mechanism.Results prove initiation and compliance at lock out can be modulated independently of friction loss by changing ligament elasticity. Furthermore, increasing co-contraction or decreasing joint angle enables increased leg stiffness, which establishes co-contraction is counterbalanced by decreased payload.Findings have direct application in legged robots and transfemoral prosthetic knees, where biorobotic design could reduce energy expense while improving efficiency and stability. Future targeted impact involves increasing power/weight ratios in walking robots and artificial limbs for increased efficiency and precision in walking control.
AU - Russell,F
AU - Takeda,Y
AU - Kormushev,P
AU - Vaidyanathan,R
AU - Ellison,P
DO - 10.1109/LRA.2021.3062355
EP - 2570
PY - 2021///
SN - 2377-3766
SP - 2563
TI - Stiffness modulation in a humanoid robotic leg and knee
T2 - IEEE Robotics and Automation Letters
UR -
UR -
VL - 6
ER -